9780130085108

Fiber Optic Communications

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780130085108

  • ISBN10:

    0130085103

  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 9/10/2004
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Supplemental Materials

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Summary

This new and fully revised Fifth Edition of Fiber Optic Communications incorporates coverage of significant advances made in the fiber industry in recent years to present a comprehensive and in-depth introduction to the basics of communicating with optical fiber transmission lines. Readers will learn system design as well as operating principles, characteristics, and application of the components that comprise fiber-optic systems.New and expanded topics include Raman amplifier, erbium-doped waveguide amplifier, the arrayed waveguide grating, electroabsorption modulator, optical micro-electro-mechanical (MEMs) components, dispersion compensation, tunable light sources, tunable filters, optical time-division multiplexing, dense and course wavelength-division multiplexing, increased utilization of the optical spectrum, and emphasis on external modulation. Other topics include fiber lasers and optical amplifiers, vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes, dense wavelength-division multiplexing, fiber Bragg grating technology, new component descriptions (fiber attenuator, circulator, and polarization controller), new phenomena descriptions (polarization mode dispersion, mode-partition noise), and power penalty. Expanded discussions of additional topics include polarization effects in fiber systems, integrated optic components, practical fiber connectors and how to minimize reflections.For practicing design engineers concerned with the selection and application of components and with the design of applications systems. For professionals involved with fiber optics, including high-level engineering decision makers, project managers, technicians, marketing and sales personnel, and teachers.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Fiber Optic Communications Systems
1(39)
Historical Perspective
1(1)
The Basic Communications System
2(18)
Nature of Light
20(4)
Advantages of Fibers
24(4)
Applications of Fiber Optic Communications
28(5)
Summary and Discussion
33(7)
Problems
37(2)
References
39(1)
Optics Review
40(21)
Ray Theory and Applications
40(4)
Lenses
44(5)
Imaging
49(3)
Numerical Aperture
52(2)
Diffraction
54(4)
Summary and Discussion
58(3)
Problems
59(1)
References
60(1)
Lightwave Fundamentals
61(32)
Electromagnetic Waves
61(3)
Dispersion, Pulse Distortion, and Information Rate
64(13)
Polarization
77(1)
Resonant Cavities
78(4)
Reflection at a Plane Boundary
82(5)
Critical-Angle Reflections
87(2)
Summary and Discussion
89(4)
Problems
90(2)
References
92(1)
Integrated Optic Waveguides
93(29)
Dielectric-Slab Waveguide
93(1)
Modes in the Symmetric-Slab Waveguide
94(9)
Modes in the Asymmetric-Slab Waveguide
103(1)
Coupling to the Waveguide
104(7)
Dispersion and Distortion in the Slab Waveguide
111(2)
Integrated Optic Components
113(5)
Summary and Discussion
118(4)
Problems
119(2)
References
121(1)
Optic Fiber Waveguides
122(54)
Step-Index Fiber
122(3)
Graded-Index Fiber
125(4)
Attenuation
129(10)
Modes and Fields in Step-Index Fibers
139(6)
Modes and Fields in Graded-Index Fibers
145(3)
Pulse Distortion and Information Rate in Optic Fibers
148(9)
Construction of Optic Fibers
157(5)
Optic-Fiber Cables
162(8)
Summary and Discussion
170(6)
Problems
172(2)
References
174(2)
Optical Sources and Amplifiers
176(42)
Light-Emitting Diodes
176(3)
Light-Emitting-Diode Operating Characteristics
179(7)
Laser Principles
186(5)
Laser Diodes
191(1)
Laser-Diode Operating Characteristics
192(8)
Narrow-Spectral-Width and Tunable Laser Diodes
200(3)
Optical Amplifiers
203(8)
Fiber Lasers
211(2)
Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser Diodes
213(1)
Summary and Discussion
213(5)
Problems
214(3)
References
217(1)
Light Detectors
218(20)
Principles of Photodetection
218(1)
Photomultiplier
219(4)
Semiconductor Photodiode
223(2)
PIN Photodiode
225(7)
Avalanche Photodiode
232(2)
Summary and Discussion
234(4)
Problems
235(2)
References
237(1)
Couplers and Connectors
238(36)
Connector Principles
238(12)
Fiber-End Preparation
250(2)
Splices
252(5)
Connectors
257(8)
Source Coupling
265(6)
Summary and Discussion
271(3)
Problems
271(2)
References
273(1)
Distribution Networks and Fiber Components
274(47)
Distribution Networks
275(9)
Directional Couplers
284(5)
Star Couplers
289(2)
Switches
291(2)
Fiber-Optical Isolator
293(3)
Wavelength-Division Multiplexing
296(7)
Fiber Bragg Gratings
303(2)
Arrayed-Waveguide Gratings
305(3)
MEMS Switches
308(5)
Other Components: Attenuator, Circulator, and Polarization Controller
313(2)
Summary and Discussion
315(6)
Problems
316(3)
References
319(2)
Modulation
321(36)
Light-Emitting-Diode Modulation and Circuits
321(7)
Laser-Diode Modulation and Circuits
328(2)
Analog-Modulation Formats
330(4)
Digital-Modulation Formats
334(8)
Electroabsorption Modulator
342(3)
Optic-Heterodyne Receivers
345(6)
Summary and Discussion
351(6)
Problems
353(2)
References
355(2)
Noise and Detection
357(40)
Thermal and Shot Noise
357(4)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
361(10)
Error Rates
371(8)
Modal Noise, Mode-Partition Noise, Amplifier Noise, Laser Noise, and Jitter
379(8)
Other Sources of Noise
387(1)
Receiver Circuit Design
388(3)
Summary and Discussion
391(6)
Problems
392(3)
References
395(2)
System Design
397(18)
Design of Analog Systems
397(4)
Design of Digital Systems
401(11)
Summary and Discussion
412(3)
Problems
413(1)
References
414(1)
Answers to Selected Problems 415(7)
Bibliography 422(8)
Index 430

