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Foundations of American Education

by ; ;
ISBN13:

9780131716704

ISBN10:
0131716700
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

Why is the understanding of the fundamentals of American education important to todayrs"s teachers? Explore this book for answers to this fundamental question and gain an understanding of how the evolution of education impacts todayrs"s teaching and learning. Become a highly qualified teacher by connecting theory and practice, and by examining the philosophical and historical roots of education, its current structures, and the future of the field. This 5th edition invites the reader to reflect on historical issues, consider and respond to current educational issues, and become a professional, highly qualified teacher.

Table of Contents

PART 1 The Teaching Profession
Status of the Profession
2(28)
The Teacher and Teaching: Definitions
4(1)
Profile of the Teaching Profession
4(1)
Why Become a Teacher?
5(1)
Satisfactions and Dissatisfactions With Teaching
6(1)
Ask Yourself: Do I Want to Be a Teacher?
7(1)
Teacher Preparation
8(2)
Baccalaureate Teacher Education Programs
8(2)
Historical Note: The Columbian School: The First Formal Teacher Training Institution
10(3)
Alternative Teacher Preparation Programs
12(1)
Video Insight: Teacher Shortage: Alternative Certification
13(1)
Minority Representation in the Teaching Force
13(1)
Teacher Certification
14(4)
Assessment for Initial Certification and Licensure
15(1)
Emergency Certification
15(1)
Recertification
16(1)
Interstate Certification
16(1)
National Certification: The NBPTS
17(1)
Teacher Supply and Demand
18(1)
Salary and Other Compensation
19(3)
Salary Schedules
19(1)
Performance-based and Competency-based Pay Plans
20(2)
Controversial Issue: Individual Performance-based Pay
22(2)
Compensation for Supplemental Activities
22(1)
Salaries for Administrative and Support Personnel
22(1)
Indirect Compensation: Employee Benefits and Services
23(1)
Rating the Schools and Teaching
24(1)
Professional Reflection
24(2)
Summary
26(1)
Key Terms
26(1)
Professional Development Workshop
26(4)
Development of the Profession
30(22)
Teaching as a Profession
32(1)
Requirements of a Profession
32(4)
Specialized Knowledge and Preparation
32(1)
Provision of Essential Services to Society
33(1)
The Exercise of Discretion
33(1)
Autonomy and Freedom From Direct Supervision
33(1)
Code of Professional Standards
33(1)
Professional Codes of Ethics
34(2)
The Increased Professionalization of Teaching
36(5)
Development of Professional Standards
36(1)
Professional Development
37(3)
Career Advancement
40(1)
Controversial Issue: Teacher Tenure
41(1)
Evaluating Teacher Performance
42(1)
Teachers' Organizations
42(2)
National Organizations for Teachers
44(1)
Historical Note: The Birth of Teachers' Unions
44(2)
State Organizations for Teachers
45(1)
Local Organizations for Teachers
45(1)
Subject-Matter Organizations for Teachers
46(1)
Teachers' Organizations and Public Policy Issues
46(1)
Professional Reflection
46(1)
Summary
47(1)
Key Terms
47(1)
Professional Development Workshop
47(5)
PART 2 Philosophy and Its Impact on the Schools
The Major Philosophies
52(20)
What Is Philosophy?
54(1)
Branches of Philosophy
54(2)
Metaphysics: What Is the Nature of Reality?
55(1)
Epistemology: What Is the Nature of Knowledge?
55(1)
Axiology: What Is the Nature of Values?
56(1)
Controversial Issue: Should Moral Education, Character Education, Ethics, or Values Education Be a Responsibility of the School?
56(1)
Ask Yourself: What Is My Philosophy of Life?
