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Elements of Argument : A Text and Reader,9780312480479

Elements of Argument : A Text and Reader

by ;
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780312480479

ISBN10:
0312480474
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/1/2008
Publisher(s):
Bedford/St. Martin's
List Price: $82.40

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Summary

Elements of Argumentwas the first text based on the accessible Toulmin model the model of argument that fits best with the methods and goals of college composition. It combines a thorough argument text on critical thinking, reading, writing, and research with an extensive reader on both current and timeless controversial issues.Elements of Argumentpresents everything students need to analyze, research, and write arguments. The clearest writing and research coverage of any argument textbook has been re-invigorated to make it is even more accessible. And it now has array of provocative new topics, such as body image, terrorism and justice, and free speech all to help students stake their claim in argument.

Author Biography

Annette T. Rottenberg, formerly assistant director of the writing program at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, has taught composition and literature at Chicago City College, SUNY at Buffalo, Duke University, and schools abroad.

Donna Haisty Winchell has directed the Freshman Composition program and co-directed Digital Portfolio Institutes at Clemson University, where she is Professor of English.  She has edited several freshman writing anthologies and is a frequent presenter at professional conferences. 

Table of Contents

Part One
Understanding Argument
 
1. Understanding the Structure of Argument
The Nature of Argument
*X-Ray Tests Both Security, Privacy, THOMAS FRANK
*Airport Screeners Could See X-Rated X-Rays, JOE SHARKEY
*Freedom to Live Trumps All!, CHRIS KAPPER
Practice
Why Study Argument?
The Terms of Argument

  • The Claim

Practice

  • The Support
  • The Warrant

Practice
Writer’s Guide: Learning the Key Terms
The Audience
*SAMPLE ANALYSIS
*Will the Politics of Teen Sex Stop a Cancer Vaccine?
ADVOCATES FOR YOUTH
ASSIGNMENTS FOR UNDERSTANDING THE STRUCTURE OF ARGUMENT
*Why U.S. Health Care Costs Aren’t Too High , CHARLES R. MORRIS
 
2. Reading and Listening Critically
Responding as a Critical Reader
Writer’s Guide: General Reading Strategies
Practice
The Declaration of Independence , THOMAS JEFFERSON
Comprehending Argument
Writer’s Guide: Strategies for Comprehending Arguments
*Sex and the Cinema , EDWARD J. EPSTEIN
Practice
Evaluating Arguments
Writer’s Guide: Strategies for Evaluating Arguments
SAMPLE ANALYSIS
The Gettysburg Address , ABRAHAM LINCOLN
Lincoln’s Logic , CHARLES ADAMS
Practice
Responding as a Writer
SAMPLE ANNOTATED ESSAY
No-Win Situations , ALFIE KOHN
Writer’s Guide: Annotating a Text
Practice
*‘Freak Dancing’: If Only It Stopped There , DESDA MOSS
Responding as a Critical Listener
Writer’s Guide: Guidelines for Critical Listening
ASSIGNMENTS FOR READING AND LISTENING CRITICALLY 
 
3. Reading Visual Texts Critically
Responding to a Visual Argument
Practice
Practice
Cease Fire [advertisement]
Sample Analysis of an Advertisement
We Can Not Tell a Lie
Sample Analysis of a Web Site
The Hungersite.com [Web site]
Responding Online

  • Guidelines for Responding Online

ASSIGNMENTS FOR READING VISUAL TEXTS CRITICALLY
 
*4. Writing about Argument
*Writing the Claim
*Practice
*Let’s Have No More Monkey Trials , CHARLES KRAUTHAMMER
*Planning the Structure
SAMPLE ESSAYS WITH ANALYSIS
*Is There a Torturous Road to Justice? , ALAN M. DERSHOWITZ
*Alan Dershowitz’s Tortuous Torturous Argument , SETH FINKELSTEIN
*Using Sentence Forms to Construct an Argument
*Providing Support
*Summarizing
*Paraphrasing
*Quoting
*Writer’s Guide: Incorporating Quotations into Your Text
*Practice
*Documenting Your Sources
Writer’s Guide: Documenting Use of Summary, Paraphrase, and Quotations
*Avoiding Plagiarism
READINGS FOR ANALYSIS
*Should We Fight Terror with Torture? , ALAN DERSHOWITZ
*Parents Need Help , BARBARA DAFOE WHITEHEAD
Warfare: An Invention—Not a Biological Necessity , MARGARET MEAD
*DEBATE: HOW SERIOUS IS THE PROBLEM OF ONLINE PREDATORS?
*MySpace and Sex Offenders: What's the problem? , BOB SULLIVAN
*MySpace Is Not Responsible for Predators , KEVIN ALEXANDER
*ASSIGNMENTS FOR WRITING ABOUT ARGUMENT 
 
