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Exceptional Learners : Introduction to Special Education,9780205287796
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Exceptional Learners : Introduction to Special Education

by ;
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780205287796

ISBN10:
0205287794
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $83.00
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Summary

The eighth edition of this best-selling introductory text in special education is the most extensive overall revision in its twenty-two year history. It is a general introduction to the characteristics of exceptional persons and their education. It is written with both special education and general education students in mind. The authors' clear and concise writing style makes research and theoretical issues easily understood. In addition to factual information, readers are exposed to material that will help them explore and develop their attitudes and feelings towards persons with disabilities.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Exceptionality and Special Education
3(40)
Educational Definition of Exceptional Learners
7(3)
Prevalence of Exceptional Learners
10(2)
Definition of Special Education
12(6)
Providing Special Education
13(5)
Teachers' Roles
18(6)
Relationship Between General and Special Education
19(1)
Expectations for All Educators
20(2)
Expectations for Special Educators
22(2)
Origins of Special Education
24(4)
People and Ideas
25(1)
Growth of the Discipline
26(1)
Professional and Parent Organizations
27(1)
Legislation
27(1)
Trends in Legislation and Litigation
28(11)
Trends in Legislation
28(4)
Relationship of Litigation to Legislation
32(1)
Trends in Litigation
32(1)
The Intent of Legislation: An Individualized Education Program
33(6)
A Perspective on the Progress of Special Education
39(1)
Summary
40(3)
Current Trends and Issues
43(42)
Integration into the Larger Society
44(22)
Philosophical Roots: The Principle of Normalization
44(2)
Historical Roots: Deinstitutionalization and the Full Inclusion Movement
46(2)
Current Trends
48(13)
Mainstreaming Practices
61(4)
Issues Continuing into the New Millennium
65(1)
Participation in General Assessments of Progress
66(2)
Current Trends
66(2)
Issues Continuing into the New Millennium
68(1)
Early Intervention
68(5)
Types of Programs
70(1)
Current Trends
70(2)
Issues Continuing into the New Millennium
72(1)
Transition from Secondary School to Adulthood
73(5)
Federal Initiatives
73(3)
Current Trends
76(1)
Issues Continuing into the New Millennium
77(1)
Discipline of Students with Disabilities
78(3)
Current Trends
80(1)
Issues Continuing into the New Millennium
81(1)
Some Concluding Thoughts Regarding Trends and Issues
81(1)
Summary
82(3)
Multicultural and Bilingual Aspects of Special Education
85(34)
Education and Cultural Diversity: Concepts for Special Education
92(5)
Implementing Multicultural and Bilingual Special Education
97(19)
Assessment
101(2)
Instruction
103(9)
Socialization
112(4)
Summary
116(3)
Mental Retardation
119(40)
Definition
122(3)
The AAMR Definition
122(1)
Broadening the Definition
122(1)
Lowering the IQ Score Cutoff
122(1)
Retardation as Improvable and Possibly Nonpermanent
123(1)
The AAMR Classification Scheme
123(1)
The APA Definition
124(1)
Greenspan's Definition
124(1)
Prevalence
125(1)
Causes
126(9)
Persons with Mild Retardation, or Those Requiring Less Intensive Support
127(1)
Persons with More Severe Retardation, or Those Requiring More Intensive Support
128(7)
Assessment
135(1)
Intelligence Tests
135(1)
Adaptive Skills
136(1)
Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics
136(2)
Attention
137(1)
Memory
137(1)
Language Development
137(1)
Academic Achievement
137(1)
Self-Regulation
137(1)
Social Development
138(1)
Motivation
138(1)
Educational Considerations
138(2)
Students with Mild Retardation, or Those Requiring Less Intensive Support
139(1)
Students with More Severe Retardation, or Those Requiring More Intensive Support
139(1)
Success Stories: Special Educators at Work
140(2)
Collaboration: Key to Success
142(3)
Service Delivery Models
144(1)
Early Intervention
145(3)
Early Childhood Programs Designed for Prevention
145(2)
Early Childhood Programs Designed to Further Development
147(1)
Transition
148(4)
Community Adjustment
148(1)
Employment
148(3)
Prospects for the Future
151(1)
Summary
152(1)
Suggestions for Teaching: Students with Mental Retardation in General Education Classrooms
153(6)
Learning Disabilities
159(44)
Definitions
160(6)
Factors to Consider in Definitions of Learning Disabilities
163(2)
The Federal Definition
165(1)
The National Joint Committee for Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) Definition
165(1)
Similarities and Differences in the Federal and NJCLD Definitions
166(1)
Prevalence
166(1)
Causes
167(3)
Genetic Factors
