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Evolutionary Analysis,9780131063303
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Evolutionary Analysis

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780131063303

ISBN10:
0131063308
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
7/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Pearson College Div
List Price: $106.67
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Table of Contents

Preface xi
PART 1 INTRODUCTION
1(106)
A Case for Evolutionary Thinking: Understanding HIV
3(32)
The Natural History of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic
4(6)
Why Does AZT Work in the Short Run, But Fail in the Long Run?
10(7)
Box 1.1 Can understanding how resistance evolves help researchers design better treatments?
14(3)
Why is HIV Fatal?
17(5)
Why Are Some People Resistant to Infection by HIV?
22(2)
Where Did HIV Come From?
24(11)
Box 1.2 When did HIV move from chimpanzees to humans?
28(1)
Summary
29(1)
Questions
30(1)
Exploring the Literature
31(1)
Citations
31(4)
The Evidence for Evolution
35(34)
Evidence of Change through Time
36(11)
Box 2.1 A brief history of ideas on evolution
37(10)
Evidence of Common Ancestry
47(10)
Box 2.2 Homology and model organisms
56(1)
The Age of Earth
57(5)
Box 2.3 A closer look at radiometric dating
61(1)
Is There Necessarily a Conflict between Evolutionary Biology and Religion?
62(7)
Summary
64(1)
Questions
65(1)
Exploring the Literature
66(1)
Citations
67(2)
Darwinian Natural Selection
69(38)
Artificial Selection: Domestic Animals and Plants
70(2)
Evolution by Natural Selection
72(2)
The Evolution of Flower Color in an Experimental Snapdragon Population
74(2)
The Evolution of Beak Shape in Galapagos Finches
76(11)
Box 3.1 Issues that complicate how heritabilities are estimated
82(5)
The Nature of Natural Selection
87(5)
The Evolution of Darwinism
92(3)
The Debate over ``Scientific Creationism'' and Intelligent Design Theory
95(12)
Summary
104(1)
Questions
104(1)
Exploring the Literature
105(1)
Citations
105(2)
PART 2 MECHANISMS OF EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE
107(222)
Mutation and Genetic Variation
109(32)
Where New Alleles Come From
109(11)
Where New Genes Come From
120(3)
Chromosome Alterations
123(4)
Measuring Genetic Variation in Natural Populations
127(14)
Box 4.1 Gel electrophoresis
132(5)
Summary
137(1)
Questions
137(1)
Exploring the Literature
138(1)
Citations
139(2)
Mendelian Genetics in Populations I: Selection and Mutation as Mechanisms of Evolution
141(54)
Mendelian Genetics in Populations: The Hardy--Weinberg Equilibrium Principle
142(12)
Box 5.1 Combining probabilities
147(5)
Box 5.2 The Hardy--Weinberg equilibrium principle with more than two alleles
152(2)
Selection
154(41)
Box 5.3 A general treatment of selection
159(3)
Box 5.4 Hardy--Weinberg equilibrium among different mutant alleles that cause a recessive genetic disease
162(2)
Box 5.5 Statistical analysis of allele and genotype frequencies using the X2 (chi-square) test
164(2)
Box 5.6 Predicting the frequency of the CCR5-Δ32 allele in future generations
166(1)
Patterns of Selection: Testing Predictions of Population Genetic Theory
166(4)
Box 5.7 An algebraic treatment of selection on recessive and dominant alleles
170(4)
Box 5.8 Stable equilibria with heterozygote superiority and unstable equilibria with heterozygote inferiority
174(8)
Mutation
182(2)
Box 5.9 A mathematical treatment of mutation as an evolutionary force
184(3)
Box 5.10 Allele frequencies under mutation-selection balance
187(1)
Box 5.11 Estimating mutation rates for recessive alleles
188(2)
Summary
190(1)
Questions
191(1)
Exploring the Literature
192(1)
Citations
193(2)
Mendelian Genetics in Populations II: Migration, Genetic Drift, and Nonrandom Mating
