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Exploring Language

by
Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9780321122216

ISBN10:
0321122216
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2004
Publisher(s):
Longman
List Price: $64.33
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Summary

Now in its tenth edition, this marketleading language reader continues to feature thoughtprovoking readings that explore the various interconnections between language and American society. For over 25 years, this engaging reader has challenged individuals to critically examine how language affects and constructs culture and how culture constructs and affects language. This tenth edition maintains the integrity of past editions, while reflecting the new and fascinating language issues that exist in today's culture. Provocative selections are organized around nine major language areas, and then broken into stimulating sub-themes like political correctness, hate speech, language and the presidency, and censorship on campus, inviting readers to debate current social and cultural issues that are inseparable from language. Individuals interested in studying how language affects and constructs culture and how culture constructs and affects language.

Table of Contents

Preface xxi
Introduction: Thinking and Reading Critically 1(24)
What Is Critical Thinking?
1(1)
Why Read Critically?
2(1)
How to Read Critically
3(3)
Critical Reading in Action-Sample Essay for Analysis
6(13)
Logical Fallacies-What They Are and How to Avoid Them
19(3)
Exploring the Language of Visuals
22(3)
1 Breaking Silences 25(88)
BEGINNINGS: MOVING FROM SILENCE INTO LANGUAGE
27(29)
Language and Thought
27(5)
Susanne K. Langer
"Language is the highest and most amazing achievement of the symbolistic human mind. The power it bestows is almost inestimable, for without it anything properly called 'thought' is impossible."
A Brief History of English
32(10)
Paul Roberts
"In 1500 English was a minor language, spoken by a few people on a small island. Now it is perhaps the greatest language of the world...."
The Story of Writing
42(10)
C.M. Millward
"Civilization as we know it depends on the written word."
Another Language for the Deaf
52(9)
Margalit Fox
"Imagine a language that can't be written. Hundreds of people speak it, but they have no way to read a newspaper or study a schoolbook in the language they use all day long ... that is the situation of the quarter of a million or more deaf people in North America."
EXPLORING THE LANGUAGE OF VISUALS: SIGNWRITING
56(5)
PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS: COMING INTO LANGUAGE
61(9)
Homemade Education
61(4)
Malcolm X
"In the street, I had been the most articulate hustler out there.... But now, trying to write simple English, I not only wasn't articulate, I wasn't even functional."
A Word for Everything
65(5)
Helen Keller
"The beautiful truth burst upon my mind-I felt that there were invisible lines stretched between my spirit and the spirits of others."
EXPLORING THE LANGUAGE OF VISUALS: SIGN LANGUAGE
70(16)
The Language of Silence
72(5)
Maxine Hong Kingston
"When I went to kindergarten and had to speak English for the first time, I became silent. A dumbness-a shame-still cracks my voice in two
The Jellyfish
77(2)
Susan Kinsolving
"A jellyfish was in my eyes!... "It bleeded and singed!" In a poem, Susan Kinsolving describes the innocence and discovery of her three-year-old daughter Caroline's journey into language.
Spanish Lessons
79(7)
Christine Marin
"I learned the power of both the English and Spanish language on that [school] band trip."
SPEAKING OUT: LANGUAGE THAT INSPIRED CHANGE
86(25)
Seneca Falls Declaration
86(4)
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
"The history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward women, having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over her."
"Letter from Birmingham Jail"
90(10)
Martin Luther King, Jr.
"I submit that an individual who breaks a law that conscience tells him is unjust, and who willingly accepts the penalty of imprisonment in order to arouse the conscience of the community over its injustice, is in reality expressing the highest respect for the law."
Aren't I a Woman?
100(2)
Sojourner Truth
"[T]hat little man in black there, he says women can't have as much rights as man, 'cause Christ wasn't a woman. Where did your Christ come from?"
The Struggle for Human Rights
102(13)
Eleanor Roosevelt
"We must not be confused about what freedom is. Basic human rights are simple and easily understood."
EXPLORING THE LANGUAGE OF VISUALS: MARGARET SANGER
111(2)
2 Writers Writing: Words in Contexts 113(41)
THE WRITING PROCESS
115(22)
Writing for an Audience
115(4)
Linda Flower
"The goal of the writer is to create a momentary common ground between the reader and the writer."
