# Electric Circuits

**by**Nilsson, James W.; Riedel, Susan

### 9780136114994

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## Customer Reviews

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*[censored]*re EE/ECE students need. The examples are well-chosen and sufficient in number to effectively present the fundamental concepts.

This is a very solid resource for students to use in coursework or for someone to work through on their own.

## Summary

**Designed for use in a one or two-semester Introductory Circuit Analysis or Circuit Theory Course taught in Electrical or Computer Engineering Departments.**

**Electric Circuits 9/e **is the most widely used introductory circuits textbook of the past 25 years. As this book has evolved over the years to meet the changing learning styles of students, importantly, the underlying teaching approaches and philosophies remain unchanged. The goals are:

- To build an understanding of concepts and ideas explicitly in terms of previous learning

- To emphasize the relationship between conceptual understanding and problem solving approaches

- To provide students with a strong foundation of engineering practices.

**For Students or anyone interested in electric circuits.**

## Author Biography

Professor ** JAMES W NILSSON ** taught at Iowa State University for 39 years. Since retiring from Iowa State, he has been a visiting professor at Notre Dame, California Polytechnic at San Luis Obispo, and the United States Air Force Academy. In 1962, he co-authored (with R.G. Brown)

*Introduction to Linear Systems Analysis*(John Wiley & Sons). In 1968, he authored

*Introduction to Circuits, Instruments, and Electronics*(Harcourt Brae and World). Professor Nilsson received a Standard Oil Outstanding Teacher Award in 1968, the IEEE Undergraduate Teaching Award in 1992, and the McGraw-Hill Jacob Millman Award in 1995. In 1990, he was elected to the rank of Fellow in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

Professor ** SUSAN A. RIEDEL ** has been a member of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Marquette University since 1981. She also holds a clinical research appointment in the Department of Orthopaedics at the Medical College of Wisconsin and was a visiting professor in the Bioengineering Unit at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, as a Fulbright Scholar during the 1989-90 academic year. She has received two awards for teaching excellence at Marquette, and was recognized for her research contributions with an award from the Chicago Unit of the Shriner's Hospitals.