195(58)
Migration
197(7)
Box 6.1 An algebraic treatment of migration as an evolutionary force
199(2)
Box 6.2 Selection and migration in Lake Erie water snakes
201(3)
Genetic Drift
204(19)
Box 6.3 The probability that a given allele will be the one that drifts to fixation
213(4)
Box 6.4 Effective population size
217(5)
Box 6.5 The rate of evolutionary substitution under genetic drift
222(1)
Genetic Drift and Molecular Evolution
223(13)
Nonrandom Mating
236(9)
Box 6.6 Genotype frequencies under genetic drift
241(4)
Conservation Genetics of the Illinois Greater Prairie Chicken
245(8)
Summary
248(1)
Questions
248(2)
Exploring the Literature
250(1)
Citations
251(2)
Evolution at Multiple Loci: Linkage and Sex
253(36)
Evolution at Two Loci: Linkage Equilibrium and Linkage Disequilibrium
254(13)
Box 7.1 The coefficient of linkage disequilibrium
257(1)
Box 7.2 Hardy--Weinberg analysis for two loci
258(4)
Box 7.3 Sexual reproduction reduces linkage disequilibrium
262(5)
Practical Reasons for Measuring Linkage Disequilibrium
267(7)
Box 7.4 Estimating the age of the CCR5-Δ32 mutation
269(5)
The Adaptive Significance of Sex
274(15)
Summary
285(1)
Questions
286(1)
Exploring the Literature
287(1)
Citations
288(1)
Evolution at Multiple Loci: Quantitative Genetics
289(40)
The Nature of Quantitative Traits
289(5)
Identifying Loci That Contribute to Quantitative Traits
294(9)
Box 8.1 QTL mapping
300(3)
Measuring Heritable Variation
303(5)
Box 8.2 Additive genetic variation versus dominance genetic variation
306(2)
Measuring Differences in Survival and Reproductive Success
308(5)
Box 8.3 The selection gradient and the selection differential
310(1)
Box 8.4 Selection on multiple traits and correlated characters
311(2)
Predicting the Evolutionary Response to Selection
313(4)
Modes of Selection and the Maintenance of Genetic Variation
317(4)
The Bell-Curve Fallacy and Other Misinterpretations of Heritability
321(8)
Summary
325(1)
Questions
326(1)
Exploring the Literature
327(1)
Citations
328(1)
PART 3 ADAPTATION
329(218)
Studying Adaptation: Evolutionary Analysis of Form and Function
331(42)
All Hypotheses Must Be Tested: The Giraffe's Neck Reconsidered
332(3)
Experiments
335(5)
Box 9.1 A primer on statistical testing
340(1)
Observational Studies
340(5)
The Comparative Method
345(5)
Box 9.2 Calculating phylogenetically independent contrasts
348(2)
Phenotypic Plasticity
350(1)
Trade-Offs and Constraints
351(7)
Selection Operates on Different Levels
358(10)
Box 9.3 Categories of transposable elements
362(6)
Strategies for Asking Interesting Questions
368(5)
Summary
368(1)
Questions
369(1)
Exploring the Literature
370(1)
Citations
371(2)
Sexual Selection
373(46)
Sexual Dimorphism and Sex
374(7)
Male--Male Competition: Intrasexual Selection
381(7)
Box 10.1 Alternative male mating strategies
385(3)
Female Choice
388(16)
Box 10.2 Extra-pair copulations and multiple mating
392(9)
Box 10.3 Runaway sexual selection in stalk-eyed flies?
401(3)
Diversity in Sex Roles
404(2)
Sexual Selection in Plants
406(4)
Sexual Dimorphism in Body Size in Humans
410(9)
Summary
412(1)
Questions
413(2)
Exploring the Literature
415(1)
Citations
416(3)
Kin Selection and Social Behavior
419(36)
Kin Selection and the Evolution of Altruism
420(11)
Box 11.1 Calculating coefficients of relatedness
421(5)
Box 11.2 Kin recognition
426(5)
Evolution of Eusociality
431(8)
Box 11.3 The evolution of the sex ratio
434(5)
Parent--Offspring Conflict
439(4)
Reciprocal Altruism
443(12)
Box 11.4 Prisoner's dilemma: Analyzing cooperation and conflict using game theory
445(4)
Summary
449(1)
Questions
450(1)
Exploring the Literature
451(1)
Citations
452(3)
Aging and Other Life History Characters
455(46)
Basic Issues in Life History Analysis
457(2)
Why Do Organisms Age and Die?