168(1)
Teratogenic Factors
169(1)
Medical Factors
169(1)
Assessment
170(4)
Standardized Assessment
170(1)
Formative Assessment
170(2)
Informal Teacher Assessment
172(1)
Authentic Assessment
173(1)
Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics
174(7)
Interindividual Variation
174(1)
Intraindividual Variation
174(1)
Academic Achievement Problems
174(2)
Perceptual, Perceptual-Motor, and General Coordination Problems
176(1)
Disorders of Attention and Hyperactivity
177(1)
Memory, Cognitive, and Metacognitive Problems
177(1)
Social-Emotional Problems
178(1)
Motivational Problems
179(1)
The Child with Learning Disabilities as an Inactive Learner with Strategy Deficits
179(2)
Educational Considerations
181(3)
Cognitive Training
181(3)
Success Stories: Special Educators at Work
184(2)
Direct Instruction
184(2)
Collaboration: Key to Success
186(3)
Service Delivery Models
188(1)
Early Intervention
189(1)
Transition
190(3)
Factors Related to Successful Transition
190(1)
Secondary Programming
191(1)
Postsecondary Programming
192(1)
Summary
193(2)
Suggestions for Teaching: Students with Learning Disabilities in General Education Classrooms
195(8)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
203(42)
Brief History
204(3)
Still's Children with ``Detective Moral Control''
204(2)
Goldstein's Brain-Injured Soldiers of World War I
206(1)
The Strauss Syndrome
206(1)
Cruickshank's Work
207(1)
Minimal Brain Injury and Hyperactive Child Syndrome
207(1)
Definition
207(1)
Prevalence
208(1)
Assessment
208(4)
Medical Examination
208(3)
Clinical Interview
211(1)
Teacher and Parent Rating Scales
211(1)
Causes
212(3)
Areas of the Brain Affected: Frontal Lobes, Basal Ganglia, and Cerebellum
213(1)
Neurotransmitter Involved: Dopamine
214(1)
Hereditary Factors
214(1)
Teratogenic and Medical Factors
214(1)
Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics
215(3)
Barkleys's Model of ADHD
215(1)
Adaptive Skills
216(1)
Problems Socializing with Peers
216(1)
Coexisting Conditions
217(1)
Educational Considerations
218(2)
Classroom Structure and Teacher Direction
218(2)
Success Stories: Special Educators at Work
220(2)
Collaboration: Key to Success
222(3)
Functional Assessment and Contingency-Based Self-Management
224(1)
Medical Considerations
225(4)
Opposition to Ritalin
227(1)
The Research Evidence
228(1)
Cautions Regarding Ritalin
228(1)
Service Delivery Models
229(1)
Early Intervention
229(1)
Transition to Adulthood
230(5)
Diagnosis in Adulthood
230(2)
Adult Outcomes
232(3)
Importance of Coaching
235(1)
Summary
235(2)
Suggestions for Teaching: Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in General Education Classrooms
237(8)
Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
245(50)
Terminology
248(1)
Definition
249(3)
Definitional Problems
249(1)
Current Definitions
250(2)
Classification
252(2)
Prevalence
254(1)
Causes
255(7)
Biological Factors
256(2)
Family Factors
258(1)
School Factors
259(2)
Cultural Factors
261(1)
Identification
262(2)
Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics
264(6)
Intelligence and Achievement
264(1)
Social and Emotional Characteristics
265(4)
Characteristics Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
269(1)
Characteristics Associated with Schizophrenia, Autism, and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders
270(1)
Educational Considerations
270(2)
Contrasting Conceptual Models
271(1)
Success Stories: Special Educators at Work
272(6)
Balancing Behavioral Control with Academic and Social Learning
275(1)
Importance of Integrated Services
276(1)
Strategies That Work
276(1)
Service Delivery Models
277(1)
Collaboration: Key to Success
278(5)
Special Disciplinary Considerations
281(2)
Functional Behavioral Assessment
283(1)
Early Intervention
283(3)
Transition
286(1)
Summary
287(2)
Suggestions for Teaching: Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
289(6)
Communication Disorders
295(46)
Definitions
296(2)
Prevalence
298(3)
Language Development and Language Disorders
301(12)
Classification of Language Disorders
303(3)
Strategies for Assessment and Intervention
306(2)
Language Disorders Associated with Autism
308(1)
Delayed Language Development
309(1)
Language Disorders Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
310(1)
Language Disorders Associated with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
311(2)
Educational Considerations
313(1)
Success Stories: Special Educators at Work
314(3)
Augmentative and Alternative Communication
317(3)
Collaboration: Key to Success
320(2)
Communication Variations
322(3)
Speech Disorders
325(4)
Voice Disorders
326(1)
Articulation Disorders
326(1)
Fluency Disorders
327(1)
Speech Disorders Associated with Neurological Damage
328(1)
Early Intervention
329(2)
Transition
331(2)
Summary
333(1)
Suggestions for Teaching: Students with Communication Disorders in General Education Classrooms
