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Educational Administration : Concepts and Practices

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780534559984

ISBN10:
0534559980
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
12/6/1999
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $103.33

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This is the 3rd edition with a publication date of 12/6/1999.
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Summary

EDUCATION ADMINISTRATION: CONCEPTS AND PRACTICES, the most comprehensive and respected text on the market, discusses all topics covered by other educational administration texts, and MORE: culture, change, curriculum, personnel administration, diversity, effective teaching strategies, and supervision of instruction. Topics are covered in a direct and easy-to-understand manner, with an excellent blend of theory and practice.

Table of Contents

Administrative Advice xiii
Pro/Con Debates xv
Forward xvi
Preface xvii
The Authors xiv
I Fundamental Principles and Concepts 1(86)
Development of Administrative Theory
2(22)
Focusing Questions
2(1)
Theory
2(3)
Functions of Theories
3(2)
Classical Organizational Theory
5(3)
Scientific Management
5(1)
Administrative Management
6(2)
Human Relations Approach
8(2)
The Hawthorne Studies
8(1)
Other Contributors to the Human Relations Approach
9(1)
Behavioral Science Approach
10(4)
The Individual and the Organization
10(2)
Leadership
12(2)
Development of Administrative Thought
14(1)
Systems Theory
14(6)
Basic Systems Model
16(1)
A Systems View of School Administration
16(4)
Summary
20(1)
Key Terms
20(1)
Discussion Questions
20(2)
Suggested Readings
22(2)
Organizational Structure
24(35)
Focusing Questions
24(1)
Basic Concepts of Organizational Structure
24(3)
Job Specialization
25(1)
Departmentalization
25(1)
Chain of Command
25(1)
Authority and Responsibility
26(1)
Centralization/Decentralization
26(1)
Line and Staff Authority
26(1)
Span of Management
27(1)
The Bureaucratic Model
27(3)
Bureaucratic Characteristics
27(2)
Bureaucratic Dysfunctions
29(1)
The Participatory Management Model
30(12)
Theory X and Theory Y
31(1)
Individual versus Organization
31(1)
System 4 Organization
32(3)
Shaping School Culture
35(1)
Moral Leadership
35(1)
School-Based Management
36(1)
Total Quality Management
37(3)
Frames of Organization
40(2)
Alternative Models of Organizational Structure
42(10)
Compliance Theory
42(1)
Mechanistic-Organic Organization
43(4)
Strategy-Structure Typology
47(5)
The School as a Social System
52(4)
Dimensions of a Social System
52(1)
Expanded Model: Cultural Dimensions
53(2)
Getzel's Latest Model: Communities Dimension
55(1)
Summary
56(1)
Key Terms
57(1)
Discussion Questions
57(1)
Suggested Readings
57(2)
Organizational Culture
59(28)
Focusing Questions
59(1)
The Nature of Organizational Culture
59(3)
Definition and Characteristics
60(1)
Uniformity of Culture
61(1)
Developing, Maintaining, and Changing Organizational Culture
62(5)
Creating Organizational Culture
62(1)
Maintaining Organizational Culture
63(3)
Changing Organizational Culture
66(1)
Effects of Organizational Culture
67(6)
Views of Excellence
68(2)
Theory Z
70(2)
A Typology of Organizational Culture
72(1)
Organizational Climate
73(12)
Open-Closed Climates
74(2)
Healthy-Sick Schools
76(1)
Comprehensive Assessment of School Environments (CASE)
77(3)
Pupil Control Ideology
80(5)
Summary
85(1)
Key Terms
85(1)
Discussion Questions
85(1)
Suggested Readings
85(2)
II Administrative Processes 87(148)
Motivation
88(24)
Focusing Questions
88(1)
Defining Motivation
88(2)
Content Theories
90(10)
Need Hierarchy Theory
90(3)
Motivation-Hygiene Theory
93(5)
Existence Relatedness Growth Theory
98(2)
Process Theories
100(8)
Expectancy Theory
100(4)
Equity Theory
104(3)
Goal-Setting Theory
107(1)
Summary
108(2)
Key Terms
110(1)
Discussion Questions
110(1)
Suggested Readings
110(2)
Leadership
112(43)
Focusing Questions
112(1)
The Nature of Leadership
112(5)
Sources of Leader Influence
114(1)
Research on Sources of Leader Influence
115(2)
A New Concept of Power
