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Essentials Of Criminal Justice

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780495006022

ISBN10:
0495006025
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/3/2006
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $121.00

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Summary

Master the ins and outs of the criminal justice system with ESSENTIALS OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE! With coverage of topics such as criminal justice in the media, diversity issues in the justice system, and a comparison between the U.S. crime rate and international crime, this criminal justice text helps you better understand the basics of the criminal justice system. Class preparation is made easy with a book-specific website featuring concept builders, crossword puzzles, flashcards, internet exercises, tutorial quizzes, and much more! A full-size poster included with the text lets you to trace the flow of individuals through the criminal justice system to help you master the material.

Table of Contents

Preface xii
Part 1 THE NATURE OF CRIME, LAW, AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE
1(120)
Crime and Criminal Justice
2(28)
Is Crime a Recent Development?
4(2)
Crime at the Turn of the Twentieth Century
5(1)
Developing the Criminal Justice System
6(1)
The Modern Era of Justice
6(1)
Federal Involvement in Criminal Justice
6(1)
The Criminal Justice System Today
7(2)
Agencies of the Criminal Justice System
7(2)
The Formal Criminal Justice Process
9(3)
The Criminal Justice Assembly Line
12(1)
The Informal Criminal Justice System
12(4)
The ``Wedding Cake'' Model of Justice
14(2)
Perspectives on Justice
16(8)
Crime Control Perspective
16(1)
Rehabilitation Perspective
17(1)
Due Process Perspective
18(1)
Nonintervention Perspective
19(1)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Should Drugs Be Legalized?
20(2)
Justice Perspective
22(1)
Restorative Justice Perspective
22(2)
Perspectives in Perspective
24(1)
Ethics in Criminal Justice
24(6)
Ethics and Law Enforcement
25(1)
Ethics and the Court Process
26(1)
Ethics and Corrections
27(1)
Summary
28(1)
Key Terms
29(1)
Review Questions
29(1)
The Nature of Crime and Victimization
30(36)
How Is Crime Defined?
32(2)
Consensus View
32(1)
Conflict View
33(1)
Interactionist View
33(1)
How Is Crime Measured?
34(6)
Record Data
34(1)
Official Crime Data: The Uniform Crime Report (UCR)
35(1)
Survey Data
36(1)
Victim Surveys: The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
37(1)
Self-Report Surveys
38(1)
Alternative Data Sources
39(1)
Compatibility of Crime Data Sources
40(1)
Crime Trends
40(6)
Victim Rates and Trends
42(1)
Self-Report Trends
43(1)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Factors That Have an Impact on Crime Rates
44(2)
What the Future Holds
46(1)
Crime Patterns
46(8)
Ecological Patterns
46(1)
Race, Culture, and Gender in Criminal Justice: International Crime Trends
47(1)
Gender Patterns
48(1)
Racial Patterns
48(1)
Class Patterns
49(1)
Age Patterns
50(1)
Career Patterns: The Chronic Offender
51(1)
Victim Patterns
52(2)
Causes of Crime and Victimization
54(12)
Choice Theory: Because They Want To
54(1)
Sociobiological Theory: It's in Their Blood
55(2)
Psychological Theory: It's in Their Heads
57(1)
Social Structure Theory: Because They're Poor
58(2)
Social Process Theory: Socialized to Crime
60(2)
Conflict Theory: It's a ``Dog-Eat-Dog'' World
62(1)
Developmental Theory: Life Is a Bumpy Road
63(1)
A Final Word
63(2)
Summary
65(1)
Key Terms
65(1)
Review Questions
65(1)
Criminal Law: Substance and Procedure
66(26)
The Historical Development of the Criminal Law
68(4)
Common Law and the Principle of Stare Decisis
70(2)
Sources of the Criminal Law
72(4)
Constitutional Limits
72(1)
Crimes and Classifications
73(1)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Ex Post Facto Laws
74(2)
The Legal Definition of a Crime
76(2)
Actus Reus
77(1)
Mens Rea
78(1)
The Relationship of Mens Rea and Actus Reus
78(1)
Strict Liability
78(1)
Criminal Defenses
78(5)
Excuse Defenses
80(2)
Justification Defenses
82(1)
Reforming the Criminal Law
83(3)
Creating New Crimes
84(2)
Changing Defenses
86(1)
Constitutional Criminal Procedure
86(1)
Due Process of Law
87(5)
The Meaning of Due Process