## Table of Contents

List of Examples xiii

Preface xvii

**Chapter 1 Circuit Variables 2**

Practical Perspective: Balancing Power 3

1.1 Electrical Engineering: An Overview

41.2 The International System of Units

81.3 Circuit Analysis: An Overview

101.4 Voltage and Current

111.5 The Ideal Basic Circuit Element

121.6 Power and Energy

14

*Practical Perspective: Balancing Power 17*

*Summary 18*

*Problems 19*

**Chapter 2 Circuit Elements 24**

Practical Perspective: Electrical Safety 25

2.1 Voltage and Current Sources

262.2 Electrical Resistance (Ohm’s Law)

302.3 Construction of a Circuit Model

342.4 Kirchhoff’s Laws

372.5 Analysis of a Circuit Containing Dependent Sources

42

*Practical Perspective: Electrical Safety 46*

*Summary 47*

*Problems 48*

**Chapter 3 Simple Resistive Circuits 56**

Practical Perspective: A Rear Window Defroster 57

3.1 Resistors in Series

583.2 Resistors in Parallel

593.3 The Voltage-Divider and Current-DividerCircuits

613.4 Voltage Division and Current Division

643.5 Measuring Voltage and Current

663.6 Measuring Resistance—The Wheatstone Bridge

693.7 Delta-to-Wye (Pi-to-Tee) Equivalent Circuits

71

*Practical Perspective: A Rear Window Defroster 73*

*Summary 76*

*Problems 77*

* *

**Chapter 4 Techniques of Circuit Analysis 88**

Practical Perspective: Circuits with Realistic Resistors 89

4.1 Terminology

904.2 Introduction to the Node-Voltage Method

934.3 The Node-Voltage Method and Dependent Sources

954.4 The Node-Voltage Method: Some Special Cases

964.5 Introduction to the Mesh-Current Method

994.6 The Mesh-Current Method and Dependent Sources

1024.7 The Mesh-Current Method: Some Special Cases

1034.8 The Node-Voltage Method Versus the Mesh-Current Method

1064.9 Source Transformations

1094.10 Thévenin and Norton Equivalents

1134.11 More on Deriving a Thévenin Equivalent

1174.12 Maximum Power Transfer

1204.13 Superposition

122

*Practical Perspective: Circuits with Realistic Resistors 125*

*Summary 129*

*Problems 130*

Chapter 5 The Operational Amplifier 144

Practical Perspective: Strain Gages 145

5.1 Operational Amplifier Terminals

1465.2 Terminal Voltages and Currents

1465.3 The Inverting-Amplifier Circuit

1505.4 The Summing-Amplifier Circuit

1525.5 The Noninverting-Amplifier Circuit

1535.6 The Difference-Amplifier Circuit

1555.7 A More Realistic Model for the Operational Amplifier

159

*Practical Perspective: Strain Gages 162*

*Summary 164*

*Problems 165*

* *

**Chapter 6 Inductance, Capacitance, and Mutual Inductance 174**

Practical Perspective: Proximity Switches 175

6.1 The Inductor

1766.2 The Capacitor

1826.3 Series-Parallel Combinations of Inductance and Capacitance

1876.4 Mutual Inductance

1896.5 A Closer Look at Mutual Inductance

193

*Practical Perspective: Proximity Switches 200*

*Summary 203*

*Problems 204*

**Chapter 7 Response of First-Order RL and RC Circuits 212**

Practical Perspective: A Flashing Light Circuit 213

7.1 The Natural Response of an

RLCircuit2147.2 The Natural Response of an

RCCircuit2207.3 The Step Response of

RLandRCCircuits2247.4 A General Solution for Step and Natural Responses

2317.5 Sequential Switching

2367.6 Unbounded Response

2407.7 The Integrating Amplifier

241

*Practical Perspective: A Flashing Light Circuit 245*

*Summary 246*

*Problems 247*

**Chapter 8 Natural and Step Responses of RLC Circuits 264**

Practical Perspective: An Ignition Circuit 265

8.1 Introduction to the Natural Response of a Parallel

RLCCircuit2668.2 The Forms of the Natural Response of a Parallel

RLCCircuit2708.3 The Step Response of a Parallel

RLCCircuit2808.4 The Natural and Step Response of a Series

RLCCircuit2858.5 A Circuit with Two Integrating Amplifiers

289

*Practical Perspective: An Ignition Circuit 294*

*Summary 297*

*Problems 298*

**Chapter 9 Sinusoidal Steady-State Analysis 306**

Practical Perspective: A Household Distribution Circuit 307

9.1 The Sinusoidal Source

3089.2 The Sinusoidal Response

3119.3 The Phasor

3129.4 The Passive Circuit Elements in the Frequency Domain

3179.5 Kirchhoff’s Laws in the Frequency Domain

3219.6 Series, Parallel, and Delta-to-Wye Simplifications

3229.7 Source Transformations and Thévenin-Norton Equivalent Circuits

3299.8 The Node-Voltage Method

3329.9 The Mesh-Current Method

3339.10 The Transformer

3349.11 The Ideal Transformer

3389.12 Phasor Diagrams

344

*Practical Perspective: A Household Distribution Circuit 346*

*Summary 347*

*Problems 348*

**Chapter 10 Sinusoidal Steady-State Power Calculations 360**

Practical Perspective: Heating Appliances 361

10.1 Instantaneous Power

36210.2 Average and Reactive Power

36310.3 The rms Value and Power Calculations

36810.4 Complex Power

37010.5 Power Calculations

37110.6 Maximum Power Transfer

378

*Practical Perspective: Heating Appliances 384*

*Summary 386*

*Problems 387*

Chapter 11 Balanced Three-Phase Circuits 398

Practical Perspective: Transmission and Distribution of Electric Power 399

