9781566705257

Ecological Risk Assessment for Contaminated Sites

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781566705257

  • ISBN10:

    1566705258

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2000-04-21
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Summary

Love Canal. Exxon Valdez. Times Beach. Sacramento River Spill. Amoco Cadiz. Seveso. Every area of the world has been affected by improper waste disposal and chemical spills. Common hazardous waste sites include abandoned warehouses, manufacturing facilities, processing plants, and landfills. These sites poison the land and contaminate groundwater and drinking water.A sequel to the bestselling Ecological Risk Assessment, Ecological Risk Assessment for Contaminated Sites focuses on how to perform ecological risk assessments for Superfund sites and locations contaminated by improper disposal of wastes, or chemical spills. It integrates the authors' extensive experience in assessing ecological risks at U.S. government sites with techniques and examples from assessments performed by others.Conducting an ecological risk assessment on a contaminated site provides the information needed to make decisions concerning site remediation. The first rule of good risk assessment is "don't do anything stupid". With the practical preparation you get from Ecological Risk Assessment for Contaminated Sites you won't.

Table of Contents

Introduction: Definitions and Concepts
Scope and Definitions
1(2)
Regulatory Context
3(1)
Ecorisk Framework
4(2)
The Remedial Process
6(5)
Preliminary Site Characterization and Scoping Assessment
7(1)
The Problem Formulation Process
8(1)
The Analysis Plan
8(1)
Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment
8(1)
Remedial Alternatives Assessment
9(1)
Efficacy Assessment
10(1)
Damage Assessment
10(1)
Tiers: Scoping, Screening, and Definitive Assessments
11(2)
Relationship to Human Health Risk Assessment
13(3)
Differences in Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment
14(2)
Why Ecological Entities May Be More Sensitive than Humans
16(1)
Scale in Human Health and Ecological Risk
16(1)
Participants in Ecological Risk Assessments
17(2)
Problem Formulation
19(50)
Risk Managers and Risk Assessors
19(4)
Physical Scope
23(6)
Spatial Extent
23(1)
Spatial Units
24(1)
Source Units
25(1)
Watershed Units
26(1)
Groundwater Units
27(1)
Wildlife Units
27(1)
Spatial Subunits
28(1)
Site Description
29(2)
Source Description
31(1)
Assessment Endpoint Selection
31(11)
Selection of Endpoint Entities
32(5)
Selection of Assessment Endpoint Properties
37(3)
Selection of Levels of Effect on Properties of Endpoint Entities
40(2)
Conceptual Models
42(11)
Conceptual Models of Alternative Baseline Scenarios
43(1)
Components of a Conceptual Model
44(1)
Unit Types and Default Conceptual Models
45(1)
Sources
45(2)
Routes of Transport
47(2)
Exposure Media
49(1)
Routes of Exposure
49(2)
Receptors
51(1)
Indirect Exposure and Effects
51(1)
Output to Other Units
51(1)
Relationship to Other Conceptual Models
52(1)
Form of the Conceptual Model
52(1)
Analysis Plan
53(16)
Measures of Exposure, Effects, and Environmental Conditions
56(2)
Sampling and Analysis Plan
58(3)
Reference Sites and Reference Information
61(1)
Information Concerning the Precontamination State of the Contaminated Site
61(1)
Model-Derived Information
61(1)
Information Concerning Other Sites
62(2)
Information Concerning the Regional Reference
64(1)
Positive Reference Information
65(1)
Background
66(1)
Field Verification of the Plan
66(1)
Deviations and Contingencies
66(3)
Analysis of Exposure
69(72)
Components of Analysis of Exposure
70(9)
Sampling and Chemical Analysis of Media
71(2)
Chemical Analysis of Biota and Biomarkers
73(4)
Bioassay
77(1)
Biosurvey
78(1)
Transport and Fate Models
78(1)
Exposure Models
79(1)
Exposure to Contaminants in Surface Water
79(3)
Exposure to Contaminants in Sediment
82(4)
Exposure to Contaminants in Soil
86(5)
Sampling, Extraction, and Chemical Analysis
86(2)
Partial Chemical Extraction and Normalization
88(1)
Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids
