9780470666760

Environmental Physics : Sustainable Energy and Climate Change

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780470666760

  • ISBN10:

    0470666765

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-09-19
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Summary

This third edition of the textbook ;Environmental Physics' will be thoroughly revised keeping in mind the importance of sustainable energy and climate change. As fossil fuels and nuclear power will be with us for many years to come, the physical and environmental aspects of these ways of energy conversion are given ample attention as well as atmospheric and soil physics, with the reader being introduced to the physics that is required to understand, analyse and prevent environmental problems. The text utilises examples from diverse areas, such as the more established issues of climate change through to areas of increasing importance, such as sound pollution. Environmental issues are rarely confined by political boundaries, and accordingly, this book attempts to take a global perspective, placing political concerns in a scientific context. Whilst the rigor and methodology has been maintained in the Second Edition there has been a greater integration of physics with the natural environment throughout the text.

Author Biography

Egbert Boekeris a retired Professor from the Free University of Amsterdam with a career in which he taught virtually all of the undergraduate courses in physics.

Rienk van Grondelle is a Professor in the Department of Biophysics and Physics of Complex Systems at the Free University of Amsterdam. He is performing research in biophysics and teaching not only to physics students but also to biology students. He is a member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Acknowledgementsp. xv
Introductionp. 1
A Sustainable Energy Supplyp. 1
The Greenhouse Effect and Climate Changep. 3
Light Absorption in Nature as a Source of Energyp. 4
The Contribution of Science: Understanding, Modelling and Monitoringp. 5
Light and Matterp. 7
The Solar Spectrump. 7
Radiation from a Black Bodyp. 7
Emission Spectrum of the Sunp. 9
Interaction of Light with Matterp. 12
Electric Dipole Moments of Transitionsp. 12
Einstein Coefficientsp. 14
Absorption of a Beam of Light: Lambert-Beer’s Lawp. 16
Ultraviolet Light and Biomoleculesp. 19
Spectroscopy of Biomoleculesp. 20
Damage to Life from Solar UVp. 21
The Ozone Filter as Protectionp. 22
Climate and Climate Changep. 31
The Vertical Structure of the Atmospherep. 32
The Radiation Balance and the Greenhouse Effectp. 36
Dynamics in the Climate Systemp. 51
Horizontal Motion of Airp. 53
Vertical Motion of Ocean Watersp. 58
Horizontal Motion of Ocean Watersp. 59
Natural Climate Variabilityp. 59
Modelling Human-Induced Climate Changep. 62
The Carbon Cyclep. 63
Structure of Climate Modellingp. 66
Modelling the Atmospherep. 67
A Hierarchy of Modelsp. 70
Analyses of IPCC, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changep. 70
Forecasts of Climate Changep. 70
Heat Enginesp. 77
Heat Transfer and Storagep. 78
Conductionp. 79
Convectionp. 82
Radiationp. 82
Phase Changep. 83
The Solar Collectorp. 84
The Heat Diffusion Equationp. 87
Heat Storagep. 90
Principles of Thermodynamicsp. 91
First and Second Lawsp. 91
Heat and Work; Carnot Efficiencyp. 95
Efficiency of a 'Real' Heat Enginep. 97
Second Law Efficiencyp. 98
Loss of Exergy in Combustionp. 101
Idealized Cyclesp. 103
Carnot Cyclep. 103
Stirling Enginep. 104
Steam Enginep. 105
Internal Combustionp. 107
Refrigerationp. 110
Electricity as Energy Carrierp. 113
Varying Grid Loadp. 114
Co-Generation of Heat and Electricityp. 115
Storage of Electric Energyp. 117
Transmission of Electric Powerp. 123
Pollution from Heat Enginesp. 125
Nitrogen Oxides NOxp. 125
SO2p. 126
CO and CO2p. 126
Aerosolsp. 127
Volatile Organic Compounds VOCp. 128
Thermal Pollutionp. 129
Regulationsp. 129
The Private Carp. 129
Power Needsp. 130
Automobile Fuelsp. 131
Three-Way Catalytic Converterp. 132
Electric Carp. 133
Hybrid Carp. 134
Economics of Energy Conversionp. 134
Capital Costsp. 134
Learning Curvep. 138
Renewable Energyp. 145
Electricity from the Sunp. 146
Varying Solar Inputp. 146
Electricity from Solar Heat: Concentrating Solar Power CSPp. 150
Direct Conversion of Light into Electricity: Photovoltaics PVp. 152
Energy from the Windp. 159
Betz Limitp. 160
Aerodynamicsp. 162
Wind Farmsp. 165
Vertical Wind Profilep. 165
Wind Statisticsp. 167
State of the Art and Outlookp. 168
