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Emotion

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780534612184

ISBN10:
0534612180
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
3/2/2006
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $150.33
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Summary

Have you ever wondered about the basis of human emotion? EMOTION presents the most recent research in the area and provides you with in-depth coverage of how topics such as neuroscience, culture, and development relate to the study of emotion. With a student-friendly writing style, this psychology text reflects new thinking about the area of emotion and encourages you to think critically about this topic.

Table of Contents

PART ONE General Principles and Issues
1(98)
The Nature of Emotion
2(27)
What Is Emotion?
3(3)
Can We Recognize an Emotion When We See One?
5(1)
Distinction Between Emotions and Motivations
5(1)
Measuring Emotion
6(8)
Self-Reports
7(2)
Physiological Measurements
9(4)
Behavioral Observations
13(1)
Theories of Emotion
14(5)
The James-Lange Theory
14(1)
The Cannon-Bard Theory
15(1)
The Schachter-Singer Theory
16(3)
Relationships Among Cognition, Feeling, and Action
19(8)
The Speed of Emotional Appraisals
19(1)
Are Body Sensations Necessary for Emotional Feeling?
20(3)
Are Body Sensations Sufficient for Emotional Feeling?
23(3)
Overall Evaluation
26(1)
Summary
27(1)
Key Terms
27(1)
Thought Questions
27(1)
Suggestions for Research Projects
28(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
28(1)
Classification of Emotions
29(20)
Criteria for ``Basic Emotions''
31(2)
Facial Expressions of Emotion
33(10)
Darwin's Theory of Emotional Expression
33(3)
Cultural Differences in Gestures and Expressions
36(1)
Interpreting Facial Expressions
37(4)
Physiological Studies
41(2)
Alternatives to the ``Basic Emotions'' Approach
43(4)
Dimensional Approaches to Emotional Feelings
43(3)
Emotions as Compounds of Underlying Processes
46(1)
Summary
47(1)
Key Terms
48(1)
Thought Questions
48(1)
Suggestions for Research Projects
48(1)
Suggestion for Further Reading
48(1)
Culture and Emotion
49(26)
What Is Culture?
50(1)
A Definition and Its Implications
50(1)
Cultural Differences in Concepts of Emotion
51(2)
Do All Cultures Have the Same ``Basic'' Emotions?
53(3)
The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
55(1)
Hyper- Versus Hypocognized Emotions
56(1)
Culture and Emotional Appraisals
56(4)
Cultural Differences in Displaying Emotions
60(3)
Cultural Differences in Interpreting Facial Displays
63(1)
Summarizing Cultural Differences in Emotion
64(4)
Individualism Versus Collectivism
64(2)
Vertical Versus Horizontal Societies
66(2)
Methodological Issues in Studying Culture
68(1)
Integrating Evolutionary and Cultural Approaches
69(3)
Ekman (1972): Neuro-Cultural Theory of Emotion
69(2)
Keltner and Haidt (1999): Levels of Analysis
71(1)
Russell (1991): Emotion Episodes as Scripts
71(1)
Summary
72(1)
Key Terms
73(1)
Thought Questions
73(1)
Suggestions for Research Projects
73(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
74(1)
Development of Emotion
75(24)
Development of Emotional Experience
76(8)
Crying
76(1)
Smiling
77(1)
Responses to Danger
78(1)
Do Infants Experience Discrete Emotions?
79(2)
Research on Infant Emotions
81(1)
How Do Emotions Develop?
82(2)
Development of Emotional Communication: Perceiving, Sharing, and Talking About Emotions
84(4)
Intersubjectivity
85(1)
Interpreting Facial Expressions of Emotion
86(1)
Emotion Language
87(1)
Development of Emotional Bonds: Attachment
88(1)
Socialization of Emotional Expression
89(3)
Emotion in Adolescence
92(1)
Emotional Development in Adulthood
93(4)
Individual Consistency Across the Lifespan
93(1)
Age Trends in Emotional Intensity
93(3)
Emotional Salience
96(1)
Emotional Regulation
96(1)
Summary
97(1)
Key Terms
97(1)
Thought Questions
98(1)
Suggestions for Research Projects
98(1)
Suggestion for Further Reading
98(1)
PART TWO Individual Emotions
99(142)
Fear and Anxiety
100(24)
What Elicits Fear?
101(1)
Behaviors Associated With Fear
102(3)
The Behavioral Inhibition System
102(1)
Effects on Attention and Information Processing
103(2)
Measuring Fear and Anxiety
105(4)
Facial Expression of Fear
105(1)
Facilitation of the Startle Reflex
