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Elementary Science Methods A Constructivist Approach,9780534556303
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Elementary Science Methods A Constructivist Approach



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Wadsworth Publishing
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This is the 2nd edition with a publication date of 8/5/1999.

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This text's unique constructivist approach guides students in learning by doing. Geared to teachers of preschool through sixth grade students, it represents the cutting edge of elementary science teaching with up-to-date investigations into contemporary topics.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Editionp. xii
Preface to the First Editionp. xiv
Acknowledgmentsp. xvi
To the Studentp. xviii
Constructing the Elementary Science Programp. 1
The Science Education Imperativep. 3
How Much Science Does the Elementary Science Teacher Need to Know?p. 5
Amount of Science Known Todayp. 6
Obsolescence of Scientific Knowledgep. 7
Changing Scientific Knowledgep. 7
How Much Science Does the Elementary Science Teacher Need to Know?p. 8
Right and Wrongp. 9
The Gummy Bears Lessonp. 10
Recognizing the Unexpectedp. 11
Perceptionp. 12
Listeningp. 15
The Processes of Sciencep. 15
History of the Process Approach to Science Educationp. 16
Hands-On Elementary Science Approaches of the 1960sp. 18
Ownership of Knowledge and Thoughtp. 20
Mystery Boxp. 21
Ownershipp. 23
Valuing Children's Thinkingp. 23
Attitudes About Science and Attitudes About Science Teachingp. 27
Teacher Beliefsp. 27
Metaphorsp. 31
Research in Science Educationp. 31
Conclusionp. 32
Additional Questions for Discussionp. 32
Notesp. 32
Referencesp. 32
Science Education Todayp. 35
The Nature of Sciencep. 36
Characteristics of the Scientific Enterprisep. 36
Products of Sciencep. 38
Things as Products of Sciencep. 39
Scientific Factsp. 40
Scientific Conceptsp. 42
Scientific Generalizationsp. 44
Scientific Theoriesp. 47
Scientific Lawsp. 48
Attitudes Toward Sciencep. 49
Processes of Sciencep. 49
Interdisciplinary Nature of Sciencep. 50
Goals of Elementary Science Educationp. 51
National Science Teachers Associationp. 52
American Association for the Advancement of Sciencep. 52
National Science Education Standardsp. 53
Goals 2000: Educate America Actp. 56
What Do You Think?p. 57
Additional Questions for Discussionp. 58
Notesp. 59
Referencesp. 59
The Processes of Sciencep. 63
Observingp. 66
Classifyingp. 77
Communicatingp. 90
Measuringp. 94
Lengthp. 94
Volumep. 97
Weight or Massp. 98
Temperaturep. 100
Timep. 101
Metric versus Conventional Unitsp. 102
Predictingp. 108
Inferringp. 114
Interrelationships Among the Basic Processesp. 120
The Integrated Processesp. 121
The Pendulump. 122
Identifying and Controlling Variablesp. 127
Formulating and Testing Hypothesesp. 133
Interpreting Datap. 140
Defining Operationallyp. 148
Experimentingp. 150
Constructing Modelsp. 153
The Process-Oriented Objectivep. 160
Conclusionp. 161
Additional Questions for Discussionp. 161
Notesp. 162
Referencesp. 162
Constructivism in Elementary Science Educationp. 167
Constructivismp. 169
Prior Beliefsp. 172
Conceptual Changep. 173
Cognitive Disequilibrationp. 174
Validity of Self-Constructed Conceptualizationsp. 175
Inquiryp. 177
Constructivism and Science Learningp. 178
Piaget, the Constructivistp. 180
Mechanism of Constructing Knowledgep. 180
Stages of Cognitive Developmentp. 182
Sensorimotor Stagep. 183
Preoperational Stagep. 183
Concrete Operational Stagep. 184
Formal Operational Stagep. 190
Stage Overlappingp. 193
Dinosaurs and the Solar Systemp. 194
Conclusionp. 200
Additional Questions for Discussionp. 200
Notesp. 201
Referencesp. 201
Inquiryp. 205
The Expository-Discovery Continuump. 207
Expository Methodologyp. 208
Free Discovery Methodologyp. 209
Guided Inquiry Methodologyp. 212
Ausubel's Instructional Modelp. 214
The Expository-Discovery Continuum Revisitedp. 217
The Guided Inquiry Lesson Planp. 217
Microteachingp. 222
Is Learning Taking Place?p. 223
Is Hands-On Minds-On?p. 224
Deductive versus Inductive Teaching Stylesp. 225
Who Owns the Knowledge?p. 226
A Different Kind of Bloomp. 229
Conclusionp. 232
Additional Questions for Discussionp. 232
Notesp. 233
Referencesp. 233
Learner Differencesp. 235
Positions of National Organizationsp. 237
Some Differences in the Ways Children Learnp. 237
Learning Stylesp. 238
Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Learning Modalitiesp. 239
Locus of Controlp. 242
Jungian Learning Style Preferencesp. 245
Field Dependence/Field Independencep. 250
Teachers' Learning Stylesp. 252
Multiple Intelligencesp. 253
Science Education for Children with Disabilitiesp. 257
Gender Biasp. 258
Multicultural Factorsp. 261
Attitude in Multicultural Educationp. 262
Multicultural Methodologyp. 263
Multicultural Curriculump. 265
Conclusionp. 269
Additional Questions for Discussionp. 269
Notesp. 269
Referencesp. 270
Assessmentp. 275
Authentic Assessmentp. 278
What Is Assessed in Elementary Science Education?p. 279