334(7)
Hearing Impairment
341(44)
Definition and Classification
344(1)
Prevalence
345(1)
Anatomy and Physiology of the Ear
346(1)
The Outer Ear
346(1)
The Middle Ear
346(1)
The Inner Ear
347(1)
Measurement of Hearing Ability
347(2)
Pure-Tone Audiometry
347(1)
Speech Audiometry
348(1)
Tests for Young and Hard-to-Test Children
348(1)
School Screening
349(1)
Causes
349(2)
Conductive, Sensorineural, and Mixed Impairments
349(1)
Impairments of the Outer Ear
349(1)
Impairments of the Middle Ear
349(1)
Impairments of the Inner Ear
350(1)
Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics
351(8)
English Language and Speech Development
351(1)
Intellectual Ability
352(1)
Academic Achievement
352(2)
Social Adjustment
354(5)
Educational Considerations
359(1)
Oral Approach: Auditory-Verbal Approach and Speechreading
359(1)
Collaboration: Key to Success
360(8)
Total Communication
362(1)
The Bicultural-Bilingual Approach
363(3)
Service Delivery Models
366(2)
Success Stories: Special Educators at Work
368(3)
Technological Advances
368(3)
Early Intervention
371(2)
Transition
373(2)
Summary
375(2)
Suggestions for Teaching: Students with Hearing Impairment in General Education Classrooms
377(8)
Visual Impairment
385(40)
Definition and Classification
386(2)
Legal Definition
388(1)
Educational Definition
388(1)
Prevalence
388(1)
Anatomy and Physiology of the Eye
388(1)
Measurement of Visual Ability
389(1)
Causes
390(3)
Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics
393(5)
Language Development
393(1)
Intellectual Ability
393(1)
Mobility
394(2)
Academic Achievement
396(2)
Collaboration: Key to Success
398(3)
Social Adjustment
400(1)
Educational Considerations
401(3)
Braille
401(3)
Success Stories: Special Educators at Work
404(9)
Use of Remaining Sight
405(1)
Listening Skills
406(1)
Mobility Training
407(4)
Technological Aids
411(1)
Service Delivery Models
412(1)
Early Intervention
413(1)
Transition
414(4)
Independent Living
414(3)
Employment
417(1)
Summary
418(2)
Suggestions for Teaching: Students with Visual Impairment in General Education Classrooms
420(5)
Physical Disabilities
425(42)
Definition and Classification
426(2)
Prevalence and Need
428(1)
Neuromotor Impairments
428(9)
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
429(2)
Other Neurological Impairments
431(6)
Orthopedic and Musculoskeletal Disorders
437(1)
Other Conditions Affecting Health or Physical Ability
438(1)
Prevention of Physical Disabilities
439(2)
Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics
441(2)
Academic Achievement
441(1)
Personality Characteristics
441(2)
Prosthetics, Orthotics, and Adaptive Devices for Daily Living
443(4)
Educational Considerations
447(3)
Individualized Planning
447(1)
Educational Placement
448(1)
Educational Goals and Curricula
449(1)
Success Stories: Special Educators at Work
450(2)
Links with Other Disciplines
450(2)
Collaboration: Key to Success
452(2)
Early Intervention
454(2)
Transition
456(3)
Choosing a Career
456(2)
Sociosexuality
458(1)
Summary
459(2)
Suggestions for Teaching: Students with Physical Disabilities in General Education Classrooms
461(6)
Special Gifts and Talents
467(46)
Definition
468(7)
Federal and State Definitions
471(1)
Changes in the Definition of Giftedness
471(4)
Prevalence
475(1)
Origins of Giftedness
476(3)
Identification of Giftedness
479(1)
Physical, Psychological, and Behavioral Characteristics
480(1)
Cultural Values Regarding Students with Special Gifts or Talents and Their Education
481(5)
The Educational Reform Movement and Controversy Regarding the Education of Students with Special Gifts and Talents
485(1)
Neglected Groups of Students with Special Gifts or Talents
486(6)
Underachievers with Special Gifts or Talents
486(1)
Students with Special Gifts from Cultural- and Ethnic-Minority Groups
487(2)
Students with Disabilities and Special Gifts or Talents
489(1)
Females with Special Gifts or Talents
490(2)
Educational Considerations
492(2)
Success Stories: Special Educators at Work
494(3)
Acceleration
496(1)
Enrichment
496(1)
Teachers of Students with Special Gifts or Talents
497(1)
Early Intervention
497(1)
Collaboration: Key to Success
498(4)
Transition
502(1)
Summary
503(2)
Suggestions for Teaching: Students Who are Gifted and Talented in General Education Classrooms
505(8)
Parents and Families
513(28)
Professionals' Changing Views of Parents
514(3)
The Effects of a Child with a Disability on the Family
517(7)
Parental Reactions
517(5)
Sibling Reactions
522(2)
Family Involvement in Treatment and Education
524(12)
The Family Systems Theory
526(4)
Social Support for Families
530(2)
Communication Between Parents and Professionals
532(4)
In Conclusion
536(3)
Summary
539(2)
Appendix: Summary of IDEA '97 Regulatory Issues 541(2)
Glossary 543(8)
References 551(34)
Name Index 585(12)
Subject Index 597


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