5. Defining Key Terms
The Purposes of Definition
Defining the Terms in Your Argument
Defining Vague and Ambiguous Terms
Practice
Methods for Defining Terms
Practice
  • Stipulation
  • Negation
  • Examples
  • Extended Definition

The Definition Essay
Writer’s Guide: Writing a Definition Essay
*SAMPLE ANALYSIS
The Definition of Terrorism , BRIAN WHITAKER
READINGS FOR ANALYSIS
Race by the Numbers , ORLANDO PATTERSON
Family a Symbol of Love and Life, but Not Politics , ERIC ZORN
Don’t Torture English to Soft-Pedal Abuse , GEOFFREY NUNBERG
DEBATE: IS THE DEFINITION OF MARRIAGE CHANGING?
Gay Marriage Shows Why We Need to Separate Church and State , HOWARD MOODY Will It Be Marriage or Civil Union? , JO ANN CITRON
ASSIGNMENTS FOR UNDERSTANDING DEFINITION
 
6. Claims
Claims of Fact
  • Sufficient and Appropriate Data
  • Reliable Authorities
  • Facts or Inferences

Writer’s Guide: Defending a Claim of Fact
SAMPLE ANNOTATED ESSAY: CLAIM OF FACT
A Reassuring Scorecard for Affirmative Action , MICHAEL M. WEINSTEIN
Practice
*Picking Sides for the News , ROBERT J. SAMUELSON
Claims of Value
Writer’s Guide: Defending a Claim of Value
SAMPLE ANNOTATED ESSAY: CLAIM OF VALUE
Kids in the Mall: Growing Up Controlled , WILLIAM SEVERINI KOWINSKI
Practice
*Crash , ROGER EBERT
Claims of Policy
Writer’s Guide: Defending a Claim of Policy
SAMPLE ANNOTATED ESSAY: CLAIM OF POLICY
College Life versus My Moral Code , ELISHA DOV HACK
READINGS FOR ANALYSIS
Supersize Your Child? , RICHARD HAYES
‘Saw’ Good at Tying Things in Knots , WESLEY MORRIS
Letter from Birmingham Jail , MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.
DEBATE: UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES DOES THE GOVERNMENT HAVE THE RIGHT TO SEIZE PERSONAL PROPERTY?
*One Year Later, Power to Seize Property Ripe for Abuse , USA TODAY
*Vital Tool of Last Resort , DONALD J. BORUT
ASSIGNMENTS FOR DEFENDING CLAIMS
 
7. Providing Support
Types of Support: Evidence and Appeals to Needs and Values
Evidence
  • Factual Evidence
  • Opinions: Interpretations of the Facts

Practice
Evaluation of Evidence
  • Evaluation of Factual Evidence
  • Evaluation of Statistics
  • Evaluation of Opinions
  • When Experts Disagree

Appeals to Needs and Values
  • Appeals to Needs
  • Appeals to Values

Evaluation of Appeals to Needs and Values
Writer’s Guide: Using Effective Support
Practice
SAMPLE ANNOTATED ESSAY
Single-Sex Education Benefits Men too , CLAUDIUS E. WATTS III
SAMPLE ANALYSIS
The True Costs of S.U.V.’s , HAL R. VARIAN
The True Confusion about SUV Costs , BETHANY ROYCE
Safer? Tastier? More Nutritious? The Dubious Merits of Organic Foods , KRISTEN WEINACKER (STUDENT)
READINGS FOR ANALYSIS
Connecting the Dots . . . to Terrorism , BERNARD GOLDBERG
A New Look, an Old Battle , ANNA QUINDLEN
Marriage Plus , THEODORA OOMS
*DEBATE: Is assuming the role of citizen journalist worth the risk?
*Praise for Student’s Footage of Virginia Tech Mass Killing , LILY YULIANTI
*Disaster Photos: Newsworthy or Irresponsible? , MARK MEMMOTT, with ALAN LEVIN and GREG LIVADAS
ASSIGNMENTS FOR PROVIDING SUPPORT
 