Excerpts

Fiber optic communications developed very quickly after the first low-loss fibers were produced in 1970. Operational fiber systems are now common, and new installations and applications appear continually. Communication by fibers has taken over many of the functions previously performed by copper-based systems and extended them significantly. Fibers have become an enabling technology in the information society in which we live. They work together with the remaining copper applications and the growing wireless infrastructure to meet our expanding communications needs.Fiber technology has matured sufficiently so that many books have been written on the subject. Some of these books are quite detailed in terms of theoretical and mathematical content, and the beginner could find the level difficult.This text is intended to be less difficult, while still bringing to the reader the information necessary to understand the design, operation, and capabilities of fiber systems. Important theoretical and mathematical results are given without accompanying lengthy proofs. However, results are explained in physical terms when possible and appropriate, and extensive tables and figures are used to make those results readily usable. To provide a realistic view, numerical values are given for the ranges of typical device parameters.When the first edition of this book appeared in 1984, fibers had already crisscrossed much of the United States and many other countries to deliver telephone messages between the major exchanges. By 1988, when the second edition was published, the land-based long-distance fiber telephone network was nearly complete, and submarine fiber telephone cables were being installed beneath the major oceans. In addition, fiber optic local-area networks (LANs) were in development. When the third edition went to press in 1992, over 10 million kilometers of fiber had been installed worldwide, undersea cables were being constructed, and installation of fiber LANs was increasing. By 1998, when the fourth edition was published, numerous submarine fiber cables covering the Atlantic and Pacific oceans and many smaller seas were operational. In addition, numerous tests had been completed for bringing fiber to all homes, holding out the promise for expanded services to the individual subscriber. With this fifth edition, we note several new developments. The demand for more transmission bandwidth (particularly for Internet and business applications) has required design of fiber systems carrying information at terabit-per-second rates over great distances. Metropolitan area networks (MANS) have become significant parts of the fiber industry. Bringing fiber connections to the home is still a goal, but an elusive one. Economic considerations have slowed progress in this direction.It is the insatiable demand for greater bandwidth that makes this fifth edition necessary. The fundamentals have not changed, but new technological advances and improvements have emerged to satisfy this demand. I have attempted to work these new ideas into the previous edition with as little disruption as possible.This is an introductory book. No background in fiber optics or in optic communications is assumed. Only the simplest concepts from algebra and trigonometry are invoked in explaining the characteristics of fiber systems. Appropriate background material on optics, electronics, and communications is introduced in the text as needed.This book was originally based on a set of notes I developed and used for numerous short courses on fiber optic communications. Participants in these courses had training ranging from two years of technical school through the Ph.D. level. Jobs varied from designer to board chairman. Attendees included personnel from industry, government, and academia. Individual backgrounds were in chemistry, physics, and many areas of engineering. In addition to the short course presentatior3.s, I have

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