The Maker's Eye: Revising Your Own Manuscripts
119(4)
Donald M. Murray
"When students complete a first draft, they consider the job of writing done-and their teachers too often agree. When professional writers complete a first draft, they usually feel that they are at the start of the writing process."
Getting Started
123(5)
Anne Lamott
"The very first thing I tell my new students on the first day of a workshop is that good writing is about telling the truth."
What My Students Have Taught Me About Writing
128(6)
Pamela Childers
"I'm a writer, but I am a better writer than I was when I started writing because of my students."
How I Write
134(3)
Evan Miller
"The first sentence is usually the toughest for me, because I know that it will shape the second, will shape the third ... I try to experiment with different openers ... but in some papers, [my first sentences] miss the purpose of the paper entirely and are, in the vernacular, crap."
FINDING THE RIGHT WORDS
137(17)
The Case for Short Words
137(2)
Richard Lederer
"When you speak and write, there is no law that says you have to use big words. Small words cast their clear light on big things-night and day, love and hate, war and peace, life and death."
Saying is Believing
139(6)
Patricia T. O'Conner
"The truth is that the reader is always right. Chances are, if something you write doesn't get your point across, it's probably not the reader's fault-it's yours."
How to Write with Style
145(4)
Kurt Vonnegut
Seven friendly tips on the process of writing from one of America's most popular writers.
Clichés, Anyone?
149(2)
James Isaacs
How to make a commencement speech ... the old-fashioned way.
The Financial Media's 25 Worst Clichés
151(5)
Jonathan Clements
3 Politically Speaking 154(84)
POLITICAL WORD PLAY
156(33)
How to Detect Propaganda
156(7)
Institute for Propaganda Analysis
"Without appeal to our emotions-to our fears and to our courage, to our selfishness and unselfishness, to our loves and to our hates-propagandists would influence few opinions and few actions."
Politics and the English language
163(11)
George Orwell
"In our time, political speech and writing are largely the defense of the indefensible."
The Pep Talk: Patterns of Persuasion in Political Language
174(10)
Hugh Rank
A respected political communications analyst dissects the patterns of persuasion used by politicians to organize and direct their audiences toward a particular collective action or idea.
Doubts About Doublespeak
184(5)
William Lutz
"Politicians, bureaucrats and merchants all are guilty of confusing the issue with language designed not to communicate."
LANGUAGE AND THE PRESIDENCY
189(27)
The Rhetorical Presidency
189(9)
Robert E. Denton, Jr. and Dan F. Hahn
"Presidents are special beings. What makes each one special is that they lead us, define us, protect us, and embody us. And they do so, implicitly and explicitly, through communication."
Dubya and Me: We've Got No Idea
198(4)
Ian Frazier
That clueless stare in George W.'s eyes? A whole generation of graying 'wise' guys know all about it. The author is one.
The Making of the Speech
202(7)
D.T. Max
An etymology of the 2,988 words that changed a presidency.
Address to a Joint Session of Congress and the American People
209(7)
George W. Bush
"Our nation-this generation-will lift a dark threat of violence from our people and our future. We will rally the world to this cause by our efforts, by our courage. We will not tire, we will not falter, and we will not fail."
CASE STUDY: TERRORISM AND THE WAR OF WORDS
216(22)
The Semantics of Murder
216(2)
Amir Taheri
A True Jihad or a Sinful War Against Innocents?
218(2)
Jim Guirard
Two editorials from the Wall Street Journal address the language used to describe and justify acts of terrorism, from the words used by the terrorists themselves. Is it murder, or a jihad?
Fighting Words; The War Over Language
220(5)
Jon Hooten
"While we have haphazardly sprinkled our language with war's metaphors, is it possible that we have collectively forgotten how to think clearly about the literal phenomenon?"
A Lot to Learn
225(4)
David Brudnoy
"Because we cannot bear to talk like adults about the task and the enemy, we cannot conceptualize what we should be doing."
Self Evident
229(6)
Ani Difranco
A folksinger and songwriter's poem inspired by the tragic events of September 11.
Nameless Event
235(5)
William Sage
"What label is applied to the horrific (more horrid than horrible, perhaps because of its less frequent use and similarity in emphasis to terrific) events of September 11, 2001?"
4 The Art of Conversation 238(69)
HE SAYS, SHE SAYS: DIFFERENCES IN DISCOURSE
240(29)
Women Talk Too Much
240(6)
Janet Holmes
"Despite the widespread belief that women talk more than men, most of the available evidence suggests just the opposite. Why is the reality so different from the myth?"
