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Environmental Law,9780130141217
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Environmental Law

by ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780130141217

ISBN10:
0130141216
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

Geared to undergraduate or graduate courses in Environmental Law. Also works well as a supplemental text in an Environmental Policy course. This fundamental introduction to environmental law explains the legal system and process in general, discusses specific environmental laws, and presents the scientific background necessary for understanding each law. The text is designed to introduce those without any legal or special scientific training to the system through which the nation attempts to preserve and protect the different aspects of our environment.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
PART I AN INTRODUCTION TO THE LAW 1(112)
The American Legal System: The Source of Environmental Law
2(43)
Source of Law
2(10)
The Legislature as a Source of Statutory Law
2(6)
The Judicial Branch as a Source of Case Law
8(2)
The Executive Branch as a Source of Law
10(1)
Administrative Agencies as a Source of Law
11(1)
Classifications of Law
12(13)
Case and Statutory Law
12(1)
Public and Private Law
12(1)
Criminal Law and Civil Law
12(13)
Constitutional Principles Underlying the American Legal System
25(14)
Federalism
26(1)
Federal Preemption
26(1)
The Commerce Clause
27(3)
The Fourth Amendment
30(1)
The Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments
31(5)
A Constitutional Right to Environmental Protection?
36(3)
Concluding Remarks
39(1)
Question for Review and Discussion
40(1)
For Further Reading
40(1)
On the Internet
41(1)
Notes
41(2)
Thinking Critically About Issues Related to Environmental Law
43(2)
The Litigation Process and Other Tools for Resolving Environmental Disputes
45(36)
The Adversary System
45(2)
An Introduction to the Adversary System
45(1)
Criticisms of the Adversary System
46(1)
The U.S. Dual Court System
47(6)
The Federal Court System
47(1)
The State Court System
47(3)
Choice of Courts
50(3)
Primary Actors in the Legal System
53(3)
The Attorney
53(1)
The Judge
54(1)
The Jury
55(1)
Stpes in Civil Litigation
56(15)
The Threshold Issues
57(5)
Pretrial
62(4)
The Trial
66(3)
Appellate Procedure
69(2)
Alternatives to Civil Litigation
71(5)
Arbitration
72(2)
Mediation
74(2)
Concluding Remarks
76(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
76(1)
For Further Reading
77(1)
On the Internet
77(1)
Notes
78(1)
Thinking Critically About Issues Related to Environmental Law
78(3)
Administrative Law and Its Impact on the Environment
81(32)
Creation of Administrative Agencies
82(1)
Functions of Administrative Agencies
82(10)
Rule Making
83(5)
Adjudication
88(4)
Administrative Activities
92(1)
Limitations on Agency Powers
92(5)
Statutory Limitations
92(2)
Institutional Limitations
94(3)
Important Agencies Affecting the Environment
97(11)
Executive versus Independent Agencies
97(1)
The Environmental Protection Agency
98(7)
Interagency Cooperation
105(1)
The Department of the Interior and Its Agencies
105(2)
The Department of Agriculture and Its Agencies
107(1)
The Department of Labor and Its Agencies
108(1)
Concluding Remarks
108(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
108(1)
For Further Reading
109(1)
On the Internet
109(1)
Notes
110(1)
Thinking Critically About Issues Related to Environmental Law
110(3)
PART II THE ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS 113(237)
An Introduction to Environmental Law and Policy
114(34)
The Need for Regulation
114(3)
Tragedy of the Commons
115(1)
Free Rider Problem
115(1)
Pollution as an Externality
116(1)
Environmental Ethic
116(1)
Alternative Ways to Control Pollution
117(5)
Tort Law
117(2)
Subsidies, Emissions Charges, and Marketable Emissions Permits
119(2)
Green Taxes
121(1)
Direct Regulation
121(1)
Evolution of Our Environmental Policy
122(8)
The Origins of Our Environmental Policy
122(1)
The 1970s: The Environmental Decade
123(1)
The 1980s
123(1)
The Early 1990s
124(4)
The Middle to Late 1990s
128(2)
National Environmental Policy Act
130(11)
Council on Environmental Quality
130(2)
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
132(7)
Alternatives to the EIS
139(1)
Effectiveness of NEPA
139(2)
Pollution Prevention Act of 1990
141(2)
Concluding Remarks
143(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
144(1)
For Further Reading
144(1)
On the Internet
145(1)
Notes
145(1)
Thinking Critically About Issues Related to Environmental Law
146(2)
Air Quality Control
148(35)
The Major Air Pollutants
148(6)
Sulfur Dioxide
149(1)
Nitrogen Oxides
150(1)
Carbon Monoxide
151(1)
Ozone
151(2)
Particulates
153(1)
Lead
153(1)
Airborne Toxins
154(1)
Some Significant Air Quality Problems
154(5)
Acid Deposition
154(2)
Depletion of the Ozone Layer
156(1)
The Greenhouse Effect
157(2)
Indoor Pollution
159(1)
The Initial Approach to Air Quality Control
159(4)
The Current Approach to Air Quality Control
163(11)
National Ambient Air Quality Standards
164(4)
No Significant Deterioration (NSD)
168(1)