Assessment of Process Skillsp. 280
Assessment of Inquiryp. 286
Assessment of Attitudep. 288
Assessment of Contentp. 290
Authentic Assessment Techniquesp. 291
Interviewingp. 291
Journalsp. 293
Portfoliosp. 294
Assessment Techniques for Children with Special Needsp. 299
Report Cardsp. 300
Standardized Achievement Testsp. 303
Assessment of the Elementary Science Teacher and Programp. 304
Conclusionp. 305
Additional Questions for Discussionp. 305
Notesp. 306
Referencesp. 306
The Elementary Science Classroomp. 309
Trustp. 310
Strategies for Successful Science Activitiesp. 315
Safety in the Elementary Science Classroomp. 316
Equipment and Materialsp. 322
Animals and Plants in the Classroomp. 323
Parent Involvementp. 324
Classroom Organizationp. 325
Cooperative Teaching and Cooperative Learningp. 327
Time Managementp. 328
Classroom Managementp. 329
Conclusionp. 332
Additional Questions for Discussionp. 333
Notesp. 333
Referencesp. 333
Beyond the Science Classroomp. 335
Reading, Writing, and Interdisciplinary Aspectsp. 337
Reading, Writing, and Literaturep. 339
Integrating Children's Literature and Sciencep. 341
Introducing Lessonsp. 341
Analyzing Conclusionsp. 344
Providing Factual Informationp. 346
Providing Practical Examplesp. 347
Developing Process Skillsp. 349
Providing Vicarious Experiencesp. 351
Providing Interdisciplinary Bridgesp. 351
Selecting Children's Literaturep. 352
Science Textbooksp. 353
Constructivist Uses of Elementary Science Textbooksp. 354
Commercially Available Hands-On Materialsp. 357
Textbook Reviewp. 358
The Role of Reading and Writing in Elementary Sciencep. 361
Interdisciplinary Aspectsp. 363
Two Interdisciplinary Modelsp. 365
Science, Technology, and Societyp. 368
Personal Bias in STS Projectsp. 371
Science Beyond the Classroomp. 372
Nontraditional Science Settingsp. 373
Field Tripsp. 374
Conclusionp. 377
Additional Questions for Discussionp. 378
Notesp. 378
Referencesp. 378
Technology in Elementary Science Educationp. 381
Why Use Advanced Technology in Elementary Science Education?p. 385
Computers in the Elementary Science Classroomp. 387
A Technology Inquiry Continuump. 388
Tutoring Uses of Computersp. 389
Interactive Uses of Computersp. 390
Word Processing and Desktop Publishing Applicationsp. 390
Spreadsheet, Database, and Graphing Applicationsp. 390
Simulation Applicationsp. 396
CD-ROM Information Base Applicationsp. 397
The Internet and the World Wide Webp. 397
E-Mail and Distance Learningp. 401
Hypermedia Systemsp. 403
Experimenting Uses of Computersp. 403
Evaluating Computer Softwarep. 406
Sources of Computer Softwarep. 406
Video in the Elementary Science Classroomp. 408
Technology for Teachersp. 409
Getting Startedp. 410
Conclusionp. 411
Additional Questions for Discussionp. 412
Notesp. 412
Referencesp. 412
Concept Mapping in Elementary Sciencep. 415
Exploring Concept Mappingp. 417
Concept Mapping Techniquep. 424
Uses of Concept Maps in Elementary Science Educationp. 425
Using Concept Maps for Lesson Planningp. 426
Using Concept Maps in Instructionp. 428
Using Concept Maps for Assessmentp. 430
Uses of Concept Maps by Childrenp. 431
Conclusionp. 431
Additional Questions for Discussionp. 432
Referencesp. 432
Basic Concepts and Principles for the Elementary Science Programp. 435
Physical Science Principlesp. 437
Force and Motionp. 437
Heat Energy and States of Matterp. 444
Soundp. 446
Lightp. 449
Electricity and Magnetismp. 451
Nuclear Energyp. 454
Matter and Chemical Energyp. 455
Life Science Principlesp. 456
The Nature and Diversity of Lifep. 456
The Cellular Theory of Lifep. 457
Structure and Function of Plantsp. 460
Structure and Function of Animalsp. 461
Reproduction, Life Cycles, and Heredityp. 461
Genetics and Evolutionp. 463
Ecologyp. 463
Earth and Space Science Principlesp. 465
Structure of the Earthp. 465
Plate Tectonicsp. 465
Constructive and Destructive Forcesp. 467
The Rock Cyclep. 469
Weather and the Water Cyclep. 470
Oceanographyp. 473
Historical Geologyp. 474
The Solar Systemp. 476
The Universep. 478
Space Explorationp. 479
Referencep. 479
The Elementary Science Education Professionalp. 481
Decisions About Methodologyp. 483
Decisions About Curriculump. 484
The Elementary Science Teacher as Researcherp. 486
Professional Organizationsp. 491
Excellence in Science Teachingp. 493
Conclusionp. 494
Additional Questions for Discussionp. 495
Notesp. 495
Website Addresses for Professional Science Education Organizationsp. 495
Referencesp. 496
Back to the Futurep. 497
A Model of Teaching by Listeningp. 499
The Need for a Different Modelp. 502
A Model of Teaching by Listeningp. 503
Topic Selection Phasep. 505
Plan of Action Phasep. 506
Activity Phasep. 508
Evaluation Phasep. 509
The Next Cyclep. 510
Managementp. 510
Concluding Remarksp. 513
Notep. 515
Referencesp. 515
Selected Sources of Free or Inexpensive Materialsp. 517
Activities Cross-Referenced to Basic Scientific Concepts and Principlesp. 523
Listing of Children's Literaturep. 529
Prominent Women in Sciencep. 535
Glossaryp. 539
Indexp. 545
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