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Written for those who are familiar with the basic strategies of analytic epidemiology, Epidemiology: Beyond the Basics takes readers through a more rigorous discussion of key epidemiologic concepts and methods such as study design, measures of association, research assessment, and more. With real-life examples throughout, the book avoids complex statistical formulations and is an invaluable resource for intermediate students and practicing epidemiologists who wish to expand their knowledge of epidemiology and its role in the medical and public health sciences.
Table of Contents
|About the Authors||p. xiii|
|Basic Study Designs in Analytical Epidemiology||p. 3|
|Introduction: Descriptive and Analytical Epidemiology||p. 3|
|Analysis of Age, Birth Cohort, and Period Effects||p. 4|
|Ecologic Studies||p. 14|
|Studies Based on Individuals as Observation Units||p. 19|
|Measures of Disease Occurrence and Association||p. 45|
|Measuring Disease Occurrence||p. 47|
|Measures of Incidence||p. 49|
|Measures of Prevalence||p. 71|
|Measuring Associations Between Exposures and Outcomes||p. 79|
|Measuring Associations in a Cohort Study||p. 79|
|Cross-Sectional Studies: Point Prevalence Rate Ratio||p. 90|
|Measuring Associations in Case-Control Studies||p. 90|
|Assessing the Strength of Associations||p. 101|
|Threats to Validity and Issues of Interpretation||p. 107|
|Understanding Lack of Validity: Bias||p. 109|
|Selection Bias||p. 111|
|Information Bias||p. 116|
|Combined Selection/Information Biases||p. 133|
|Identifying Noncausal Associations: Confounding||p. 153|
|The Nature of the Association Between the Confounder, the Exposure, and the Outcome||p. 156|
|Theoretical and Graphical Aids to Frame Confounding||p. 162|
|Assessing the Presence of Confounding||p. 164|
|Additional Issues Related to Confounding||p. 171|
|Defining and Assessing Heterogeneity of Effects: Interaction||p. 185|
|Defining and Measuring Effect||p. 186|
|Strategies to Evaluate Interaction||p. 186|
|Assessment of Interaction in Case-Control Studies||p. 196|
|More on the Interchangeability of the Definitions of Interaction||p. 203|
|Which is the Relevant Model? Additive Versus Multiplicative Interaction||p. 205|
|The Nature and Reciprocity of Interaction||p. 207|
|Interaction, Confounding Effect, and Adjustment||p. 211|
|Statistical Modeling and Statistical Tests for Interaction||p. 212|
|Interpreting Interaction||p. 214|
|Interaction and Search for New Risk Factors in Low-Risk Groups||p. 219|
|Interaction and "Representativeness" of Associations||p. 221|
|Dealing with Threats to Validity||p. 227|
|Stratification and Adjustment: Multivariate Analysis in Epidemiology||p. 229|
|Stratification and Adjustment Techniques to Disentangle Confounding||p. 230|
|Adjustment Methods Based on Stratification||p. 234|
|Multiple Regression Techniques for Adjustment||p. 248|
|Alternative Approaches for the Control of Confounding||p. 282|
|Incomplete Adjustment: Residual Confounding||p. 293|
|Quality Assurance and Control||p. 313|
|Quality Assurance||p. 313|
|Quality Control||p. 318|
|Indices of Validity and Reliability||p. 328|
|Regression to the Mean||p. 358|
|Final Considerations||p. 359|
|Issues of Reporting and Application of Epidemiologic Results||p. 367|
|Communicating Results of Epidemiologic Studies||p. 369|
|What to Report||p. 369|
|How to Report||p. 373|
|Epidemiologic Issues in the Interface with Public Health Policy||p. 391|
|Causality: Application to Public Health and Health Policy||p. 392|
|Decision Tree and Sensitivity Analysis||p. 408|
|Publication Bias||p. 416|
|Standard Errors, Confidence Intervals, and Hypothesis Testing for Selected Measures of Risk and Measures of Association||p. 431|
|Test for Trend (Dose Response)||p. 455|
|Test of Homogeneity of Stratified Estimates (Test for Interaction)||p. 459|
|Quality Assurance and Quality Control Procedures Manual for Blood Pressure Measurement and Blood/Urine Collection in the ARIC Study||p. 461|
|Calculation of the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient||p. 469|
|Answers to Exercises||p. 473|
|Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.|