No Detail Is Too Small for Girls Answering a Simple Question
246(3)
Tony Kornheiser
"It is not that women lack the ability to prioritize informaiton, it is that they don't think life is as simple as men do."
Sex Differences
249(6)
Ronald Macaulay
"More nonsense has been produced on the subject of sex differences than on any linguistic topic, with the possible exception of spelling."
"I'll Explain It to You"; Lecturing and Listening
255(14)
Deborah Tannen
"One situation that frustrates many women is a conversation that has mysteriously turned into a lecture, with the man delivering the lecture to the woman, who has become an appreciative audience."
EXPLORING THE LANGUAGE of VISUALS: MEN ARE FROM BELGIUM, WOMEN ARE FROM NEW BRUNSWICK
269(6)
Nonverbal Behavior: Culture, Gender, and the Media
271(4)
Teni Kwal Gamble and Michael W. Gamble
"Men and women commonly use nonverbal communication in ways that reflect societal expectations."
LET'S TALK ABOUT IT: CONVERSATION IN ACTION
275(32)
The Social Basis of Talk
275(10)
Ronald Wardhaugh
"Because conversation necessarily has a social basis, we must try to meet each other on common ground."
Some Friends and I Started Talking: Conversation and Social Change
285(6)
Margaret J. Wheatley
"True conversation is a timeless and reliable way for humans to think together. When we don't talk to one another in a meaningful way, we become passive and allow others to tell us what to do."
Like, Uptalk?
291(3)
James Gorman
"I used to speak in a regular voice. I was able to assert, demand, question. Then I started teaching. At a university? And my students had this rising intonation thing?"
The Other Side of E-Mail
294(3)
Robert Kuttner
"E-mail brings a kind of pseudo-urgency that demands instant response. It also creates false intimacies."
Come in CQ: The Body on the Wire
297(12)
Ellen Ullman
Does the Internet allow us more freedom to say things that we wouldn't normally say? What happens when we make the jump from virtual relationships to "F2F" ones?
5 The Language of Humor: What Makes Us Laugh 307(53)
WHAT'S SO FUNNY?
309(23)
Outsiders/Insiders
309(10)
Joseph Boskin
"Just as it has been utilized as a weapon of insult and persecution, so, too, has humor been implemented as a device of subversion and protest."
Excerpt from the LA LA Awards
319(7)
Latins Anonymous
Nothing is sacred in this satirical slam on the rejection of one's cultural heritage by comedy troupe Latins Anonymous.
In Answer to the Question: Have You Ever Considered Suicide?
326(2)
Kate Rushin
A humorous poem by an award-winning African-American poet.
Mr. Language Person Takes a Hammer to Grammar
328(4)
Dave Barry
America's king of comedic writing presents his version of a language column.
CASE STUDY: POLTICAL AND EDITORIAL CARTOONS
332(16)
What Is a Cartoon?
333(4)
Mort Gerbere
"Cartoons are the most powerful, the pithiest form of human communication, used everywhere and in many forms."
Editorial Cartoonists-An Endangered Species?
337(4)
Doug Mariette
"Could it be that no one needs satirists in a tabloid age when real life becomes a parody and sleaze dominates the headlines ... ?"
Defiantly Incorrect: The Humor of John Callahan
341(7)
Timothy Egan
"Anorexia, blindness, dysfunctional families and the death penalty-in a good week, all of those topics can find their way into the cartoons of John Callahan."
EXPLORING THE LANGUAGE OF VISUALS: CALLAHAN CARTOON (WHEELCHAIR POSSE)
348(5)
When Cartoonists Were at Their Wits' End
350(12)
James Ricci
"Think back to that day [September 11] and your own loss for words.... Now imagine having to sit down and draw a simple, understandable picture that might have relevance to thousands of other dumbstruck and grief-ridden people."
EXPLORING THE LANGUAGE OF VISUALS: EDITORIAL CARTOONS FROM SEPTEMBER 11 AND ITS AFTERMATH
353(7)
6 The Language of the Mass Media and Advertising 360(83)
AS SEEN ON TV
362(31)
TV News: All the World in Pictures
362(7)
Neil Postman and Steve Powers
"The fact that television news is principally made up of moving pictures prevents it from offering lengthy, coherent explanations of events."
Oh, the Profanity!