57(1)
Traditional Philosophies and Their Educational Implications
57(3)
Idealism
58(2)
Historical Note: Plato's Academy
60(3)
Realism
60(2)
Neo-Thomism
62(1)
Contemporary Philosophies and Their Educational Implications
63(4)
Pragmatism
63(2)
Existentialism
65(2)
Analytic Philosophy
67(1)
Professional Reflection
67(1)
Summary
68(1)
Key Terms
69(1)
Professional Development Workshop
69(3)
The Impact of Educational Theories on Educational Practice
72(28)
Theories of Education
74(1)
Perennialism
74(1)
Purpose of Schooling
74(1)
Historical Note: St. Thomas Aquinas
75(2)
Nature of the Learner
75(1)
Curriculum
75(1)
Instructional Methods
76(1)
Classroom Management
76(1)
Assessment
76(1)
The Perennialist Teacher
76(1)
Leading Educational Proponents
76(1)
Progressivism
77(4)
Purpose of Schooling
77(1)
Nature of the Learner
77(1)
Curriculum
78(1)
Instructional Methods
79(1)
Classroom Management
79(1)
Assessment
79(1)
The Progressivist Teacher
79(1)
Leading Educational Proponents
80(1)
Behaviorism
81(4)
Purpose of Schooling
82(1)
Nature of the Learner
82(1)
Curriculum
82(1)
Instructional Methods
83(1)
Classroom Management
83(1)
Assessment
83(1)
The Behaviorist Teacher
83(1)
Leading Educational Proponents
84(1)
Essentialism
85(2)
Purpose of Schooling
85(1)
Nature of the Learner
85(1)
Curriculum
85(1)
Instructional Methods
85(1)
Classroom Management
86(1)
Assessment
86(1)
The Essentialist Teacher
86(1)
Leading Educational Proponents
86(1)
Social Reconstructionism
87(4)
Purpose of Schooling
88(1)
Nature of the Learner
88(1)
Curriculum
89(1)
Instructional Methods
89(1)
Classroom Management
89(1)
Assessment
89(1)
The Social Reconstructionist Teacher
90(1)
Leading Educational Proponents
90(1)
Postmoderism
91(2)
Purpose of Schooling
91(1)
Nature of the Learner
92(1)
Curriculum
92(1)
Instructional Methods
92(1)
Classroom Management
92(1)
Assessment
93(1)
The Postmodernist Teacher
93(1)
Leading Educational Proponents
93(1)
Identifying Your Philosophy of Education
93(1)
Professional Reflection
94(1)
Ask Yourself: What Is My Philosophy of Education?
95(1)
Summary
95(1)
Key Terms
95(1)
Professional Development Workshop
96(4)
PART 3 Historical Foundations of Education
American Education: European Heritage and Colonial Experience
100(28)
European Background of American Education
102(3)
Education in Ancient Societies
102(3)
Ask Yourself: Does Corporal Punishment Have a Place in the Schools?
105(3)
Education in the Middle Ages
106(2)
Historical Note: Life of the Medieval University Student
108(6)
Education During the Renaissance
108(1)
Education During the Reformation
109(2)
Later European Educational Thought
111(3)
Education in the ``New'' Old World Before Jamestown
114(2)
Native American Education
116(1)
Education in Colonial America
116(7)
Education in the New England Colonies
117(3)
Education in the Mid-Atlantic Colonies
120(2)
Education in the Southern Colonies
122(1)
Professional Reflection
123(2)
Summary
125(1)
Key Terms
125(1)
Professional Development Workshop
125(3)
American Education: From Revolution to the Twentieth Century
128(32)
Education in the Early National Period
130(6)
Northwest Land Ordinances
130(1)
Nationalism and Education
130(3)
Educational Innovations
133(2)
The Growth of the Academy
135(1)
The Common School Movement
136(5)
Moving Forces
136(2)
Leading Proponents of the Common School
138(2)
Growth of State and Local Support and Supervision
140(1)
Organization and Curriculum
141(1)
Secondary School Movement
141(1)
Slow Beginnings
141(1)
Controversial Issue: Single-Sex Schools and Classes
142(3)
The Movement Grows as Industry and the Economy Grow
142(1)
Tax Support, Compulsory Attendance, and the Decline of Illiteracy
143(1)
The Committee of Ten
143(1)
The Seven Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education
144(1)
The Junior High School
144(1)
Developments in Higher Education
145(2)
The Dartmouth College Case
145(1)
The Morrill Acts and the Establishment of Land-Grant Institutions
145(1)
Higher Education for Women
146(1)
The Emergence of the Modern University
147(1)
Founding of Junior Colleges
147(1)
Education of Minorities
147(5)
Education of Native Americans
147(3)
Education of Hispanic Americans
150(1)
Education of Asian Americans
150(1)
Education of Black Americans
151(1)
Historical Note: Zeal for Learning Among Freedmen, 1868
152(2)
Teacher Education
154(2)
Establishment of Normal Schools
154(1)
Teacher Institutes
155(1)
Normal School Curriculum and Standards Strengthened
155(1)
Universities Enter Teacher Training
156(1)
Professional Reflection
156(1)
Summary
157(1)
Key Terms
157(1)
Professional Development Workshop
157(3)
Modern American Education: From the Progressive Movement to the Present
160(32)
The Twentieth Century Unfolds
162(1)
The People and the Nation Grow
162(1)
Economic Growth
162(1)
Politics and Reform
162(1)
Changes in Education
163(1)
Progressivism in Education
163(2)