8. Analyzing Warrants
What Are Warrants?
Practice
An Unjust Sacrifice , ROBERT A. SIRICO
Types of Warrants
SAMPLE ANNOTATED ESSAY
The Case for Torture , MICHAEL LEVIN
Writer’s Guide: Recognizing Warrants
READINGS FOR ANALYSIS
*We’re All Celebrities in Post-Privacy Age , ERIC AUCHARD
Newman’s Own 100% Grape Juice [advertisement]
Do We Need the Census Race Question? , NATHAN GLAZER
Civil Disobedience , HENRY DAVID THOREAU
DEBATE: ARE YOU RESPONSIBLE FOR YOUR OWN WEIGHT?
Absolutely. Government Has No Business Interfering with What You Eat , RADLEY BALKO
Not If Blaming the Victim Is Just an Excuse to Let Industry Off the Hook , KELLY BROWNELL AND MARION NESTLE
ASSIGNMENTS FOR ANALYZING WARRANTS
 
9. Avoiding Flawed Logic
Induction
SAMPLE ESSAY: AN INDUCTIVE ARGUMENT
True or False: Schools Fail Immigrants , RICHARD ROTHSTEIN
Practice
Deduction
*SAMPLE ANNOTATED ESSAY: A DEDUCTIVE ARGUMENT
*It’s All about Him , DAVID VON DREHLE
Practice
A Note on the Syllogism and the Toulmin Model
Common Fallacies
Writer’s Guide: Avoiding Logical Fallacies
Practice
READINGS FOR ANALYSIS
Show Biz Encourages Looser Teen Sex Habits , SHERYL McCARTHY
Food for Thought (and for Credit) , JENNIFER GROSSMAN
A Modest Proposal , JONATHAN SWIFT
DEBATE: SHOULD THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FUND EMBRYONIC STEM-CELL RESEARCH?
Use the Body’s "Repair Kit": We Must Pursue Research on Embryonic Stem Cells , CHRISTOPHER REEVE 
The Misleading Debate on Stem-Cell Research , MONA CHAREN
ASSIGNMENTS FOR AVOIDING LOGICAL FALLACIES
 
10. Choosing Fair and Precise Language
The Power of Words
*Address to Congress, 8 December 1941 , PRESIDENT FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT
Practice
Connotation
Slanting
Selection, Slanting, and Charged Learning , NEWMAN P. BIRK AND GENEVIEVE B. BIRK
Practice
Picturesque Language
Concrete and Abstract Language
Short Cuts
  • Cliches
  • Slogans

*SAMPLE ANNOTATED ESSAY
*Address to the Nation, September 11, 2006, GEORGE W. BUSH
Writer’s Guide: Choosing Your Words Carefully
READINGS FOR ANALYSIS
Americans Entitled to Cheap Gas—Right?,  JOAN RYAN
$hotgun Weddings , KATHA POLLITT
Politics and the English Language , GEORGE ORWELL
DEBATE: Does the Government Have the Right to Regulate Guns?
The Right to Bear Arms , WARREN E. BURGER
A God-Given Natural Right , ROGER B. McGRATH
ASSIGNMENTS FOR CHOOSING FAIR AND PRECISE LANGUAGE
 
 
Part Two
Researching, Writing, and Presenting Arguments
 
11. Planning and Researching an Argumentative Paper
Finding an Appropriate Topic
  • Invention Strategies
  • Evaluating Possible Topics
  • Writer’s Guide: Why Use Sources?

