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Drugs in American Society,9780072874983
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Drugs in American Society

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780072874983

ISBN10:
0072874988
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/23/2004
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages

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Summary

This well-respected text provides the most balanced and up-to-date investigation of drug use in all of its social, cultural, and legal complexity. It covers the full range of psychoactive drug use, from legal medical and prescription use to criminal recreational use, from casual use to addiction. The text maintains its distinctive emphasis on the sociological perspective, explaining the drug phenomenon using sociological concepts supported by recent data from a wide range of sources.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
PART I Introduction
1(140)
Drugs: A Sociological Perspective
3(25)
What Is a Drug?
5(5)
Medical Utility
7(1)
Illegality
7(1)
Psychoactivity
8(2)
Defining Drugs: A Summary
10(1)
Drug Use and Drug Abuse
10(1)
Drug Dependence
11(4)
Types of Drug Use
15(8)
Legal Instrumental Use
17(1)
Legal Recreational Use
18(1)
Illegal Instrumental Use
19(1)
Illegal Recreational Use
20(3)
Summary
23(2)
Key Terms
25(1)
Account: The Illegal Instrumental Use of Adderall, an Amphetamine
25(3)
Drugs: A Pharmacological Perspective
28(25)
Drug Action
31(2)
A Few Basic Pharmacological Concepts
33(2)
The Acute-Chronic Distinction
33(1)
The ED/LD Ratio
33(1)
Drug Tolerance
34(1)
Drug Fate
35(1)
Factors That Influence Drug Action
35(5)
Route of Administration
36(1)
Dose
37(1)
Potency and Purity
38(1)
Drug Mixing
39(1)
A Classification of Psychoactive Drugs and Their Effects
40(5)
Stimulants
41(1)
Depressants
41(2)
Hallucinogens or Psychedelics
43(1)
Marijuana
44(1)
Ecstasy
44(1)
Appendix: Drug Names
45(1)
Summary
46(2)
Key Terms
48(1)
Account: Multiple Drug Use
49(4)
Theories of Drug Use
53(32)
Biological Theories
55(2)
Genetic Factors
55(1)
Metabolic Imbalance
56(1)
Psychological Theories
57(5)
Reinforcement
57(3)
Inadequate Personality
60(1)
Problem-Behavior Proneness
61(1)
Sociological Theories
62(17)
Anomie Theory
63(1)
Social Control and Self-Control Theory
64(4)
Social Learning and Subculture Theory
68(3)
Selective Interaction/Socialization
71(3)
A Conflict Theory of Drug Abuse
74(5)
Summary
79(2)
Key Terms
81(1)
Account: Multiple Drug Use
82(3)
Drugs in America: The Historical Context
85(31)
Drug Use in Nineteenth-Century America
87(4)
Medical Drug Use
87(2)
Cocaine-Based ``Soft'' Drinks
89(1)
Medical, Scientific, and Technological Innovations
90(1)
Numbers of Addicts and Abusers
90(1)
The Movement to Prohibit Alcohol: 1784--1920
91(3)
Early Anti-Opium Legislation
94(1)
The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906
95(1)
The Shanghai Commission and the Hague Committee
96(1)
The Harrison Act, 1914
97(2)
The Impact of the Harrison Act: Did It Make Matters Worse?
99(3)
The Marihuana Tax Act, 1937
102(1)
The Controlled Substances Act and the Nixon/Ford Administration
103(4)
The Backlash Gathers Strength: The Carter Years
107(5)
Summary
112(3)
Key Terms
115(1)
Drugs in the News
116(25)
Are the News Media Biased?
117(2)
Four Theories of Media Bias
119(2)