88(2)
Summary
90(1)
Key Terms
90(1)
Review Questions
91(1)
Criminal Justice in the New Millennium: Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Cybercrime
92(29)
Contemporary Challenges of the Criminal Justice System
94(1)
Terrorism
94(4)
Who Is the Terrorist?
95(1)
The Contemporary Terrorist
96(2)
Homeland Security: The Criminal Justice Response to Terrorism
98(8)
The Law Enforcement Response to Terrorism
99(1)
Race, Culture, and Gender in Criminal Justice: Criminal Groups/Terrorist Groups: One and the Same?
100(1)
Federal Law Enforcement
101(2)
Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
103(1)
Organization and Mission of the DHS
103(1)
State Law Enforcement Efforts to Combat Terrorism
104(1)
Local Law Enforcement
105(1)
The Law and Terrorism
106(2)
The USA Patriot Act
106(1)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Operation Atlas
107(1)
Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA)
108(1)
Cybercrime
108(13)
Computer Crime
109(2)
The Extent of Computer Crime
111(1)
Internet Crime
112(1)
Cyberterrorism
113(2)
Controlling Cybercrime
115(1)
Enforcing Cyber Laws
116(2)
What the Future Holds
118(1)
Summary
118(1)
Key Terms
119(1)
Review Questions
119(2)
Part 2 THE POLICE AND LAW ENFORCEMENT
121(96)
Police in Society: History and Organization
122(26)
The History of Police
125(5)
Private Police and Thief Takers
126(1)
Creating Public Police
127(1)
Law Enforcement in Colonial America
127(1)
Early Police Agencies
128(2)
Twentieth-Century Reform
130(1)
The Emergence of Professionalism
130(1)
Contemporary Policing: 1960--2006
130(3)
Policing in the 1960s
131(1)
Policing in the 1970s
131(1)
Policing in the 1980s
131(1)
Policing in the 1990s
132(1)
Policing and Law Enforcement Today
133(6)
Federal Law Enforcement Agencies
133(3)
State Law Enforcement Agencies
136(1)
County Law Enforcement Agencies
137(1)
Metropolitan Law Enforcement Agencies
138(1)
Technology and Law Enforcement
139(9)
Information Technology
141(1)
Criminal Identification
141(1)
Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems
141(1)
Criminal Justice and Technology: Crime Mapping
142(2)
DNA Testing
144(1)
Communications
145(1)
Future Tech
145(1)
Summary
146(1)
Key Terms
146(1)
Review Questions
147(1)
The Police: Role and Function
148(28)
The Police Organization
150(1)
The Police Role
151(2)
The Patrol Function
153(5)
Patrol Activities
153(1)
Does Patrol Deter Crime?
154(2)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: The Indianapolis Gun Control Program
156(2)
The Investigation Function
158(5)
How Do Detectives Detect?
159(2)
Sting Operations
161(1)
Evaluating Investigations
161(1)
Improving Investigations
162(1)
Community Policing
163(3)
Implementing Community Policing
164(2)
Changing the Police Role
166(4)
Problem-Oriented Policing
166(2)
The Challenges of Community Policing
168(1)
Overcoming Obstacles
169(1)
Support Functions
170(6)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Civilian Review Boards
172(2)
Summary
174(1)
Key Terms
174(1)
Review Questions
175(1)
Issues in Policing: Professional, Social, and Legal
176(41)
Who Are the Police?
179(4)
Demographic Makeup
179(1)
Minority Police Officers
180(1)
Women in Policing
181(1)
Educational Characteristics
182(1)
The Police Profession
183(4)
The Police Culture
184(1)
The Police Personality
185(1)
Policing Style
185(2)
Police Discretion
187(3)
Legal Factors
187(1)
Environmental Factors
188(1)
Departmental Factors
188(1)
Situational Factors
189(1)
Extralegal Factors
190(1)
Problems of Policing
190(17)
Police and Stress
190(1)
Race, Culture, and Gender in Criminal Justice: Racial Profiling
191(3)
Police Brutality
194(2)
Police and Deadly Force
196(4)
Police and Corruption
200(2)
Criminal Justice and Technology: Less-Than-Lethal Weapons
202(4)
Controlling Police Behavior
206(1)
Police and the Rule of Law
207(10)
The Police and the Courts
208(1)
Custodial Interrogation
208(3)
Search and Seizure
211(1)
The Exclusionary Rule
212(3)
Summary
215(1)
Key Terms
215(1)
Review Questions
216(1)
Part 3 COURTS AND ADJUDICATION
217(108)
Courts, Prosecution, and the Defense
218(32)
State Courts
220(4)
Courts of Limited Jurisdiction
220(1)
Courts of General Jurisdiction
221(1)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Specialized Courts: Drugs and Mental Health
222(1)