459(15)
Box 12.1 A trade-off between cancer risk and aging
464(11)
Box 12.2 Is there an evolutionary explanation for menopause?
475
How Many Offspring Should an Individual Produce in a Given Year?
474(7)
How Big Should Each Offspring Be?
481(6)
Conflicts of Interest between Life Histories
487(3)
Life Histories in a Broader Evolutionary Context
490(11)
Summary
496(1)
Questions
496(1)
Exploring the Literature
497(1)
Citations
498(3)
Evolution and Human Health
501(46)
Evolving Pathogens: Evasion of the Host's Immune Response
503(6)
Evolving Pathogens: Antibiotic Resistance
509(4)
Evolving Pathogens: Virulence
513(4)
Tissues as Evolving Populations of Cells
517(4)
Box 13.1 Genetic sleuthing solves a medical mystery
518(3)
The Adaptationist Program Applied to Humans
521(7)
Adaptation and Medical Physiology: Fever
528(5)
Adaptation and Human Behavior: Parenting
533(14)
Box 13.2 Is cultural evolution Darwinian?
534(8)
Summary
542(1)
Questions
542(1)
Exploring the Literature
543(1)
Citations
544(3)
PART 4 THE HISTORY OF LIFE
547(224)
Reconstructing Evolutionary Trees
549(34)
The Logic of Phylogeny Inference
550(5)
The Phylogeny of Whales
555(12)
Box 14.1 Alternatives to parsimony: Maximum liklihood and genetic distances
562(5)
Using Phylogenies to Answer Questions
567(16)
Summary
578(1)
Questions
578(3)
Exploring the Literature
581(1)
Citations
581(2)
Mechanisms of Speciation
583(32)
Species Concept
583(6)
Box 15.1 What about bacteria and archaea?
585(4)
Mechanisms of Genetic Isolation
589(7)
Mechanisms of Divergence
596(7)
Secondary Contact
603(5)
The Genetics of Speciation
608(7)
Summary
611(1)
Questions
612(1)
Exploring the Literature
613(1)
Citations
613(2)
The Origins of Life and Precambrian Evolution
615(48)
What Was the First Living Thing?
616(10)
Where Did the First Living Thing Come From?
626(10)
Box 16.1 The Panspermia Hypothesis
628(8)
What Was the Last Common Ancestor of All Extant Organisms and What Is the Shape of the Tree of Life?
636(15)
Box 16.2 Horizontal gene transfer in bacteria
647(4)
How Did the Last Common Ancestor's Descendants Evolve into Today's Organisms?
651(12)
Summary
656(1)
Questions
657(1)
Exploring the Literature
658(1)
Citations
659(4)
The Cambrian Explosion and Beyond
663(38)
The Nature of the Fossil Record
664(3)
The Cambrian Explosion
667(10)
Macroevolutionary Patterns
677(7)
Mass Extinctions
684(17)
Summary
697(1)
Questions
697(1)
Exploring the Literature
698(1)
Citations
699(2)
Development and Evolution
701(26)
Homeotic Genes, Pattern Formation, and Diversification
702(7)
The Genetics of Homology: Limbs
709(7)
Flowers
716(5)
Lessons from Evo-Devo Research
721(6)
Summary
723(1)
Questions
724(1)
Exploring the Literature
724(1)
Citations
725(2)
Human Evolution
727(44)
Relationships among Humans and the Extant Apes
728(7)
Box 19.1 Genetic differences between humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas
736
The Recent Ancestry of Humans
735(11)
The Origin of the Species Homo sapiens
746(13)
Box 19.2 Genetic diversity among living humans
749(9)
Box 19.3 Using linkage disequilibrium to date the divergence between African and non-African populations
758(1)
The Evolution of Uniquely Human Traits
759(12)
Summary
765(1)
Questions
766(1)
Exploring the Literature
767(1)
Citations
767(4)
Glossary 771(7)
Illustration Credits 778(6)
Index 784


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