89(1)
Soil Depth Profile
90(1)
Future Exposures
90(1)
Exposure of Terrestrial Plants
91(6)
Rooting Depth
92(1)
Rhizosphere
93(1)
Wetlands
93(1)
Soil Properties
94(1)
Chemical Form
95(1)
Chemical Interactions
95(1)
Interspecies Differences
95(1)
Air as an Exposure Route
96(1)
Exposure of Soil Invertebrates
97(3)
Depth of Exposure and Ingested Material
97(3)
Soil Properties and Chemical Interactions
100(1)
Exposure of Soil Microbial Communities
100(1)
Exposure of Wildlife
101(14)
Exposure Based on Internal Measures
101(2)
Exposure Based on External Measures
103(5)
Exposure-Modifying Factors
108(1)
Probabilistic Exposure Estimation
108(1)
Parameters for Estimation of Exposure
109(1)
Body Weight
109(1)
Food and Water Consumption Rates
110(1)
Inhalation Rates
111(1)
Soil Consumption
112(1)
Home Range and Territory Size
113(2)
Uptake Models
115(22)
Aquatic Organism Uptake
118(3)
Terrestrial Plant Uptake
121(1)
Empirical Models for Inorganic Chemicals
122(3)
Empirical Models for Organic Chemicals
125(3)
Mechanistic Models
128(1)
Surface Contamination
128(1)
Plant Tissue Type
129(1)
Earthworm Uptake
129(5)
Terrestrial Arthropod Uptake
134(1)
Terrestrial Vertebrate Uptake
135(2)
Petroleum and Other Chemical Mixtures
137(3)
Summary of Exposure Characterization
140(1)
Analysis of Effects
141(62)
Single-Chemical or Single-Material Toxicity Tests
142(33)
Types of Toxicity Tests
143(2)
Aquatic Tests
145(1)
Sediment Tests
146(1)
Soil Tests
147(1)
Dietary and Oral Tests
148(1)
Body Burden-Effect Relationships
149(4)
Criteria and Standards
153(1)
Screening Benchmarks
154(1)
Criteria and Standards as Screening Benchmarks
155(1)
Tier II Values
155(1)
Thresholds for Statistical Significance
155(1)
Test Endpoints with Safety Factors
156(1)
Distributions of Effects Levels
156(1)
Other Methods Used for Sediment Benchmarks
157(3)
Summary of Screening Benchmarks
160(1)
Single-Chemical Test Endpoints and Definitive Assessment
161(1)
Extrapolation Approaches
161(5)
Extrapolations for Specific Endpoints
166(7)
Quantitative Structure--Activity Relationships
173(2)
Mechanistic Models of Effects
175(1)
Ecotoxicity Profiles
175(1)
Contaminated Media Toxicity Tests
175(13)
Aqueous Toxicity Tests
180(1)
Sediment Toxicity Tests
180(3)
Soil Toxicity Tests
183(3)
Ambient Media Tests with Wildlife
186(2)
Biological Surveys
188(11)
Aquatic Biological Surveys
190(1)
Periphyton
191(1)
Plankton
192(1)
Fish
193(1)
Benthic Invertebrates
194(2)
Soil Biological Surveys
196(1)
Wildlife Surveys
197(1)
Plant Surveys
197(2)
Biomarkers of Effects
199(1)
Indirect Effects
200(1)
Exposure--Response Profile
201(2)
Risk Characterization in Screening Assessments
203(12)
Screening Chemicals
204(8)
Screening against Background
205(1)
Selection of Background Data
205(2)
Quantitative Methods for Comparison to Background
207(1)
Treatment of Background in Multimedia Exposures
207(1)
What Chemicals Can Be Screened against Background?
207(1)
When Is a Concentration Not Comparable to Background?
208(1)
Screening Biota Contamination Using Background Concentations for Abiotic Media
208(1)
Screening Future Exposure Concentrations against Background
208(1)
Screening against Detection Limits
208(1)
Screening against Waste Constituents
209(1)
Screening against Physicochemical Properties
209(1)
Screening against Ecotoxicological Benchmarks
209(2)
Exposure Concentrations
211(1)
Screening Media
212(1)
Screening Receptors
212(1)
Screening Sites
213(1)
Data Collection and Evaluation
213(1)
Data Adequacy and Uncertainties
213(1)
Presentation of a Screening Assessment
214(1)
Risk Characterization in Definitive Assessments
215(42)
Single-Chemical Toxicity
215(18)
Aquatic Organisms
219(3)
Benthic Invertebrates
222(2)
Soil Exposure of Plants, Invertebrates, and Microbial Communities
224(2)
Multimedia Exposure of Wildlife
226(1)
Comparison of Exposure to Toxicity
226(2)
Individual vs. Population Effects
228(3)
Body Burdens of Endpoint Organisms
231(2)
Ambient Media Toxicity Tests
233(3)
Biological Surveys
236(3)
Biomarkers and Pathologies
239(2)
Weight of Evidence
241(9)
Triad Alternatives
250(2)
Risk Estimation