Appellate Courts
222(2)
Federal Courts
224(5)
U.S. District Courts
224(2)
U.S. Courts of Appeals
226(1)
The U.S. Supreme Court
227(2)
Federal and State Court Caseloads
229(2)
The Judiciary
231(2)
The Judge and the Justice System
232(1)
Judicial Qualifications
232(1)
The Prosecutor
233(3)
Types of Prosecutors
234(2)
Prosecutorial Discretion
236(4)
Factors Influencing Prosecutorial Discretion
237(1)
The Role of Prosecutorial Discretion
238(1)
Prosecutorial Ethics
239(1)
The Defense Attorney
240(1)
The Role of the Criminal Defense Attorney
240(1)
The Right to Counsel
240(5)
Legal Services for the Indigent
241(1)
The Private Bar
242(1)
The Competence of Defense Attorneys
243(1)
Ethical Issues in Criminal Defense and Prosecution
244(1)
Court Administration
245(5)
Using Technology in Court Management
245(1)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Ethical Issues in Defense: Should Defense Lawyers Tell the Truth?
246(2)
Summary
248(1)
Key Terms
249(1)
Review Questions
249(1)
Pretrial Procedures
250(24)
Bail
252(8)
Bail Today
253(1)
Receiving Bail
254(1)
Bail Services
254(1)
The Legal Right to Bail
255(1)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Kentucky's Statewide Pretrial Services Agency
256(1)
Making Bail
257(1)
Bail Reform
258(2)
Preventive Detention
260(1)
Pretrial Detention
261(1)
The Effects of Detention
261(1)
Charging the Defendant
262(3)
The Indictment Process---The Grand Jury
262(1)
The Indictment Process---The Preliminary Hearing
263(1)
Arraignment
263(1)
The Plea
264(1)
Plea Bargaining
265(6)
Legal Issues in Plea Bargaining
266(1)
Plea Bargaining Decision Making
267(1)
The Role of the Defense Counsel
268(1)
The Role of the Judge
269(1)
The Role of the Victim
269(1)
Plea Bargaining Reform
269(1)
Negotiation Oversight
270(1)
Banning Plea Bargaining
270(1)
Pretrial Diversion
271(3)
Summary
272(1)
Key Terms
273(1)
Review Questions
273(1)
The Criminal Trial
274(18)
Civil Rights During Trial
276(6)
The Right to Be Competent at Trial
276(1)
The Right to Confront Witnesses
277(1)
The Right to a Jury Trial
278(1)
The Right to a Twelve-Person Jury
278(1)
The Right to a Unanimous Jury Verdict
278(1)
The Right to Counsel at Trial
279(1)
The Right to Self-Representation
279(1)
The Right to a Speedy Trial
279(1)
The Right to a Public Trial
280(1)
The Right to Be Convicted by Proof Beyond a Reasonable Doubt
281(1)
The Trial Process
282(10)
Jury Selection
283(3)
Opening Statements
286(1)
Witness Testimony
286(1)
Presentation of Evidence at a Criminal Trial
287(1)
Motion for a Directed Verdict
287(1)
Presentation of the Defense Attorney's Evidence
288(1)
Closing Arguments
288(1)
Instructions to the Jury
288(1)
The Verdict
289(1)
The Sentence
289(1)
The Appeal
290(1)
Summary
291(1)
Key Terms
291(1)
Review Questions
291(1)
Punishment and Sentencing
292(33)
The History of Punishment
294(3)
From Exile to Fines, Torture to Forfeiture
294(1)
Public Work and Transportation to the Colonies
295(1)
The Rise of the Prison
296(1)
The Goals of Modern Sentencing
297(3)
General Deterrence
297(1)
Incapacitation
298(1)
Specific Deterrence
298(1)
Retribution/Just Desert
299(1)
Rehabilitation
299(1)
Equity/Restitution
299(1)
Imposing the Sentence
300(1)
Concurrent vs. Consecutive Sentences
300(1)
The Effect of Good Time
300(1)
Sentencing Models
301(4)
Indeterminate Sentences
301(1)
Determinate Sentences
302(2)
Mandatory Sentences
304(1)
Three-Strikes Laws
304(1)
Truth in Sentencing
305(1)
How People Are Sentenced
305(4)
What Factors Affect Sentencing?
306(3)
Capital Punishment
309(16)
Arguments for the Death Penalty
309(1)
Race, Culture, and Gender in Criminal Justice: Race and Sentencing
310(3)
Race, Culture, and Gender in Criminal Justice: The Death Penalty Abroad
313(1)
Arguments Against the Death Penalty
314(5)
Legal Issues in Capital Punishment
319(1)
Does the Death Penalty Deter Murder?
320(2)
Summary
322(1)
Key Terms
323(1)
Review Questions
323(2)
Part 4 CORRECTIONS AND ALTERNATIVE SANCTIONS
325(92)
Community Sentences: Probation, Intermediate Sanctions, and Restorative Justice
326(32)
Probation
328(12)
The History of Community Sentencing
329(1)
The Concept of Probation
330(1)
Awarding Probation
331(1)
Probation Eligibility
332(1)
Conditions of Probation
332(1)
Administration of Probation Services
333(1)
Duties of Probation Officers