Sensationalism in the Media: The Drug Story
121(1)
New Drugs in the Media: Violence, Insanity, and Genetic Damage
122(11)
Marijuana in the 1930s
123(1)
LSD in the 1960s
124(2)
PCP in the 1970s
126(2)
Crack in the 1980s
128(4)
Ecstasy, 1985 to 2000 and Beyond
132(1)
Telling a Story Meets Factual Accuracy: The Janet Cook Saga
133(2)
Media Accounts of Crack-Related Homicide, 1985 to 1990
135(3)
Summary
138(2)
Key Terms
140(1)
PART II Drug Use: Methods and Data
141(58)
How Do We Know It's True? Methods of Research
143(21)
Social Research on Drug Use: An Introduction
144(4)
Lying
144(2)
Sampling
146(1)
Statistics
146(2)
Rates of Drug Use: An Introduction
148(1)
Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) Program
149(3)
Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN)
152(3)
Monitoring the Future (MTF)
155(2)
National Survey on Drug Use and Health
157(1)
Pulse Check
158(2)
Summary
160(3)
Key Terms
163(1)
Historical Trends in Drug Consumption: From Past to Current Use
164(35)
Rates and Patterns of Drug Use: The Basics
166(7)
Overall Prevalence Rates
166(1)
Continuance Rates
167(3)
Consumption Levels
170(1)
Life-Cycle Rates
171(2)
Trends Over Time: An Introduction
173(1)
Alcohol Consumption, 1700s to 1919
173(2)
Alcohol Consumption During Prohibition
175(1)
Repeal: Alcohol Consumption, 1933 to the Twenty-first Century
176(2)
Drug Use Trends Over Time: 1960s to 1979
178(1)
Drug Use: The 1980s to the Twenty-first Century
179(6)
Appendix: 2001 to 2002
185(1)
Summary
186(1)
Key Terms
187(1)
Accounts: Marijuana (1967)
188(1)
Heroin (1971)
189(3)
Ecstasy (1988)
192(1)
Multiple Drug Use (1996)
193(6)
PART III Drugs and Their Use
199(128)
Legal Drugs: Alcohol, Tobacco, and Psychotherapeutic Drugs
201(31)
Alcohol: An Introduction
204(9)
Acute Effects of Alcohol
204(2)
Alcohol Consumption: Accidents, Disease, and Social Cost
206(2)
Alcohol Consumption Today
208(3)
Who Drinks? Who Doesn't?
211(2)
Tobacco: An Introduction
213(6)
Tobacco: Medical Harm
213(2)
Tobacco: A Brief History
215(1)
The Decline of Smoking
216(3)
Psychotherapeutic Drugs: An Introduction
219(7)
Sedatives
219(2)
Tranquilizers
221(2)
Antipsychotics
223(1)
Antidepressants
224(2)
Summary
226(2)
Key Terms
228(1)
Account: My Experiences with Alcohol
229(3)
Marijuana, LSD, and Club Drugs
232(40)
Marijuana: An Introduction
233(4)
Acute Effects of Marijuana
237(2)
Chronic Effects of Marijuana
239(3)
Who Uses Marijuana?
242(4)
Age
243(1)
Sex
244(1)
Peer Influences
244(1)
Unconventionality
245(1)
The Gateway Hypothesis: The Progression to More Dangerous Drugs
246(5)
The Pharmacological School
247(2)
The Sociocultural School
249(1)
The Predisposition School
250(1)
Marijuana as Medicine
251(2)
LSD and the Hallucinogens: An Introduction
253(2)
Subjective Effects of Hallucinogenic Drugs
255(3)
Genetic Damage
258(2)
LSD: Continuance Rates and Frequencies of Use
260(1)
Club Drugs
261(5)
Summary
266(3)
Key Terms
269(1)
Account: Raving
270(2)
Stimulants: Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, Cocaine, and Crack
272(29)
Amphetamine
274(3)
Methamphetamine
277(1)
Cocaine
278(9)
Crack
287(4)
Does the CIA Peddle Crack?
291(5)
Summary
296(2)
Key Terms
298(1)
Account: Crack Cocaine
298(3)
Heroin and the Narcotics
301(26)
Narcotic Drugs: An Introduction
302(1)
The Use and Abuse of Narcotics Today
303(4)
Heroin: Effects and the Drug Scene
307(2)