117(1)
Leader Traits
117(7)
Traits of Leaders Compared with Nonleaders
117(1)
Traits of Effective Leaders
118(2)
Assessment Centers: Using Traits and Skills to Select Leaders
120(4)
The Assessment Center Process
124(1)
Leadership Behavior
124(6)
The Iowa Studies: Authoritarian, Democratic, and Laissez-Faire Leadership
125(2)
The Ohio State Studies: Initiating Structure and Consideration
127(2)
The Michigan Studies: Production Centered and Employee Centered
129(1)
Leadership Behavior Theories: Similarities and Conclusions
129(1)
Contingency Leadership
130(9)
Fiedler's Contingency Theory
132(4)
Path-Goal Theory
136(3)
Leadership Styles
139(9)
Leadership Style Continuum
139(3)
Leadership Grid® Styles
142(1)
Three-Dimensional Leadership Styles
142(3)
Situational Leadership Styles
145(3)
Other Contemporary Perspectives
148(3)
Vertical Dyad Linkage Model
148(1)
Reciprocal Influence Theory
149(1)
Substitutes for Leadership
149(1)
Transformational Leadership
150(1)
Summary
151(1)
Key Terms
152(1)
Discussion Questions
152(1)
Suggested Readings
153(2)
Decision Making
155(25)
Focusing Questions
155(1)
The Nature of Decision Making
155(1)
Models of Decision Making
156(10)
The Classical Decision-Making Model
157(3)
The Behavioral Decision-Making Model
160(3)
The Vroom-Yetton Normative Model
163(3)
Benefits of Site-Based Decision Making
166(3)
Problems in Site-Based Decision Making
169(3)
Groupthink
169(2)
Risky Shift
171(1)
Escalation of Commitment
172(1)
Site-Based Decision-Making Techniques
172(5)
Brainstorming
172(2)
Nominal Group Technique
174(1)
Delphi Technique
175(1)
Devil's Advocacy
176(1)
Dialectical Inquiry
176(1)
Summary
177(1)
Key Terms
177(2)
Discussion Questions
179(1)
Suggested Readings
179(1)
Communication
180(26)
Focusing Questions
180(1)
The Importance of Communication
180(1)
The Communication Process
181(2)
Ideating
181(1)
Encoding
182(1)
Transmitting
182(1)
Receiving
182(1)
Decoding
182(1)
Acting
182(1)
Nonverbal Communication
183(2)
Direction of Communication
185(4)
Downward Communication
185(1)
Upward Communication
186(2)
Horizontal Communication
188(1)
Diagonal Communication
188(1)
The Grapevine
188(1)
Communication Networks
189(5)
Network Patterns
189(2)
Network Analysis
191(3)
Barriers to Communication
194(5)
Frames of Reference
194(2)
Filtering
196(1)
Structure
196(1)
Information Overload
197(1)
Semantics
198(1)
Status Differences
198(1)
Overcoming Barriers to Communication
199(5)
Repetition
199(1)
Empathy
199(1)
Understanding
199(1)
Feedback
200(1)
Listening
201(3)
Summary
204(1)
Key Terms
204(1)
Discussion Questions
204(1)
Suggested Readings
204(2)
Organizational Change
206(29)
Focusing Questions
206(1)
Schools as Open Systems
207(1)
Pressures for Organizational Change
208(3)
Government Intervention in Schools
208(1)
Society's Values
209(1)
Technological Change and Knowledge Explosion
210(1)
Processes and People
210(1)
Resistance to Change
211(5)
Causes of Resistance to Change
211(2)
Reducing Resistance to Change
213(3)
Individual Approaches to Change
216(9)
Job Enrichment
216(2)
Laboratory Training
218(2)
Behavior Modification
220(2)
Transactional Analysis
222(3)
Group Approaches to Change
225(6)
Role Analysis Technique
225(2)
Intergroup Problem Solving
227(1)
Process Consultation
228(1)
Survey Feedback
229(2)
Strategic Planning
231(1)
Summary
231(1)
Key Terms
232(1)
Discussion Questions
233(1)
Suggested Readings
234(1)
III The Structural Framework for Education 235(196)
The Federal and State Government and Education
236(48)
Focusing Questions
236(1)
The Federal Role in Education
236(1)
Changing Roles in the Federal Government and Education
237(5)
Current Period: 1980s and 1990s
237(2)
Clarifying the Federal Role in Education
239(1)
The Department of Education
240(2)
Congressional Influence on Education
242(1)
Federal Programs and Activities in Education
243(9)
Grants for Schools
243(1)
Grants for Colleges
243(1)
Vocational Education Acts
244(1)
Relief Acts
244(1)
War Acts
245(1)
National Defense Education Act
245(1)
Compensatory Education Acts
245(1)
Title IX
246(1)
Bilingual Education
246(2)