11.1 Balanced Three-Phase Voltages

40011.2 Three-Phase Voltage Sources

40111.3 Analysis of the Wye-Wye Circuit

40211.4 Analysis of the Wye-Delta Circuit

40711.5 Power Calculations in Balanced Three-Phase Circuits

41011.6 Measuring Average Power in Three-Phase Circuits

415

*Practical Perspective: Transmission and Distribution of Electric Power 418*

*Summary 419*

*Problems 420*

* *

**Chapter 12 Introduction to the Laplace Transform 428**

Practical Perspective: Transient Effects 429

12.1 Definition of the Laplace Transform

43012.2 The Step Function

43112.3 The Impulse Function

43312.4 Functional Transforms

43612.5 Operational Transforms

43712.6 Applying the Laplace Transform

44212.7 Inverse Transforms

44412.8 Poles and Zeros of

F(s)45412.9 Initial- and Final-Value Theorems

455

*Practical Perspective: Transient Effects 458*

*Summary 459*

*Problems 460*

* *

**Chapter 13 The Laplace Transform in Circuit Analysis 466**

Practical Perspective: Surge Suppressors 467

13.1 Circuit Elements in the

sDomain46813.2 Circuit Analysis in the

sDomain47013.3 Applications

47213.4 The Transfer Function

48413.5 The Transfer Function in Partial Fraction Expansions

48613.6 The Transfer Function and the Convolution Integral

48913.7 The Transfer Function and the Steady-State Sinusoidal Response

49513.8 The Impulse Function in Circuit Analysis

498

*Practical Perspective: Surge Suppressors 505*

*Summary 506*

*Problems 507*

**Chapter 14 Introduction to Frequency Selective Circuits 522**

Practical Perspective: Pushbutton Telephone Circuits 523

14.1 Some Preliminaries

52414.2 Low-Pass Filters

52614.3 High-Pass Filters

53214.4 Bandpass Filters

53614.5 Bandreject Filters

545

*Practical Perspective: Pushbutton Telephone Circuits 550*

*Summary 550*

*Problems 551*

* *

**Chapter 15 Active Filter Circuits 558**

Practical Perspective: Bass Volume Control 559

15.1 First-Order Low-Pass and High-Pass Filters

56015.2 Scaling

56415.3 Op Amp Bandpass and Bandreject Filters

56615.4 Higher Order Op Amp Filters

57315.5 Narrowband Bandpass and Bandreject Filters

586

*Practical Perspective: Bass Volume Control 591*

*Summary 594*

*Problems 595*

**Chapter 16 Fourier Series 604**

Practical Perspective: Active High-Q Filters 605

16.1 Fourier Series Analysis: An Overview

60716.2 The Fourier Coefficients

60816.3 The Effect of Symmetry on the Fourier Coefficients

61116.4 An Alternative Trigonometric Form of the Fourier Series

61716.5 An Application

61916.6 Average-Power Calculations with Periodic Functions

62316.7 The rms Value of a Periodic Function

62616.8 The Exponential Form of the Fourier Series

62716.9 Amplitude and Phase Spectra

630

*Practical Perspective: Active High-Q Filters 632*

*Summary 634*

*Problems 635*

**Chapter 17 The Fourier Transform 644**

Practical Perspective: Filtering Digital Signals 645

17.1 The Derivation of the Fourier Transform

64617.2 The Convergence of the Fourier Integral

64817.3 Using Laplace Transforms to Find Fourier Transforms

65017.4 Fourier Transforms in the Limit

65317.5 Some Mathematical Properties

65517.6 Operational Transforms

65717.7 Circuit Applications

66117.8 Parseval’s Theorem

664

*Practical Perspective: Filtering Digital Signals 671*

*Summary 672*

*Problems 672*

* *

**Chapter 18 Two-Port Circuits 678**

Practical Perspective: Characterizing an Unknown Circuit 679

18.1 The Terminal Equations

68018.2 The Two-Port Parameters

68118.3 Analysis of the Terminated Two-Port Circuit

68918.4 Interconnected Two-Port Circuits

694

*Practical Perspective: Characterizing an Unknown Circuit 697*

*Summary 698*

*Problems 698*

Appendix A The Solution of Linear Simultaneous Equations 705

A.1 Preliminary Steps

705A.2 Cramer’s Method

706A.3 The Characteristic Determinant

706A.4 The Numerator Determinant

706A.5 The Evaluation of a Determinant

707A.6 Matrices

709A.7 Matrix Algebra

710A.8 Identity, Adjoint, and Inverse Matrices

714A.9 Partitioned Matrices

717A.10 Applications

720

Appendix B Complex Numbers 725

B.1 Notation

725B.2 The Graphical Representation of a Complex Number

726B.3 Arithmetic Operations

727B.4 Useful Identities

728B.5 The Integer Power of a Complex Number

729B.6 The Roots of a Complex Number

729

Appendix C More on Magnetically Coupled Coils and Ideal Transformers 731

C.1 Equivalent Circuits for Magnetically Coupled Coils

731C.2 The Need for Ideal Transformers in the Equivalent Circuits

735

Appendix D The Decibel 739

Appendix E Bode Diagrams 741

E.1 Real, First-Order Poles and Zeros

741E.2 Straight-Line Amplitude Plots

742E.3 More Accurate Amplitude Plots

746E.4 Straight-Line Phase Angle Plots

747E.5 Bode Diagrams: Complex Poles and Zeros

749E.6 Amplitude Plots

751E.7 Correcting Straight-Line Amplitude Plots

752E.8 Phase Angle Plots

755

Appendix F An Abbreviated Table of Trigonometric Identities 759

Appendix G An Abbreviated Table of Integrals 761

Appendix H Common Standard Component Values 763

Answers to Selected Problems 765

Index 781