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Extensively revised and expanded in this second edition, Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, What Really Works examines morality from an environmental perspective. Featuring seventy-one accessible selections - from classic articles to examples of cutting-edge original research - itaddresses both theory and practice. Asking what really matters, the first section of the book explores the abstract ideas of human value and value in nature. The second section turns to the question of what it would take to solve our real-world environmental problems. Moving beyond the "hype," it presents authoritative essays onapplying environmental ethics to the issues that matter right now. The book is enhanced by chapter introductions ("Questions for Reflection and Discussion") that offer brief summaries and questions for further analysis and class discussion.
David Schmidtz is Kendrick Professor of Philosophy and joint Professor of Economics at the University of Arizona. He is the author of Person, Polis, Planet (2008), Elements of Justice (2006), and Rational Choice and Moral Agency (1995), and coauthor of A Brief History of Liberty (2010).
Elizabeth Willott is a Principal Research Specialist in the School of Geography and Development at the University of Arizona, where she is a primary investigator on a National Science Foundation grant researching mosquito ecology in Tucson. She is also Curator of Butterfly Magic at Tucson Botanical Gardens, where she oversees the running of the butterfly display and education relative to it.
Table of Contents
*=New to this Edition Preface Rules, Principles, and Integrity: A General Introduction PART I. WHAT REALLY MATTERS? ESSAYS ON VALUE IN NATURE Chapter 1. Where We Are and How We Got Here: The Roots of Crisis Questions for Reflection and Discussion: Guilt Lynn White, Jr., The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis J. Baird Callicott, Environmental Philosophy Is Environmental Activism: The Most Radical and Effective Kind * Shepard Krech, III, Pleistocene Extinctions Howard F. Lyman with Glen Merzer, Mad Cowboy: The Cattle Rancher Who Won't Eat Meat * Michael Pollan, The (Agri)Cultural Contradictions of Obesity * Bill McKibben, Deep Economy: The Wealth of Communities and the Durable Future Chapter 2. Respect for Nature Introduction: The Last Man and the Search for Objective Value Respect for Animals Questions for Reflection and Discussion Peter Singer, All Animals Are Equal Mark Sagoff, Animal Liberation and Environmental Ethics: Bad Marriage, Quick Divorce Holmes Rolston, III, Values in and Duties to the Natural World Ian John Whyte, The Elephant Management Dilemma Respect for Life Questions for Reflection and Discussion Christopher D. Stone, Should Trees Have Standing? Toward Legal Rights for Natural Objects Gary Varner, Biocentric Individualism Equal Respect Jennifer Zamzow, guest editor Questions for Reflection and Discussion Paul W. Taylor, The Ethics of Respect for Nature David Schmidtz, Are All Species Equal? Chapter 3. Holistic Ethics Michael Bukoski, guest editor Questions for Reflection and Discussion: The Land Aldo Leopold, The Land Ethic * Arne Naess, The Shallow and the Deep, Long-Range Ecology Movement: A Summary Elliott Sober, Philosophical Problems for Environmentalism Ramachandra Guha, Radical American Environmentalism and Wilderness Preservation: A Third World Critique Chapter 4. Ecofeminism Daniel Silvermint, guest editor Questions for Reflection and Discussion: Three Models of Oppression Kristen Hessler and Elizabeth Willott, Feminism and Ecofeminism Karen J. Warren, The Power and the Promise of Ecological Feminism * Greta Gaard and Lori Gruen, Ecofeminism: Toward Global Justice and Planetary Health Gita Sen, Women, Poverty, and Population: Issues for the Concerned Environmentalist V. Rukmini Rao, Women Farmers of India's Deccan Plateau: Ecofeminists Challenge World Elites Chapter 5. Environmental Justice John Thrasher, guest editor Questions for Reflection and Discussion: Justice to Win * Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Environmental Justice: Creating Equality, Reclaiming Democracy * Vandana Shiva, Water Wars: Privatization, Pollution, and Profit David Schmidtz, Natural Enemies: An Anatomy of Environmental Conflict Chapter 6. How Wild Does Nature Have to Be? Questions for Reflection and Discussion: An Allegory * John Muir, Hetch Hetchy Valley Martin H. Krieger, What's Wrong with Plastic Trees? * Elizabeth Willott, Restoring Nature, Without Mosquitoes? * David Pitcher and Jennifer Welchman, Can an Environmental Paradise be Regained? The Hetch Hetchy Valley Question Chapter 7. Finding Our Place in Nature Dominating Nature Questions for Reflection and Discussion * Val Plumwood, Being Prey Freya Mathews, Letting the World Grow Old: An Ethos of Countermodernity * Michelle Nijhuis, Bonfire of the Superweeds Learning to Belong Questions for Reflection and Discussion * Ronald Sandler, Environmental Virtue Ethics Thomas E. Hill Jr., Ideals of Human Excellence and Preserving Natural Environments The Simple Life Questions for Reflection and Discussion Mark Sagoff, Do We Consume Too Much? * Joshua Colt Gambrel and Philip Cafaro, The Virtue of Simplicity * Paul Schwennesen, On the Ethics of Ranching PART II. WHAT REALLY WORKS? ESSAYS ON HUMAN ECOLOGY Chapter 8. Weighing Our Options Questions for Reflection and Discussion: Optimal Pollution Steven Kelman, Cost-Benefit Analysis: An Ethical Critique Andrew Brennan, Moral Pluralism and the Environment * Martha C. Nussbaum, The Costs of Tragedy: Some Moral Limits of Cost-Benefit Analysis David Schmidtz, A Place for Cost-Benefit Analysis Chapter 9. The Logic of Scarcity Questions for Reflection and Discussion Garrett Hardin, The Tragedy of the Commons David Schmidtz, The Institution of Property * Carol M. Rose, Liberty, Property, Environmentalism * Dan C. Shahar, Free-Market Environmentalism Pace Environmentalism? Chapter 10. What It Takes to Preserve Wilderness Questions for Reflection and Discussion: South Africa David Schmidtz, When Preservationism Doesn't Preserve * David Schmidtz and Elizabeth Willott, Reinventing the Commons: An African Case Study * Lynn Scarlett, Choices, Consequences, and Cooperative Conservation: A New Environmentalism? Chapter 11. Overpopulation and What to Do About It Questions for Reflection and Discussion: The Population Bomb Peter Singer, Famine, Affluence, and Morality Garrett Hardin, Living on a Lifeboat Holmes Rolston, III, Feeding People Versus Saving Nature Henry Shue, Global Environment and International Inequality Elizabeth Willott, Recent Population Trends Chapter 12. Climate Change and What to Do About It Dan C. Shahar, guest editor Questions for Reflection and Discussion: Handing Down a Warmer World * Dale Jamieson, Ethics, Public Policy, and Global Warming * Stephen M. Gardiner, A Perfect Moral Storm: Climate Change, Intergenerational Ethics, and the Problem of Corruption * Andrew Light, Climate Ethics for Climate Action * John Christy, Testimony, U.S. House Ways and Means Committee Chapter 13. Cities and What to Do About Them Questions for Reflection and Discussion: Taking Scarcity Seriously Jessica Woolliams, Designing Cities and Buildings as if They Were Ethical Choices Lynn Scarlett, Making Waste Management Pay Robert Glennon, Unquenchable: America's Water Crisis and What to Do About It * Garland D. Cox, Energy * Tom Fournier, Air Pollution Abatement Strategies Chapter 14. Technology and What to Do About It Scott Boocher, guest editor Questions for Reflection and Discussion: Innovation and Risk Management * Gary Comstock, Ethics and Genetically Modified Foods * Paul B. Thompson and William Hannah, Novel and Normal Risk: Where Does Nanotechnology Fit In? * Joshua Colt Gambrel, Virtue Theory and Genetically Modified Crops Chapter 15. Environmentalism in Practice Questions for Reflection and Discussion: The Ethics of Confrontation Bryan G. Norton, The Environmentalists' Dilemma: Dollars and Sand Dollars Bryan G. Norton, Fragile Freedoms Paul Watson, Tora! Tora! Tora! Kate Rawles, The Missing Shade of Green Andrew Light, Taking Environmental Ethics Public