369(4)
Paul Farhi
TV networks are fashioning shows from pretty raw material these days. Very raw material. What the *&!%# is going on?
Is Bad Language Unacceptable on TV?
373(4)
BBC Online "Talking Point" forum
"There's a simple answer to all those complaining. If you don't like it, then don't watch it."
Taking TV's "War of Words" Too Literally
377(5)
Deborah Tannen
"Everywhere we turn, there is evidence that, in public discourse, we prize contentiousness and aggression more than cooperation and conciliation ... everything is posed in terms of battles and duels, winners and losers, conflicts and disputes."
The Entertained Culture
382(9)
Tom Shachtman
"We have become a country of mass audiences.... A trend toward the convergence of the entertainment and news/information industries has made certain that the language of one sector largely reproduces the practices of the other, and both aim lower, with dire consequences for articulateness."
Two-Headed Monsters
391(2)
THE LANGUAGE OF ADVERTISING
393(44)
With These Words, I Can Sell You Anything
393(14)
William Lutz
"Advertisers use weasel words to appear to be making a claim for a product when in fact they are making no claim at all."
The Language of Advertising
407(10)
Charles A. O'Neill
"The language of advertising is a language of finely engineered, ruthlessly purposeful messages."
Language Abuse
417(9)
Herschell Gordon Lewis
"Today's marketers throw terms the way they'd throw confetti ... and with just about as much impact."
Selling America
426(9)
Sandra Silberstein
An examination of the Ad Council's campaign against hate and intolerance in the aftermath of September 11.
Americans Stand United, AAI advertisement
435(2)
EXPLORING THE LANGUAGE OF VISUALS: TWO SAMPLE ADS FOR SUVs
437(6)
7 Censorship and Free Speech 443(53)
CENSORSHIP AND BOOKS
445(12)
The Freedom to Read
445(4)
The American Library Association
Private groups and public authorities are working to remove books from sale, to censor textbooks, to label "controversial" views, to distribute lists of "objectionable" books or authors, and to purge libraries.
The 100 Most Frequently Challenged Books of 2000
449(3)
Book-Banning, Real and Imaginary
452(2)
Jeff Jacoby
"Your freedom to read isn't under attack. No censors are stalking you, no library is being stripped. On the contrary never have more books ... been more readily available to more people."
Is Harry Potter Evil?
454(3)
Judy Blume
"The protests against Harry Potter follow a tradition that has been growing since the early 1980's and often leaves school principles trembling with fear."
EXPLORING THE LANGUAGE OF VISUALS: HUCKLEBERRY FINN BANNED!
457(7)
Author's Afterword from Fahrenheit 451
460(4)
Ray Bradbury
"For it is a mad world and it wi11 get madder if we allow the minorities, be they dwarf or giant, orangutan or dolphin, nuclear-head or water-conservationalist, procomputerologist or Neo-Luddite, simpleton or sage, to interfere with aesthetics."
CASE STUDY: CENSORSHIP AND FREE SPEECH ON CAMPUS
464(26)
The Betrayal of Liberty on America's Campuses
464(7)
Alan C. Kors
"It is ... almost inconceivable that anyone ... could live on a college campus unaware of the repression, legal inequality, intrusions into private conscience, and malignant double standards that hold sway there."
Regulating Racist Speech on Campus
471(4)
Charles R. Lawrence III
Defending racist language in the name of liberty of free speech "has placed the bigot on the moral high ground and fanned the rising flames of racism."
There's No Such Thing as Free Speech, and It's a Good Thing, Too
475(12)
Stanley Fish
"Free speech ... is not an independent value but a political prize, and if that prize has been captured by a politics opposed to yours, it can no longer be invoked in ways that further your purposes, for it is now an obstacle to those purposes."
Muzzling Free Speech
487(3)
Harvey A. Silverglate
The speech-zone movement presents a major threat to the ideals of free thought and free inquiry to which colleges and universities should be devoted.
SPEECH CODES AT HARVARD LAW SCHOOL?
490(6)
Difficult Conversations
490(2)
Dorothy Rabinowitz
"At Harvard Law today, skill in hard combative argument is no longer prized, nor even considered quite respectable."
Censor This?
492(6)
Austin Bramwell
"Like many, I am concerned that a speech code [at Harvard Law School] would chill valuable speech on campus."
