Why the Social Researcher Uses Statistics | |

The Nature of Social Research | |

Why Test Hypotheses? | |

The Stages of Social Research | |

Using Series of Numbers to Do Social Research | |

Functions of Statistics | |

Looking at the Larger Picture: A Student Survey | |

I | |

Organizing the Data | |

Frequency Distributions of Nominal Data | |

Comparing Distributions | |

Proportions and Percentages | |

Ratios and Rates | |

Simple Frequency Distributions of Ordinal and Interval Data | |

Grouped Frequency Distributions of Interval Data | |

Cumulative Distributions | |

Percentile Ranks | |

Dealing with Decimal Data | |

Flexible Class Intervals | |

Cross-Tabulations | |

Graphic Presentations | |

Measures of Central Tendency | |

The Mode | |

The Median | |

The Mean | |

Taking One Step at a Time | |

Comparing the Mode, Median, and Mean | |

Obtaining the Mode, Median, and Mean from a Simple Frequency Distribution | |

Obtaining the Mode, Median, and Mean from a Grouped Frequency Distribution | |

Step-by-Step Study Guide: Mode, Median, and Mean for Raw Scores | |

Measures of Variability | |

The Range | |

The Mean Deviation | |

The Variance and Standard Deviation | |

The Raw-Score Formula for Variance and Standard Deviation | |

The Meaning of the Standard Deviation | |

Comparing Measures of Variability | |

Obtaining the Variance and Standard Deviation from a Simple Frequency Distribution | |

Obtaining the Variance and Standard Deviation from a Grouped Frequency Distribution | |

Step-by-Step Study Guide: Variance and Standard Deviation for Raw Scores | |

Looking at the Larger Picture: Describing Data | |

From Description To Decision Making | |

Probability and the Normal Curve | |

Rules of Probability | |

Probability Distributions | |

The Normal Curve as a Probability Distribution | |

Characteristics of the Normal Curve | |

The Model and the Reality of the Normal Curve | |

The Area Under the Normal Curve | |

Standard Scores and the Normal Curve | |

Finding Probability Under the Normal Curve | |

Obtaining Percentile Ranks from the Normal Curve | |

Step-by-Step Study Guide: Probability Under the Normal Curve | |

Step-by-Step Study Guide: Percentile Ranks from the Normal Curve | |

Samples and Populations | |

Sampling Methods | |

Sampling Error | |

Sampling Distribution of Means | |

Standard Error of the Mean | |

Confidence Intervals | |

The t Distribution | |

Estimating Proportions | |

Step-by-Step Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Mean Using z | |

Step-by-Step Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Mean Using t | |

Step-by-Step Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Proportion | |

Looking at the Larger Picture: Generalizing from Samples to Populations | |

III | |

Testing Differences Between Means | |

The Null Hypothesis: No Difference Between Means | |

The Research Hypothesis: A Difference Between Means | |

Sampling Distribution of Differences Between Means | |

Testing Hypotheses with the Distribution of Differences Between Means | |

Levels of Significance | |

Standard Error of the Difference Between Means | |

Testing the Difference Between Means | |

Comparing the Same Sample Measured Twice | |

Two Sample Tests of Proportions | |

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