106(2)
Other Behavioral Measures of Anxiety
108(1)
The Biology of Fear and Anxiety
109(8)
The Autonomic Nervous System and ``Fight or Flight'' Response
109(1)
Application: Anxiety and Lie Detection
110(2)
The Amygdala and Fear in Laboratory Animals
112(1)
The Amygdala and People's Responses to Faces
113(2)
Effects of Damage to the Human Amygdala
115(2)
Neurochemistry: Tranquilizers and Their Mechanisms
117(1)
What We Learn From Anxiety Disorders
117(4)
Types of Anxiety Disorders
117(2)
Causes of Anxiety Disorders
119(2)
Summary
121(1)
Key Terms
122(1)
Thought Questions
123(1)
Suggestions for Research Projects
123(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
123(1)
Anger
124(24)
What Elicits Anger?
125(5)
Prototypical Elicitors of Anger
125(2)
The Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis
127(1)
The Cognitive-Neoassociationistic Model: Anger Without Attribution?
128(1)
Putting It All Together: What Causes Anger?
129(1)
Measuring Anger and Aggression
130(4)
Self-Report Measures of Anger
130(1)
Facial Expression of Anger
131(1)
Aggressive Behaviors
132(1)
Implicit Measures of Anger and Aggression
133(1)
The Biology of Anger and Aggression
134(3)
The Neurology of Anger and Aggression
134(1)
Neurochemistry: Serotonin and Testosterone
135(1)
Anger and the Autonomic Nervous System
136(1)
Individual and Situational Differences
137(5)
Who Becomes Aggressive?
137(1)
Genetics
138(1)
Sex Differences
138(1)
Evolutionary Explanations
139(1)
Family Environment
140(1)
Effects of Watching Media Violence
141(1)
Application: Violence Prevention
142(2)
Reconciliation
142(1)
Childhood Aggressive Behavior
143(1)
Controlling Anger in Adulthood
143(1)
What We Learn From Conduct Disorder and Antisocial Personality Disorder
144(1)
Summary
145(1)
Key Terms
146(1)
Thought Questions
146(1)
Suggestion for Research Project
147(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
147(1)
Sadness
148(16)
Sadness, Depression, and the Events Behind Them
148(1)
What Causes Sadness and Depression?
149(1)
The Functions of Sadness
150(2)
Measuring Sadness: Feelings, Behaviors, and Physiology
152(7)
Self-Report Measures
152(1)
Behavioral Measures
153(3)
The Biology of Sadness
156(3)
Sad and Depressed Thinking
159(1)
Predispositions
160(1)
Limiting Sadness and Preventing Depression
161(1)
Summary
162(1)
Key Terms
162(1)
Thought Questions
163(1)
Suggestion for Research Project
163(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
163(1)
The Positive Emotions: Happiness, Joy, Hope, and Amusement
164(23)
Happiness and Joy
165(1)
Measuring Happiness or Life Satisfaction
166(4)
Behavioral Observations
166(2)
Physiological Measurements
168(1)
Self-Reports
169(1)
What Makes People Happy?
170(7)
Self-Reported Causes of Happiness
170(1)
Happiness as Disposition or Reaction to Events?
171(1)
Wealth and Happiness
171(2)
Personality, Happiness, and Predispositions
173(1)
Other Variables That Predict (or Don't Predict) Happiness
174(2)
Exceptions: Some Events Do Matter, After All
176(1)
Positive Emotion as a Contrast Effect
177(2)
Enthusiasm: The Anticipation of Reward
179(1)
Hope and Optimism
180(1)
Laughter and Amusement
181(4)
What Makes People Laugh?
182(2)
Gender Differences in Humor and Laughter
184(1)
Functions of Laughter
184(1)
Summary
185(1)
Key Terms
185(1)
Thought Questions
185(1)
Suggestions for Research Projects
186(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
186(1)
Love
187(25)
Is Love an Emotion?
187(3)
The Prototype Approach to Love
188(2)
Bowlby and the ``Affectional Bonds''
190(6)
Love as Attachment to Parents and Other Caregivers
190(2)
Compassionate Love and the Caregiving System
192(2)
Sexual Desire
194(2)
Bowlby, Revisited: Three Kinds of Love?
196(1)
Oxytocin: The Love Transmitter?
196(2)
Empathy
198(2)
Romantic Love and Marriage
200(9)
Predicting Romantic Attraction
201(1)
Attachment in Adult Romantic Relationships
202(4)
Marital Stability and Satisfaction
206(3)
Attachment and Friendship
209(1)
Summary
210(1)
Key Terms
210(1)
Thought Questions
211(1)
Suggestion for Research Project
211(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
211(1)
Disgust and Contempt
212(14)
What Are Disgust and Contempt?
212(2)
Measuring Disgust and Contempt
214(2)
Facial Expressions
214(1)
Self-Reports of Disgust
215(1)