Why Turn On? The User's Perspective
309(3)
Kicking Heroin
312(2)
Heroin Addiction: Myth and Reality
314(1)
Controlled Opiate Use
315(3)
Heroin and AIDS
318(3)
Summary
321(2)
Key Terms
323(1)
Account: OxyContin Addiction
324(3)
PART IV Drugs, Crime, and Drug Control
327
Drugs and Crime: What's the Connection?
329(22)
What's the Nature of the Drug--Crime Link?
330(2)
Drugs and Crime: Three Models
332(2)
The Enslavement Model
332(1)
The Predisposition Model
333(1)
The Intensification Model
333(1)
The Drugs/Violence Nexus: Three Models
334(3)
The Psychopharmacological Model
335(1)
The Economic-Compulsive Model
335(1)
The Systemic Model
336(1)
Which Model Makes the Most Sense?
336(1)
The Role of Cocaine Use in Violent Behavior
337(1)
Heroin Addiction and Violence
338(2)
Alcohol and Violence
340(3)
Summary
343(3)
Key Terms
346(1)
Account: Drugs and Crime
347(4)
The Illicit Drug Industry
351(32)
The Myth of the Size of the Drug Trade
353(4)
The Myth of Market Centralization in the Drug Trade
357(2)
The Myth of the Drug Trade as an Economic Liability
359(2)
Where Do Drugs Come From?
361(5)
Heroin
362(1)
Cocaine
363(1)
Marijuana
364(1)
Methamphetamine
364(1)
Ecstasy
365(1)
LSD
365(1)
Purely Synthetic Drugs: A Summary
365(1)
Factors that Facilitate the Illicit Drug Trade
366(4)
The Collapse of the Soviet Union
367(1)
Economic Privatization
367(1)
Money Laundering
368(1)
Globalization
368(1)
Poverty
369(1)
Weak or Corrupt Local and Federal Governments
370(1)
The Street Seller-to-User Transaction: Four Views
370(7)
The Street-Level Economics of Heroin Abuse
371(2)
Delinquent Gangs
373(1)
Selling Crack in El Barrio
374(2)
Class and Ethnic Styles of Dealing
376(1)
Summary
377(2)
Key Terms
379(1)
Account: Dealing Cocaine
380(3)
Drug Control: Law Enforcement, Drug Courts, Drug Treatment
383(32)
Drug Use and the Crime Rate versus Arrests and Incarceration
384(3)
Prohibition: The Punitive Model
387(5)
Two Punitive Arguments
388(1)
Drug Control: The Current System
389(2)
Summary
391(1)
The Drug War As Ideology
392(1)
Drug Asset Forfeiture
393(2)
Does Proactive Policing against Street-Level Trafficking Work?
395(2)
Does Prohibition Work?
397(3)
Drug Courts: Treatment, Not Punishment
400(2)
Drug Treatment
402(4)
TOPS
406(2)
DATOS
408(1)
Summary
408(3)
Key Terms
411(1)
Account: Arrest and Incarceration
412(3)
Legalization, Decriminalization, and Harm Reduction
415
Legalization: An Introduction
416(1)
Why Do Legalizers Believe Criminalization Can't Work?
417(2)
Four Proposals to Reform the Drug Laws
419(6)
Legalization
420(2)
Decriminalization
422(1)
Prescription and Maintenance Models
423(1)
Harm Reduction
424(1)
Will Drug Use/Abuse Rise under Legalization?
425(12)
Does Criminalization Ever Lower Demand?
426(1)
National Alcohol Prohibition (1920--1933)
426(1)
Legalization and Use: Two Issues
427(1)
Worst-Case Scenario
428(1)
Human Nature
429(2)
Using Drugs, Drug Effects
431(2)
Frequencies of Use
433(1)
The Hassle Factor
434(1)
Cost
434(2)
Continuance Rates
436(1)
Progressive Legalizers versus Progressive Prohibitionists
437(5)
Progressive Legalizers
437(3)
Progressive Prohibitionists
440(2)
Summary
442(2)
Key Terms
444(1)
Legalization: An Agnostic Look
445
Appendix: Drug-Related Websites 1(1)
Glossary 1(1)
References 1(1)
Photo Credits 1(1)
Author Index 1(5)
Subject Index 6


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