New Source Performance Standards
168(2)
Mobile Source Performance Standards
170(2)
1990 Air Toxics Program
172(2)
The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments
174(3)
Acid Rain Control Program
174(2)
Enforcement of the 1990 Act
176(1)
Solutions Beyond the Clean Air Act
177(1)
Concluding Remarks
177(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
178(1)
For Further Reading
178(1)
On the Internet
179(1)
Notes
179(2)
Thinking Critically About Issues Related to Environmental Law
181(2)
Water Quality Control
183(27)
The Major Water Pollutants
184(5)
Pathogens
184(1)
Conventional Organics
185(1)
Toxic Trace Organics
186(1)
Nutrients
187(1)
Heavy Metals
187(1)
Ionizing Radiation
188(1)
Other Measures
188(1)
Some Significant Water Quality Problems
189(2)
Trace Levels of Toxic Organics
189(1)
Lead and Copper
190(1)
Radon and Other Radionucleotides
191(1)
Protecting Water Through Government Actions
192(13)
Water Rights
192(4)
Protecting Waters of the Nation
196(6)
Protecting Drinking Water
202(3)
Concluding Remarks
205(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
206(1)
For Further Reading
207(1)
On the Internet
207(1)
Notes
207(1)
Thinking Critically About Issues Related to Environmental Law
208(2)
Controlling Toxic Substances
210(28)
Identification of Potentially Toxic Substances
210(5)
Scientific Uncertainty
211(1)
Risk Assessment
212(3)
Federal Regulation of Toxic Substances
215(13)
Toxic Substances Control Act
216(4)
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
220(5)
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act
225(1)
Food Quality Protection Act
226(1)
Progress Under the Acts
226(2)
Toxic Torts
228(6)
Theories of Recovery
228(1)
Problems in Establishing Causation
229(2)
Enterprise Liability
231(1)
Punitive Damages
232(2)
Concluding Remarks
234(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
234(1)
For Further Reading
234(1)
On the Internet
235(1)
Notes
235(1)
Thinking Critically About Issues Related to Environmental Law
236(2)
Waste Management and Hazardous Releases
238(33)
Waste Control Techniques
239(1)
The Problem with Waste
240(2)
Requirements for Managing Waste
242(10)
Municipal Solid Waste
242(2)
Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984
244(1)
Hazardous Waste
245(6)
Enforcement of RCRA
251(1)
CERCLA: An Overview
252(1)
Emergency Response Plans and Right to Know
253(2)
Federal Response to Contaminated Sites
255(7)
Removal Action
256(1)
Remedial Response
257(5)
Underground Storage Tank Program
262(2)
Concluding Remarks
264(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
265(1)
For Further Reading
266(1)
On the Internet
266(1)
Notes
267(1)
Thinking Critically About Issues Related to Environmental Law
268(3)
Energy and Natural Resources
271(41)
Energy Policy: A Historical Overview
271(5)
The Crisis Begins
272(1)
A Return to Complacency
273(1)
What Now?
274(2)
Energy Consumption
276(1)
Coal: The Oldest Energy Source
277(4)
Problems with Coal
278(1)
Regulation of the Mining Industry
279(2)
Petroleum and Natural Gas
281(4)
Onshore Development Problems
281(1)
Offshore Development Problems
282(2)
Oil Spills
284(1)
Nuclear Energy
285(4)
History of Nuclear Energy Development
286(1)
Problems with Nuclear Energy
286(2)
Regulation of the Nuclear Industry
288(1)
Renewable Fuels
289(3)
Hydropower
290(1)
Solar Energy
290(1)
Wind Energy
291(1)
Biomass Energy
291(1)
Geothermal Energy
291(1)
Protecting Public Lands
292(3)
Forests
292(1)
Rangelands
293(1)
Regulation of Public Lands
294(1)
Wetlands, Estuaries, and Coastal Areas
295(7)
Benefits of Wetlands
296(1)
Destruction of Wetlands
297(1)
Regulations to Preserve Coastal Areas and Wetlands
298(4)
Endangered Species
302(5)
Concluding Remarks
307(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
307(1)
For Further Reading
307(1)
On the Internet
308(1)
Notes
309(1)
Thinking Critically About Issues Related to Environmental Law
310(2)
International Environmental Law
312(38)
The Need for International Environmental Law
312(5)
Overpopulation
312(2)
Loss of Biological Diversity
314(1)
The Global Commons
315(1)
Environmental Disasters and Transboundary Pollution
316(1)
The Nature of International Law
317(1)
Sources of International Environmental Law
318(3)
Conventional Law
318(1)
Customary Law
319(2)
Institutions That Effectuate and Influence International Environmental Law
321(5)
United Nations
321(2)
World Bank
323(1)
European Community
324(2)
Addressing Specific International Environmental Problems
326(12)
Transboundary Pollution
326(1)
Choice of Forums
327(2)
The Global Commons
329(6)
Prevention of Biological Diversity
335(3)
The Future of International Environmental Law
338(6)
Rio Summit
338(2)
Kyoto Protocol
340(1)
Environmentalism and Trade
341(3)
Concluding Remarks
344(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
344(1)
For Further Reading
345(1)
On The Internet
346(1)
Notes
346(1)
Thinking Critically About Issues Related to Environmental Law
347(3)
Appendices 350(5)
A Sample Page of Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories
350(1)
B Abbreviations and Acronyms
351(4)
Index 355


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