Implicit Measures of Disgust
216(1)
Physiology of Disgust
216(2)
The Neurobiology of Disgust
217(1)
Is Disgust an Emotion?
218(1)
Cognitive Aspects of Disgust
219(4)
Core Versus Moral Disgust
221(1)
Disgust and ``Magical'' or Superstitious Thinking
221(2)
Disgust: Development and Individual Differences
223(1)
Relations Among Disgust, Fears, and Phobias
223(1)
``Unlearning'' Disgust
224(1)
Summary
224(1)
Key Terms
225(1)
Thought Questions
225(1)
Suggestions for Research Projects
225(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
225(1)
The Self-Conscious Emotions: Embarrassment, Shame, Guilt, and Pride
226(15)
Differentiating Among Embarrassment, Shame, and Guilt
226(2)
Embarrassment
228(6)
Experiences That Evoke Embarrassment
229(2)
Facial Expression of Embarrassment
231(1)
Individual Differences in Embarrassment
232(2)
Shame and Guilt
234(2)
Pride
236(2)
Expressions of Pride
236(1)
Cultural Differences in Pride
237(1)
Summary
238(1)
Key Terms
239(1)
Thought Questions
239(1)
Suggestion for Research Project
239(1)
Suggestion for Further Reading
239(2)
PART THREE Emotion in Relation to the Rest of Psychology
241(72)
Emotion and Information Processing
242(18)
Emotions and Attention
242(2)
Emotions and Memory
244(5)
Emotion and Memory Formation
245(2)
Emotion and Memory Storage
247(2)
Memory Retrieval
249(1)
Emotions, Attributions, and Expectations
249(2)
Happiness, Sadness, and Reasoning
251(7)
``Depressive Realism''
252(1)
Dysthymia and Self-Confidence
253(1)
Dysthymia and Self-Perception
253(1)
Happiness, Sadness, and Reasoning
254(3)
Are Optimistic Illusions Good or Bad?
257(1)
Summary
258(1)
Key Terms
258(1)
Thought Questions
258(1)
Suggestions for Research Projects
259(1)
Suggestion for Further Reading
259(1)
Emotional Decisions and Emotional Intelligence
260(21)
Emotion and Logical Reasoning
261(2)
Choices Based on Values
263(5)
The Role of Emotions in Judgment: Evidence From Brain-Damaged Patients
264(3)
The Down Side of Relying on Emotions
267(1)
Emotions and Moral Reasoning
268(3)
Making Quick Decisions
268(1)
The Framing Effect
269(1)
Judgments of Right and Wrong
270(1)
Emotional Intelligence
271(1)
Measurements of Emotional Intelligence
272(7)
Self-Report Measures
273(1)
Ability Measures
274(3)
Reliability and Validity of Emotional Intelligence Tests
277(1)
Is Emotional Intelligence Teachable?
278(1)
Summary
279(1)
Key Terms
279(1)
Thought Questions
280(1)
Suggestion for Research Project
280(1)
Suggestion for Further Reading
280(1)
Stress and Its Health Consequences
281(18)
Stress and Emotion: Definition and Measurement
282(6)
Selye's Concept of Stress
282(2)
The Social Readjustment Rating Scale
284(2)
The Revised Social Readjustment Rating Scale
286(2)
How Stress Can Affect Health
288(7)
Indirect Effects of Stress on Health
289(1)
Direct Effects of Stress on Health
290(1)
Short-Term Allostasis (Selye's Alarm and Resistance Stages)
290(2)
An Overview of the Immune System
292(1)
Prolonged Allostasis (Selye's Exhaustion Stage) and the Immune System
293(2)
The Role of Stress in Specific Illnesses
295(1)
Heart Disease
295(1)
Cancer
296(1)
Summary
296(1)
Key Terms
297(1)
Thought Questions
298(1)
Suggestions for Research Projects
298(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
298(1)
Emotion Regulation: Coping With Stress
299(14)
Freud's Ego Defense Mechanisms: An Early Taxonomy of Coping Strategies
299(2)
A Process Model of Emotion Regulation
301(1)
Problem-Focused Strategies
302(2)
Appraisal-Focused Strategies
304(1)
Positive Reappraisal in Emotion Regulation
305(1)
The Neurobiology of Reappraisal
306(1)
Emotion-Focused Strategies
306(3)
Expressing Your Feelings
306(2)
Exercise
308(1)
Relaxation
308(1)
Suppressing Emotional Expression
309(1)
Emotional Escape Strategies: Drugs, Alcohol, and Food
309(1)
Which Emotion Regulation Strategies Are Best?
309(2)
Summary
311(1)
Key Terms
311(1)
Thought Questions
312(1)
Suggestion for Research Project
312(1)
Suggestion for Further Reading
312(1)
Epilogue
313(5)
What Is Emotion?
313(1)
What Causes Emotions?
314(1)
How Many Emotions Are There?
315(1)
How Do We Measure Emotion?
315(1)
Connections to Other Topics in Psychology
316(2)
References 318(47)
Photo Credits 365(2)
Name Index 367(16)
Subject Index 383


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