Initiating Research

Writer’s Guide: Keeping Your Research on Track

Mapping Research: A Sample Outline

Using Sources: Primary Research

Using Sources: Secondary Research

  • Selecting and Searching Databases
  • Types of Databases
  • Encyclopedias
  • Statistical Resources
  • Government Publications
  • Searching the Web

Evaluating Sources
  • Evaluating Print Sources
  • Evaluating Web Sources
  • Evaluating a Web Site: One Example

Taking Notes
Documenting Your Research: MLA System
Documenting Your Research: APA Sources
 
12. Writing an Argumentative Paper
Defining the Issues
Case Study: School Uniforms
Organizing Material
  • Defending the Main Idea
  • Refuting an Opposing View
  • Finding the Middle Ground
  • Presenting the Stock Issues
  • Ordering Material for Emphasis
  • Considering Scope and Audience
  • To This Point

Writing
  • Beginning the Paper
  • Guidelines for Good Writing

The MLA System for Citing Sources
Revising
Preparing the Manuscript
Writer’s Guide: Checklist for Argumentative Papers
Sample Research Paper (MLA Style)
*Thalidomide: Changing a Drug’s Reputation , SUZANNE SIMKOVICH
The APA System for Citing Sources
Sample Research Paper (APA Style)
*The Controversy over Women in Combat , ALLISON MATHEWS
 
13. Presenting an Argument Orally
The Audience
Credibility
Organization
Language
Support
Presentation Aids
  • Charts, Graphs, Handouts
  • Audio
  • Video
  • Multimedia

SAMPLE PERSUASIVE SPEECH
Live Longer and Healthier: Stop Eating Meat! , C. RENZI STONE
 
 
Part Three
Multiple Viewpoints
 
14. How Far Will We Go to Change Our Body Image?
*From Body Image and Adolescents , JILLIAN CROLL
*When Is Thin Too Thin? , ERIC WILSON
All to Be Tall , JOE KITA
Smooth Operations , ALLISON SAMUELS
How Men Really Feel about Their Bodies , TED SPIKER
Not too Rich or Too Thin , LISA TAKEUCHI CULLEN
"Now that we’re old . . ." [cartoon]
The Tyranny of the Normal , LESLIE FIEDLER
THINKING AND WRITING ABOUT BODY IMAGE
 
*15. Is Academic Integrity on Our College Campuses under Assault?
*Expect, but Respect, Original Work by Students , BILL WALSH
*Battling Term-Paper Cheats , JULIE RAWE
*It Takes a Village: Academic Dishonesty and Educational Opportunity , DONALD L. MCCABE
*Bulletproof Assessment, War Stories, and Tactics: Avoiding Cybercheating , SUSAN STONEY AND MARK MCMAHON
*Universities Strike Back in Battle over Illegal Downloads , AMY BRITTAIN
*RateMyProfessors: Hidden Camera Edition , SCOTT JASCHIK
*Playboy Launches Social-Networking Site
 
16. Have We Become Too Reliant on Standardized Testing?
Why Can’t We Let Boys Be Boys? , MARCIA VICKERS
*Standardized Testing and Its Victims , ALFIE KOHN
Standardized Students: The Problems with Writing for Tests Instead of People , BRONWYN T. WILLIAMS
Testing Has Raised Students’ Expectations, and Progress in Learning Is Evident Nationwide , ROD PAIGE
NCLB’s Excessive Reliance on Testing Is Unrealistic, Arbitrary, and Frequently Unfair , REG WEAVER
*Are We Fixing the Wrong Things? , YONG ZHAO
The SAT’s Greatest Test: Social, Legal, and Demographic Forces Threaten to Dethrone the Most Widely Used College-Entrance Exam , BEN GOSE AND JEFFREY SELINGO
Are SAT Scores "Worse Than Meaningless"?
THINKING AND WRITING ABOUT RELIANCE ON STANDARDIZED TESTING
 