334(2)
Legal Rights of Probationers
336(2)
How Successful Is Probation
338(1)
How Successful Is Felony Probation?
338(1)
Who Fails on Probation and Why?
338(1)
The Future of Probation
339(1)
Intermediate Sanctions
340(10)
Advantages of Intermediate Sanctions
340(1)
Fines
341(3)
Forfeiture
344(1)
Restitution
344(1)
Shock Probation and Split Sentencing
345(1)
Intensive Probation Supervision
346(1)
House Arrest
346(1)
Electronic Monitoring
347(2)
Residential Community Corrections
349(1)
Restorative Justice
350(8)
The Concept of Restoration
351(1)
Restoration Programs
352(1)
Restoration in Practice
352(1)
Race, Culture, and Gender in Criminal Justice: Conferencing in Australia
353(1)
The Challenge of Restorative Justice
353(1)
Race, Culture, and Gender in Criminal Justice: Restorative Cautioning in England
354(1)
Summary
355(1)
Key Terms
356(1)
Review Questions
357(1)
Corrections: History, Institutions, and Populations
358(28)
The History of Correctional Institutions
360(8)
American Developments
362(2)
Pennsylvania vs. New York: Isolate vs. Congregate
364(1)
Prisons at the Turn of the Twentieth Century
364(3)
Contemporary Correctional Trends
367(1)
Jails
368(3)
Jail Populations
368(1)
Jail Conditions
369(1)
New-Generation Jails
370(1)
Prisons
371(4)
Types of Prisons
371(2)
Criminal Justice and Technology: Technocorrections: Contemporary Correctional Technology
373(2)
Alternative Correctional Institutions
375(5)
Prison Farms and Camps
375(1)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Ultra-Maximum-Security Prisons
376(1)
Shock Incarceration in Boot Camps
376(2)
Community Correctional Facilities
378(1)
Private Prisons
379(1)
Inmate Populations
380(6)
Growth Trends
381(1)
Explaining Prison Population Trends
382(1)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: The Problem of Elderly Inmates
383(1)
Future Trends
383(1)
Summary
384(1)
Key Terms
385(1)
Review Questions
385(1)
Prison Life: Living in and Leaving Prison
386(31)
Men Imprisoned
388(4)
Adjusting to Prison
389(1)
The Inmate Social Code
390(1)
The New Inmate Culture
391(1)
Women Imprisoned
392(3)
Female Institutions
392(1)
Female Inmates
392(1)
Adapting to the Female Institution
393(1)
Separate but Unequal
394(1)
Correctional Treatment Methods
395(5)
Individual and Group Treatment
395(1)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Therapeutic Communities
396(1)
Educational and Vocational Programs
397(3)
Can Rehabilitation Work?
400(1)
Guarding the Institution
400(2)
Female Correctional Officers
401(1)
Prison Violence
402(2)
What Causes Violence?
403(1)
Prisoners' Rights
404(4)
Substantive Rights
406(2)
Leaving Prison
408(9)
Parole
408(1)
The Parole Board
409(1)
The Parolee in the Community
410(1)
The Effectiveness of Parole
411(1)
Why Do People Fail on Parole?
411(1)
Race, Culture, and Gender in Criminal Justice: Monitoring High-Risk Offenders in New Zealand
412(2)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: The Problems of Reentry
414(1)
Summary
415(1)
Key Terms
416(1)
Review Questions
416(1)
Part 5 JUVENILE JUSTICE
417(31)
The Juvenile Justice System
418(30)
The History of Juvenile Justice
420(2)
Care of Children in Early America
421(1)
The Child-Saving Movement
421(1)
The Refuge Movement Spreads
421(1)
Establishment of the Juvenile Court
422(2)
The Development of Juvenile Justice
422(2)
Juvenile Justice Today
424(2)
Police Processing of the Juvenile Offender
426(3)
Use of Discretion
427(2)
Legal Rights
429(1)
The Juvenile Court Process
429(8)
The Intake Process
429(1)
The Detention Process
430(2)
Bail
432(1)
Plea Bargaining
432(1)
Waiver of Jurisdiction
433(2)
The Trial
435(1)
Disposition and Treatment
436(1)
Juvenile Sentencing Reform
437(1)
The Juvenile Correctional Process
437(11)
Probation
437(1)
Institutionalization
438(2)
Deinstitutionalization
440(1)
Aftercare
440(1)
Preventing Delinquency
441(1)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: The Fast Track Project
442(2)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Should the Juvenile Justice System Be Maintained? Abolished?
444(1)
Keep the Juvenile Court?
445(1)
Summary
446(1)
Key Terms
446(1)
Review Questions
447(1)
Glossary 448(9)
Notes 457(26)
Case Index 483(2)
Name Index 485(8)
Subject Index 493(12)
Photo Credits 505


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