Why the Social Researcher Uses Statistics | |
The Nature of Social Research | |
Why Test Hypotheses? | |
The Stages of Social Research | |
Using Series of Numbers to Do Social Research | |
Functions of Statistics | |
Looking at the Larger Picture: A Student Survey | |
I | |
Organizing the Data | |
Frequency Distributions of Nominal Data | |
Comparing Distributions | |
Proportions and Percentages | |
Ratios and Rates | |
Simple Frequency Distributions of Ordinal and Interval Data | |
Grouped Frequency Distributions of Interval Data | |
Cumulative Distributions | |
Percentile Ranks | |
Dealing with Decimal Data | |
Flexible Class Intervals | |
Cross-Tabulations | |
Graphic Presentations | |
Measures of Central Tendency | |
The Mode | |
The Median | |
The Mean | |
Taking One Step at a Time | |
Comparing the Mode, Median, and Mean | |
Obtaining the Mode, Median, and Mean from a Simple Frequency Distribution | |
Obtaining the Mode, Median, and Mean from a Grouped Frequency Distribution | |
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Mode, Median, and Mean for Raw Scores | |
Measures of Variability | |
The Range | |
The Mean Deviation | |
The Variance and Standard Deviation | |
The Raw-Score Formula for Variance and Standard Deviation | |
The Meaning of the Standard Deviation | |
Comparing Measures of Variability | |
Obtaining the Variance and Standard Deviation from a Simple Frequency Distribution | |
Obtaining the Variance and Standard Deviation from a Grouped Frequency Distribution | |
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Variance and Standard Deviation for Raw Scores | |
Looking at the Larger Picture: Describing Data | |
From Description To Decision Making | |
Probability and the Normal Curve | |
Rules of Probability | |
Probability Distributions | |
The Normal Curve as a Probability Distribution | |
Characteristics of the Normal Curve | |
The Model and the Reality of the Normal Curve | |
The Area Under the Normal Curve | |
Standard Scores and the Normal Curve | |
Finding Probability Under the Normal Curve | |
Obtaining Percentile Ranks from the Normal Curve | |
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Probability Under the Normal Curve | |
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Percentile Ranks from the Normal Curve | |
Samples and Populations | |
Sampling Methods | |
Sampling Error | |
Sampling Distribution of Means | |
Standard Error of the Mean | |
Confidence Intervals | |
The t Distribution | |
Estimating Proportions | |
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Mean Using z | |
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Mean Using t | |
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Proportion | |
Looking at the Larger Picture: Generalizing from Samples to Populations | |
III | |
Testing Differences Between Means | |
The Null Hypothesis: No Difference Between Means | |
The Research Hypothesis: A Difference Between Means | |
Sampling Distribution of Differences Between Means | |
Testing Hypotheses with the Distribution of Differences Between Means | |
Levels of Significance | |
Standard Error of the Difference Between Means | |
Testing the Difference Between Means | |
Comparing the Same Sample Measured Twice | |
Two Sample Tests of Proportions | |
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