Education for the Handicapped
248(2)
Educational Consolidation and Improvement Act (ECIA)
250(2)
National Reform of Education
252(9)
The Call for Excellence
253(7)
Need for Caution
260(1)
State Government and Education
261(7)
State Hierarchy of Education
261(1)
The Governor
262(2)
State Legislatures
264(3)
State Courts
267(1)
State Education Agencies
268(4)
The State Board of Education
269(1)
Chief State School Officer
270(1)
State Departments of Education
271(1)
State Reform Movements
272(6)
Lessons to Be Learned
274(1)
State-School District Relationship
275(3)
Guidelines for Reform
278(2)
Summary
280(2)
Key Terms
282(1)
Discussion Questions
283(1)
Suggested Readings
283(1)
Local School Districts
284(64)
Focusing Questions
284(1)
Local School Policy
284(1)
Organization of School Districts
285(10)
Size of School Districts
286(1)
Number of School Districts
287(2)
Students and Schools
289(1)
Consolidation of School Districts
289(2)
Decentralization of School Districts
291(4)
Local School Boards
295(10)
School Board-Public Problems
296(1)
School Board Meetings
297(1)
School Board Responsibilities
298(3)
School Board Views on School Reform
301(3)
State Standards: A National Movement
304(1)
The School Superintendent
305(15)
The Superintendent's Job
305(1)
Superintendents' Salary and Performance
306(2)
Up the Professional Ladder
308(3)
The Superintendent and the School Board
311(2)
Superintendents' Problems and Performance
313(5)
Superintendents' Skill Areas
318(2)
The Central Staff
320(6)
Large Districts: Increased Central Offices
321(1)
Small Districts: Understaffed Central Offices
322(1)
Organizational Hierarchy
323(1)
Efficiency Ratios
323(3)
The Principal and the School
326(19)
Conditions, Employment, and Trends
326(3)
Leadership Role of the Principal
329(4)
Managerial Role of the Principal
333(1)
Curriculum-Instructional Role of the Principal
334(2)
Effective Principals
336(1)
Evaluation of Principals
337(3)
Training and Preparation of Principals
340(3)
Planning by Principals
343(2)
Summary
345(2)
Key Terms
347(1)
Discussion Questions
347(1)
Suggested Readings
347(1)
School Finance and Productivity
348(42)
Focusing Questions
348(1)
Education and Economics
348(2)
Tax Sources of School Revenues
350(1)
Local Financing of Public Schools
351(4)
Property Tax
352(1)
User Fees
352(1)
Tobacco Settlement
353(1)
Urban/Suburban Disparities
353(1)
Municipal and Educational Overburden
353(1)
Spending versus Outcomes
354(1)
State Financing of Public Schools
355(4)
Sales Tax
355(1)
Personal Income Tax
356(1)
Lotteries and Other State Taxes
356(1)
The States' Ability to Finance Education
357(2)
State Financial Responsibility
359(4)
State Funding Methods
359(1)
School Budgeting
360(3)
School Effectiveness and Productivity
363(7)
Size of Schools
363(3)
Effective Schools
366(1)
Effective School Indicators
367(3)
School Finance Trends
370(4)
Streamlining Budgets
371(3)
Environmental Hazards
374(6)
Asbestos
374(1)
Radon Gas
375(1)
Electromagnetic Fields
376(1)
School Lead
377(2)
Indoor Air Quality
379(1)
School Infrastructure Costs
380(3)
Financing School Construction
383(2)
International Comparisons of Education Spending
385(2)
Summary
387(1)
Key Terms
387(2)
Discussion Questions
389(1)
Suggested Readings
389(1)
Legal Considerations and Education
390(41)
Focusing Questions
390(1)
Legal Framework for Public Education
390(4)
Federal Role in Education
391(1)
State Role in Education
392(1)
The Courts
393(1)
The Law and Professional Personnel
394(13)
Certification
395(1)
Contracts
396(1)
Termination of Employment
397(2)
Discrimination in Employment
399(4)
Tort Liability
403(4)
The Law and Students
407(12)
School Attendance
407(4)
Student Discipline
411(2)
Freedom of Expression
413(3)
Classification Practices
416(3)
The Law and State Issues
419(8)
School Desegregation
419(1)
Church-State Relations
420(3)
Financing Education
423(4)
Summary
427(1)
Key Terms
427(1)
Discussion Questions
428(1)
Suggested Readings
429(2)
IV Administration of Programs and Services 431(158)
Curriculum Development and Implementation
432(42)
Focusing Questions
432(1)
Curriculum Definitions and Approaches