8 Political Correctness and Hate Speech 496(57)
CASE STUDY: POLITICAL CORRECTNESS
498(28)
Hate Speech
498(7)
Robin Tomach Lakoff
"Language is the problem. We don't know how to legislate hate speech, because we don't really know how to classify any kind of speech, which we would have to do before we could safely legislate against it."
Bias-Free Language: Some Guidelines
505(11)
Rosalie Maggio
"When we use stereotypes to talk about people ('isn't that just like a welfare mother/Indian/girl/old man'), our speech and writing will be inaccurate and unrealistic most of the time."
The Word Police
516(5)
Michiko Kakutani
Ms. Maggio's book supplies guidelines and alternatives to readers intent on using kinder, gentler language. But should All the King's Men be retitled All the Ruler's People?
Beware the Advozealots: Mindless Good Intentions Injure the Handicapped
521(5)
Bernard Rimland
"I have coined the word 'advozealot' to characterize the people who purport to be advocates for the handicapped but are in fact zealous advocates of their own Alice in Wonderland ideology."
CASE STUDY: WORDS THAT HURT
526(27)
"Nigger": The Meaning of a Word
526(4)
Gloria Naylor
"I was later to go home and ask the inevitable question that every black parent must face-'Mommy, what does "nigger" mean?"
The Etymology of the International Insult
530(3)
Charles F. Berlitz
"Will man ever be able to rise above using the insult as a weapon?"
The "R" Word: How Do You Avoid Saying "Retarded"?
533(3)
John Cook
The American Association on Mental Retardation has voted to change its name. No one can agree on a replacement, but the group has pledged to change it to something better-something less reflective of schoolyard taunts.
Crimes Against Humanity
536(7)
Ward Churchill
"Understand that the treatment of Indians in American popular culture is not "cute" or "amusing" or just "good, clean fun." Know that it causes real pain and real suffering to real people."
Queer
543(4)
Lillian Faderman
"Many gays and lesbians have embraced the term 'queer' in self-description that not only valorizes it but also says to straights who might still want to use that word derogatorily, 'In your face!"
Discrimination at Large
547(2)
Jennifer A. Coleman
"The jokes and attitudes [regarding obese people] are as wrong and damaging as any racial slur."
Where Heaven and Earth Touch: A National "Speak No Evil Day"
549(6)
Joseph Telushkin
"Speak No Evil Day" would have both short- and long-term goals: to eliminate all vicious and unfair talk for twenty-four hours, and thus plant the seed of a more permanent shift in our consciousness.
9 Language in the USA 553(48)
WHAT IS "STANDARD" ENGLISH?
555(27)
Why Good English Is Good for You
555(9)
John Simon
"The person who does not respect words and their proper relationships cannot have much respect for ideas-very possibly cannot have ideas at all."
Everyone Has an Accent but Me
564(6)
John Esling
"The fact is that everyone has an accent. Accent defines and communicates who we are ... [it is] the map that listeners perceive through their ears rather than their eyes ..."
Label Babel
570(2)
Richard Liebmann-Smith
Why are people from England called "English," but people from New England referred to as "New Englanders"? As this writer explains, when it comes to labeling other nationalities, we seem to make up the rules as we go along.
Good English and Bad
572(10)
Bill Bryson
"Considerations of what makes for good English or bad English are to an uncomfortably large extent matters of prejudice and conditioning."
CASE STUDY: ENGLISH ONLY OR BILINGUALISM?
582(6)
Bilingualism in America: English Should Be the Only Language
582(6)
S.I. Hayakawa
"Rather than insisting that it is the immigrant's duty to learn the language of this country, the government has acted instead as if it has a duty to accommodate an immigrant in his native language."
EXPLORING THE LANGUAGE Of VISUALS: "PLEASE DO NOT FEED PIGEONS"
588(13)
Let's Not Say Adiós to Bilingual Education
590(4)
Lourdes Rovira
"Bilingualism not only prepares students for today's increasingly global economy and promotes cognitive development and creative thinking, it also instills pride."
A Nation Divided by One language
594(3)
James Crawford
"Rejecting bilingual education [is] a way to 'send a message' that, in the United States, English and only English is appropriate for use in the public square."
My Spanish Standoff
597(4)
Gabriella Kuntz
"... [T]he prejudice I experienced ... prompted my husband and me to decide that English, and English only, would be spoken in our house."
Credits 601(8)
Index of Authors and Titles 609


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