The Beginnings of Progressive Education
163(1)
John Dewey
164(1)
Ella Flagg Young
165(1)
Historical Note: Ella Flagg Young, Pioneer School Administrator
165(6)
Progressive Education Association
166(1)
Influence of the Progressive Movement on Higher Education
166(1)
The Child Study Movement
167(1)
The Measurement Movement
167(1)
Education During the Great Depression
168(1)
George S. Counts and Social Reconstructionism
169(1)
William C. Bagley and the Essentialists
169(1)
The Influence of the Second World War
170(1)
The Postwar Years
171(1)
The Critics and the Decline of Progressive Education
171(1)
The Montessori Movement
172(1)
From Sputnik to the New Federalism
172(3)
Curriculum Reforms
172(1)
Education and the War on Poverty
173(1)
The Civil Rights Movement
174(1)
Video Insight: The Reunion
175(5)
The 1970s: Retreat and Retrenchment
177(1)
The 1980s: Renewed Conservatism and Reform
178(2)
The 1990s: National Goals, National Standards, and Choice
180(3)
School Choice
182(1)
Controversial Issue: Parental Public School Choice
183(1)
The End of a Presidency, the End of a Century
184(1)
A New Century Begins
184(2)
No Child Left Behind
184(2)
Changing Roles
186(1)
Professional Reflection
186(1)
Summary
187(1)
Key Terms
187(1)
Professional Development Workshop
187(5)
PART 4 Schooling in a Diverse and Multicultural Society
The Social and Cultural Contexts of Schooling: Their Influence and Consequence
192(28)
The Relationship Between School and Society
194(1)
Agents of Socialization
194(1)
The School
194(1)
The Family
194(1)
Video Insight: Family Lost, Family Found: Children Raised by Their Grandparents
195(2)
The Peer Group
196(1)
Religion
196(1)
The Mass Media
196(1)
The Purposes and Expectations of Schooling
197(2)
Functionalist Perspective
197(1)
Conflict Theory Perspective
198(1)
Interactionist Perspective
199(1)
The Diverse Student Population
199(1)
Social Class
200(1)
Historical Note: The Concept of Social Class
200(2)
Controversial Issue: Standardized Testing
202(5)
Hispanic Americans
203(1)
African Americans
204(1)
Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders
205(1)
Native Americans (American Indians and Alaska Natives)
205(2)
The Racial and Ethnic Achievement Gap
207(3)
The Racial and Ethnic Attainment Gap
210(1)
The Declining Gender Gap
211(3)
Students With Exceptionalities
214(1)
Language Diversity
215(1)
Professional Reflection
216(1)
Summary
216(1)
Key Terms
216(1)
Professional Development Workshop
217(3)
Responding to Diversity
220(24)
Diversity and Culture
222(1)
Cultural Influences on Teaching, Learning, and Behavior
223(1)
Culturally Relevant Teaching
224(2)
Strategies for Teaching Culturally Diverse Students
226(1)
Multicultural Education
226(2)
Approaches to Multicultural Education
227(1)
The Multicultural Education Debate
228(1)
Supporting English Language Learners
228(2)
Video Insight: Controversy Over Bilingual Education
230(2)
Services to Immigrant Children and Youth
230(2)
Historical Note: Tape v. Hurley: The Chinese Struggle for Education
232(1)
Compensatory Education for Disadvantaged Students
232(1)
Types of Programs
233(1)
Creating Equal Educational Opportunities for Students With Disabilities
233(4)
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
234(2)
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
236(1)
The Inclusion Debate
237(1)
Ask Yourself: Inclusion Checklist
237(1)
Promoting Gender Equity
238(1)
Strategies for Achieving Gender Equity
239(1)
Professional Reflection
239(1)
Summary
240(1)
Key Terms
240(1)
Professional Development Workshop
241(3)
Students at Risk
244(28)
At-Risk Children and Youth
246(2)
Identifying At-Risk Students
246(1)
Risk, Resiliency, and Protective Factors
246(2)
Tobacco, Drug, and Alcohol Use and Abuse
248(2)
The Effects of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
249(1)
Identifying Alcohol and Drug Use
249(1)
Prevention and Intervention Strategies
250(1)
Suicide
250(3)
Identifying the Suicidal Child or Adolescent
251(1)
Prevention and Intervention Strategies
252(1)
Controversial Issue: The School's Role in Suicide Prevention
253(1)
Dropping Out of School
253(1)
Identifying the Potential Dropout
254(1)
Prevention and Intervention Strategies
254(1)
Teenage Pregnancy
254(2)
Consequences of Adolescent Pregnancy
255(1)
Prevention and Intervention Strategies
256(1)
HIV/AIDS and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections
256(2)
Prevention and Intervention Strategies
257(1)
Historical Note: Outcasts: Three HIV-Positive Brothers Barred From School
258(1)
Child Abuse and Neglect
258(4)
Physical Abuse
259(1)
Child Neglect
259(1)
Sexual Abuse
259(1)
Emotional Abuse
260(1)
Identifying Child Abuse and Neglect
260(1)
Prevention and Intervention Strategies
261(1)
School Violence
262(3)
Bullying
262(2)
Prevention and Intervention Strategies
264(1)
Video Insight: Action, Reaction, and Zero Tolerance: How Far Is Too Far?