433(7)
Behavioral Approach
433(2)
Managerial Approach
435(1)
Systems Approach
436(3)
Humanistic Approach
439(1)
Curriculum Development
440(8)
Tyler: Behavioral Model
440(3)
Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis: Managerial Model
443(1)
Macdonald: Systems Model
444(2)
Weinstein and Fantini: Humanistic Model
446(1)
Nontechnical Model
446(2)
Components of Curriculum Development
448(5)
Criteria for Selecting Content
448(1)
Criteria for Selecting Learning Experiences
449(1)
Educational Environments
450(1)
Leadership Considerations
451(2)
The Roles of the Curriculum Worker
453(4)
Responsibilities of the Curriculum Worker
454(1)
The Teacher and the Curriculum
455(2)
How Implementation Occurs
457(5)
Incrementalism
457(2)
Communication
459(1)
Cooperation
459(2)
Support
461(1)
Implementation as a Change Process
462(9)
Change Typologies
463(1)
Resistance to Change
464(1)
Improving Receptivity to Change
465(2)
Guidelines for Change
467(2)
Leadership and Change
469(1)
Change and Collaboration
470(1)
Summary
471(1)
Key Terms
472(1)
Discussion Questions
473(1)
Suggested Readings
473(1)
Analyzing and Improving Teaching
474(43)
Focusing Questions
474(1)
Review of the Research on Teaching
475(1)
Teacher Styles
476(1)
Research on Teacher Styles
476(1)
Teacher Interaction
477(6)
Verbal Communication
478(3)
Nonverbal Communication
481(1)
Teacher Expectations
482(1)
Teacher Characteristics
483(2)
Research on Teacher Characteristics
484(1)
Teacher Effects
485(5)
The Gage Model
486(1)
The Good and Brophy Model
486(1)
The Evertson and Emmer Model
487(1)
The Master Teacher
488(1)
Cautions and Criticisms
489(1)
Teacher Contexts: New Research, New Paradigms
490(7)
Metaphors
492(1)
Stories
493(1)
Biographies and Autobiographies
494(1)
The Expert Teacher
495(1)
Voice
496(1)
Helping the Beginning Teacher
497(3)
Problems of Education Students and Beginning Teachers
498(1)
How Beginning Teachers (Novices) Teach
499(1)
Support from Colleagues for Beginning Teachers
500(3)
Self-Evaluation
503(2)
Reflection
505(1)
Alternative Forms of Teacher Evaluation
506(1)
Supervisory Evaluation and Assistance
507(3)
Staff Development and Technology
510(4)
Summary
514(1)
Key Terms
514(1)
Discussion Questions
515(1)
Suggested Readings
516(1)
Human Resource Management
517(43)
Focusing Questions
517(1)
The Human Resource Management Process
517(1)
Human Resource Planning
518(7)
Job Analysis
518(3)
Forecasting Demand and Supply
521(1)
Legal Constraints
522(3)
Affirmative Action Programs
525(1)
Recruitment
525(4)
Internal Sources
526(1)
External Sources
527(2)
Internal versus External Recruitment
529(1)
Selection
529(8)
Biographical Information
529(2)
Reference Checks
531(2)
Interviews
533(1)
Tests
534(3)
Assessment Centers
537(1)
Hiring Decision
537(1)
Training and Development
537(2)
Assessment of Training Needs
538(1)
Training Techniques
539(1)
Evaluating the Training Program
539(1)
Performance Appraisal
539(6)
Performance Appraisal Methods
540(4)
Rating Errors
544(1)
Compensation
545(3)
Wages and Salaries
546(2)
Benefits
548(1)
Union-Management Relations
548(7)
Union Membership
548(1)
Collective Bargaining
548(7)
Summary
555(2)
Key Terms
557(1)
Discussion Questions
557(2)
Suggested Readings
559(1)
Careers in Educational Administration
560(29)
Focusing Questions
560(1)
The Concept of Career
560(1)
Career Stages
561(4)
Apprentice
561(1)
Independent Contributor
562(1)
Mentor
563(1)
Sponsor
564(1)
Managing Career Stress
565(5)
Sources of Stress
565(2)
Effects of Stress
567(1)
Coping with Stress
568(2)
Career Development
570(5)
Career Planning
570(3)
Career Management
573(2)
Administrator Preparation Programs
575(4)
An Agenda for Reform
576(1)
Restructuring Efforts Under Way
577(2)
Women and Minorities in Educational Administration
579(5)
Women in Educational Administration
579(2)
Racial Minorities in Educational Administration
581(1)
Programs for Women and Minorities
582(2)
Summary
584(1)
Key Terms
585(1)
Discussion Questions
585(1)
Suggested Readings
585(4)
Name Index 589(10)
Subject Index 599


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