252(1)
Future Risks
252(1)
Interpretation
253(1)
Reporting Ecological Risks
254(3)
Uncertainty
257(34)
Concepts and Definitions
257(3)
Why Analyze Uncertainty?
260(4)
Desire to Ensure Safety
261(1)
Desire to Avoid Excessive Conservatism
262(1)
Desire to Acknowledge and Present Uncertainty
262(1)
Need to Estimate a Probabilistic Endpoint
263(1)
Planning Remedial Investigations
263(1)
Aiding Decision Making
263(1)
Summary of Reasons
264(1)
Quantitative Techniques for Analysis of Uncertainty
264(6)
Uncertainty Factors
264(1)
Data Distribution
265(2)
Monte Carlo Analysis and Uncertainty Propagation
267(1)
Nested Monte Carlo Analysis
267(1)
Sensitivity Analysis
268(1)
Analysis of Model Uncertainty
269(1)
Making Sense of Uncertainty and Probability
270(4)
Defining Exposure Distributions
270(1)
Defining Effects Distributions
271(2)
Defining Risk Distributions
273(1)
Data Distributions and Risk
273(1)
Methods for Exposure
274(5)
Distributions of Measured Concentrations
274(2)
Multimedia Exposure Models
276(2)
Transport and Fate Models
278(1)
Methods for Effects
279(4)
Screening Benchmark Values
279
Species Sensitivity Distributions
270(12)
Sediment Effects Distributions
282(1)
Biological Surveys
282(1)
Media Toxicity Tests
283(1)
Methods for Risk Characterization
283(2)
Simple Quotient Methods
283(1)
Joint Probabilities
284(1)
Parameters to Treat as Uncertain
285(1)
Quality Assurance
286(5)
Remedial Goals
291(12)
Preliminary Remedial Goals
292(6)
PRGs for Surface Water
293(1)
Sediment
294(1)
Soil
294(1)
Modification of PRGs
295(2)
Land Use
297(1)
Remedial Goal Options
298(3)
Spatial Considerations
301(1)
Human Health
302(1)
Remedial Decisions
303(26)
Remedial Alternative Analysis
304(14)
Risks Associated with Remedial Alternatives
306(1)
Problem Formulation
307(1)
The Nature of Stressors
307(1)
Conceptual Models for Alternatives Assessments
307(3)
Assessment Endpoints
310(1)
Reference
311(1)
Exposure Assessment
312(1)
Effects Assessment
313(1)
Risk Characterization
313(1)
Spatial Considerations
314(1)
Recovery
315(3)
Risk Balancing
318(8)
Different Risk Metrics
319(1)
Land-Use Conflicts
320(1)
An Approach to Balancing Risk
320(1)
A Common Scale
321(1)
Human Health Categories
321(1)
Ecological Categories
322(1)
Risk Balancing Based on a Common Scale
323(2)
Remedial Units
325(1)
Summary of Risk Balancing
325(1)
Life-Cycle Assessment
326(1)
Cost-Benefit Analysis
326(1)
Prioritization of Sites for Remediation
326(3)
Post-Remedial Assessments
329(14)
Remedial Efficacy
329(1)
Residual Risks
330(13)
Preassessment Screen Phase
334(1)
Assessment Plan Phase
334(1)
Assessment Phase
335(1)
Injury Determination Phase
335(2)
Quantification Phase
337(1)
Damage Determination
338(1)
Post-Assessment Phase
339(1)
Alternative Approaches
340(1)
Conclusions
340(3)
Appendix Biota Sampling and Survey Methods 343(26)
A.1 Fishes
343(1)
A.2 Periphyton
344(1)
A.3 Plankton
345(1)
A.4 Benthic Invertebrates
345(2)
A.5 Terrestrial Plants
347(1)
A.6 Terrestrial Mollusks
347(1)
A.7 Earthworms
348(1)
A.8 Terrestrial Arthropods
348(1)
A.9 Birds
349(5)
A.9.1 Sampling Birds
349(1)
A.9.2 Avian Population Survey Methods
350(1)
A.9.2.1 Territory Mapping
350(1)
A.9.2.2 Transects
351(1)
A.9.2.3 Point Counts
352(1)
A.9.2.4 Mark-Recapture
352(1)
A.9.2.5 Song Tapes
352(1)
A.9.2.6 Aerial Counts
352(1)
A.9.2.7 Habitat-Focused Surveys
353(1)
A.9.2.8 Additional Information
353(1)
A.9.3 Avian Nest Study Methods
353(1)
A.9.4 Avian Food Habit Study Methods
354(1)
A.10 Mammals
354(5)
A.10.1 Sampling Mammals
354(2)
A.10.2 Surveying Mammals
356(1)
A.10.2.1 Direct Observation
356(2)
A.10.2.2 Indirect Observation
358(1)
A.10.2.3 Additional Information
359(1)
A.11 Reptiles and Amphibians
359(1)
A.12 Vegetation Analysis to Identify Habitat Suitable for Wildlife Species
360(1)
A.13 Sampling Considerations
361(8)
A.13.1 Spatial Components of Biota Sampling
361(1)
A.13.2 Sample Handling
362(1)
A.13.3 Tissues to Analyze
363(1)
A.13.4 Permits
364(1)
A.13.5 Euthanasia
364(1)
A.13.6 Health Concerns
365(4)
Glossary 369(8)
References 377(46)
Index 423

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