Energy from the Waterp. 169
Power from Damsp. 169
Power from Flowing Riversp. 170
Power from Wavesp. 170
Power from the Tidesp. 174
Bio Energyp. 175
Thermodynamics of Bio Energyp. 175
Stabilityp. 180
Solar Efficiencyp. 180
Energy from Biomassp. 182
Physics of Photosynthesisp. 183
Basics of Photosynthesisp. 184
Light-Harvesting Antennasp. 185
Energy Transfer Mechanismp. 187
Charge Separationp. 190
Flexibility and Disorderp. 193
Photoprotectionp. 193
Research Directionsp. 195
Organic Photocells: the Gratzel Cellp. 196
The Principlep. 196
Efficiencyp. 199
New Developments and the Futurep. 202
Applicationsp. 203
Bio Solar Energyp. 203
Comparison of Biology and Technologyp. 204
Legacy Biochemistryp. 207
Artificial Photosynthesisp. 209
Solar Fuels with Photosynthetic Microorganisms: Two Research Questionsp. 213
Conclusionp. 213
Nuclear Powerp. 221
Nuclear Fissionp. 222
Principlesp. 222
Four Factor Formulap. 226
Reactor Equationsp. 229
Stationary Reactorp. 231
Time Dependence of a Reactorp. 233
Reactor Safetyp. 234
Nuclear Explosivesp. 237
Nuclear Fusionp. 238
Radiation and Healthp. 244
Definitionsp. 244
Norms on Exposure to Radiationp. 245
Normal Use of Nuclear Powerp. 247
Radiation from Nuclear Accidentsp. 247
Health Aspects of Fusionp. 247
Managing the Fuel Cyclep. 248
Uranium Minesp. 249
Enrichmentp. 249
Fuel Burnupp. 252
Reprocessingp. 252
Waste Managementp. 253
Nonproliferationp. 256
Fourth Generation Nuclear Reactorsp. 257
Dispersion of Pollutantsp. 261
Diffusionp. 262
Diffusion Equationp. 262
Point Source in Three Dimensions in Uniform Windp. 267
Effect of Boundariesp. 269
Dispersion in Riversp. 270
One-Dimensional Approximationp. 271
Influence of Turbulencep. 275
Example: A Calamity Model for the Rhine Riverp. 277
Continuous Point Emissionp. 278
Two Numerical Examplesp. 280
Improvementsp. 281
Conclusionp. 282
Dispersion in Groundwaterp. 282
Basic Definitionsp. 283
Darcy’s Equationsp. 286
Stationary Applicationsp. 290
Dupuit Approximationp. 295
Simple Flow in a Confined Aquiferp. 298
Time Dependence in a Confined Aquiferp. 301
Adsorption and Desorption of Pollutantsp. 302
Mathematics of Fluid Dynamicsp. 304
Stress Tensorp. 304
Equations of Motionp. 308
Newtonian Fluidsp. 309
Navier-Stokes Equationp. 310
Reynolds Numberp. 311
Turbulencep. 313
Gaussian Plumes in the Airp. 317
Statistical Analysisp. 319
Continuous Point Sourcep. 321
Gaussian Plume from a High Chimneyp. 322
Empirical Determination of the Dispersion Coefficientsp. 323
Semi-Empirical Determination of the Dispersion Parametersp. 324
Building a Chimneyp. 325
Turbulent Jets and Plumesp. 326
Dimensional Analysisp. 328
Simple Jetp. 329
Simple Plumep. 331
Monitoring with Lightp. 337
Overview of Spectroscopyp. 337
Population of Energy Levels and Intensity of Absorption Linesp. 341
Transition Dipole Moment: Selection Rulesp. 341
Linewidthsp. 342
Atomic Spectrap. 345
One-Electron Atomsp. 345
Many-Electron Atomsp. 346
Molecular Spectrap. 347
Rotational Transitionsp. 347
Vibrational Transitionsp. 349
Electronic Transitionsp. 353
Scatteringp. 359
Raman Scatteringp. 359
Resonance Raman Scatteringp. 360
Rayleigh Scatteringp. 361
Mie Scatteringp. 362
Scattering in the Atmospherep. 362
Remote Sensing by Satellitesp. 362
ENVISAT Satellitep. 362
SCIAMACHY’s Operationp. 362
Analysisp. 364
Ozone Resultsp. 368
Remote Sensing by Lidarp. 368
Lidar Equation and DIALp. 369
Range-Resolved Cloud and Aerosol Optical Propertiesp. 371
The Context of Societyp. 379
Using Energy Resourcesp. 380
Energy Consumptionp. 380
Energy Consumption and Resourcesp. 382
Energy Efficiencyp. 383
Comparing Energy Resourcesp. 384
Energy Optionsp. 387
Conclusionp. 388
Fresh Waterp. 389
Risksp. 389
Small Concentrations of Harmful Chemicalsp. 390
Acceptable Risksp. 392
Small Probability for a Large Harmp. 393
Dealing with Uncertaintiesp. 394
International Effortsp. 396
Protection of the Ozone Layerp. 396
Protection of Climatep. 396
Global Environmental Managementp. 398
Self-Organized Criticalityp. 398
Conclusionp. 401
Science and Societyp. 401
Nature of Sciencep. 401
Control of Sciencep. 402
Aims of Sciencep. 402
A New Social Contract between Science and Societyp. 404
Exercises and social questionsp. 405
Social questionsp. 405
Referencesp. 406
Physical and Numerical Constantsp. 409
Vector Algebrap. 411
Gauss, Delta and Error Functionsp. 419
Experiments in a Student's Labp. 423
Web Sitesp. 425
Omitted Parts of the Second Editionp. 427
Indexp. 429
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

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