17. What Is the Role of Sex and Violence in Popular Culture?
*Does Watching Sex on Television Influence Teens’ Sexual Activity? , REBECCA L. COLLINS ET AL.
Filling Their Minds with Death: TV Violence and Children , RON KAUFMAN
*Television More Oversexed Than Ever, Study Finds , LISA DE MORAES
Cultural Studies and "Forensic Noir" , THOMAS DOHERTY
"Back Away. Slowly" [cartoon]
Hollow Claims about Fantasy Violence , RICHARD RHODES
A Desensitized Society Drenched in Sleaze , JEFF JACOBY
"Dad . . . Is it the entertainment industry’s fault that I’m exposed to this? [cartoon]
Gore for Sale , EVAN GAHR
THINKING AND WRITING ABOUT SEX AND VIOLENCE IN POPULAR CULTURE
 
18. Are Limits on Freedom of Speech Ever Justified?
First Amendment [cartoon]
Student Sues School District for Banning Anti-War T-Shirt , ALANA KEYNES
*The "Bong Hits 4 Jesus" Student Speech Case: With Kenneth Starr Seeking High Court Review of the Ninth Circuit Decision, Is Someone Blowing Smoke? , JULIE HILDEN
*The Case Against School Prayer , ANNIE LAURIE GAYLOR
Why We Need to Abolish the FCC , ROBERT GARMONG
Freedom of Speech and My Right to Silence at Bath Time , PATTI WALDMEIR
Too Much Coffee Man [cartoon]
Dare Call It Treason , ERIC FONER
*The Imus Fallout: Who Can Say What? , JAMES PONIEWOZIK
A Case the Scouts Had to Win , STEFFEN N. JOHNSON
THINKING AND WRITING ABOUT THE LIMITS ON FREEDOM OF SPEECH 
 
*19. Why and How Should Immigration Be Controlled?
*The Hard Truth of Immigration , ROBERT J. SAMUELSON
*A Legacy of the Unforeseen , CAROLYN LOCHHEAD
*Don’t Bad-Mouth Unskilled Immigrants , TYLER COWEN AND DANIEL M. ROTHSCHILD
*Living with Illegals , MICHAEL BARONE
*The Invasion , PATRICK J. BUCHANAN
*Alien Nation , MICHAEL MAIELLO AND NICOLE RIDGWAY
*Waiting in Limbo, Their Childhood Lost , DANIELLE KNIGHT
*Lining Up for Citizenship , ARIAN COMPO-FLORES with RICHARD WOLFFE
*Rousing the Zealots , JEFFREY RESSNER
*THINKING AND WRITING ABOUT IMMIGRATION
 
*20. In the World of Medicine, Who Decides What Is Ethical?
*Need an Organ? It Helps to Be Rich , JOY VICTORY
*Ethics of Organ Donation , LAWRENCE A. HOWARDS
*Cancer and the Constitution—Choice at Life’s End , GEORGE J. ANNAS
*Pillow Angel Ethics , NANCY GIBBS
*"Adoption" of Frozen Embryos a Loaded Term , JEFFREY P. KAHN
*Doctors’ Beliefs Hinder Patient Care , SABRINA RUBIN ERDELY
*Does Stem Cell Advance Provide an Ethical Out? , ARTHUR CAPLAN
 
21. How Has Terrorism Affected the American Idea of Justice?
The USA PATRIOT Act: Preserving Life and Liberty , WWW.LIFEANDLIBERTY.GOV
Surveillance under the USA PATRIOT Act , AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION
From The PATRIOT Act [H. R. 3162, Sections 213 and 215] The Patriot Act and You , JENNIFER HAHN AND WASIM SALFITT
Name Withheld: Harsh Justice for a September 11 Detainee , ELIZABETH AMON
From The Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War . THE DIPLOMATIC CONFERENCE FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS FOR THE PROTECTION OF VICTIMS OF WAR
*From Prepared Remarks of Attorney General Alberto R. Gonzales at the JAG Corps Leadership Summit , ALBERTO R. GONZALES
*Panel Hears about Falsehoods in Two Wartime Incidents , MICHAEL LUO
What Abu Ghraib Taught Me , BARBARA EHRENREICH
THINKING AND WRITING ABOUT THE EFFECT OF TERRORISM ON THE AMERICAN WAY OF LIFE
 
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
INDEX OF SUBJECTS
INDEX OF AUTHORS AND TITLES

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