265(1)
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and Questioning Youth
265(2)
Improving the School Climate
266(1)
Professional Reflection
267(1)
Summary
267(1)
Key Terms
268(1)
Professional Development Workshop
268(4)
PART 5 Legal and Political Control and Financial Support
Legal Framework for the Public Schools
272(28)
Federal Constitutional Provisions Affecting Education
274(3)
General Welfare Clause
275(1)
Obligation of Contracts Clause
275(1)
First Amendment
275(1)
Fourth Amendment
276(1)
Fifth Amendment
276(1)
Eighth Amendment
276(1)
Fourteenth Amendment
277(1)
State Constitutional Provisions Affecting Education
277(1)
Statutory Law
277(1)
Federal Statutes
278(1)
State Statutes
278(1)
Case Law
278(1)
Administrative Law
278(2)
Powers and Organization of the Courts
280(3)
The Federal Court System
280(2)
The State Court Systems
282(1)
Historical Note: Thurgood Marshall: Breaking the Color Barrier on the U.S. Supreme Court
283(1)
Religion and Education
283(8)
Religious Activities in the Public Schools
285(5)
Challenges to the Curriculum
290(1)
Video Insight: Religion Versus Science
291(3)
Public Aid to Private Schools
292(1)
Compulsory Attendance
293(1)
Private and Homeschooling
294(1)
Controversial Issue: Homeschooling
294(1)
Professional Reflection
295(1)
Summary
296(1)
Key Terms
296(1)
Professional Development Workshop
296(4)
Teachers, Students, and the Law
300(32)
Teacher Rights and Responsibilities
302(3)
Terms and Conditions of Employment
302(3)
Historical Note: Duties of a Colonial Schoolmaster
305(1)
Teacher Dismissal
305(1)
Video Insight: Transgender Teacher
306(13)
Constitutional Rights of Teachers
308(5)
Teacher Rights: Freedom From Employment Discrimination and Sexual Harassment
313(1)
Equal Opportunity and Affirmative Action
314(1)
Legal Responsibilities of Teachers
315(2)
Tort Liability of School District Employees
317(2)
Student Rights and Responsibilities
319(2)
Student Discipline
319(2)
Controversial Issue: Service Learning
321(7)
Search and Seizure
323(1)
Freedom of Expression
324(3)
Sexual Harassment of Students
327(1)
Student Records and Privacy
328(1)
Professional Reflection
328(1)
Summary
329(1)
Key Terms
329(1)
Professional Development Workshop
330(2)
Governance and Financing of Elementary and Secondary Schools
332(31)
The Context of the Public Schools
334(1)
Organization for Education
334(7)
Education at the Local Level
335(6)
Controversial Issue: Charter Schools
341(3)
Education at the State Level
341(2)
The Federal Government and Public Education
343(1)
Financing of Education
344(5)
Public Policy Goals in State School Finance
344(1)
State School Finance Programs
345(3)
Sources of Revenue for Schools
348(1)
Historical Note: The Lotteries and Education
349(4)
The Courts and School Finance
351(1)
Federal Aid for Elementary and Secondary Schools
351(2)
Private Education
353(1)
Video Insight: Vouchers
354(1)
Private School Enrollments
354(1)
Current Issues in the Governance and Financing of Education
354(2)
The New Federal Role
355(1)
Expanded State and Local Responsibilities
355(1)
Accountability
355(1)
Founding an Adequate Education
356(1)
Enrollment Increases
356(1)
Professional Reflection
356(1)
Summary
357(1)
Key Terms
357(1)
Professional Development Workshop
357(6)
PART 6 Curriculum and Instruction
The School Curriculum: Development and Design
363(21)
Forces Influencing the Curriculum
364(2)
National Curriculum Standards
365(1)
Textbooks
365(1)
Mandated Assessments
366(1)
Video Insight: Cheating 101: Pressures to Boost Standardized Test Scores
366(3)
State Governments
367(1)
Teachers
367(1)
Local School Boards
368(1)
Parent and Community Groups
368(1)
The Federal Government
369(1)
Curriculum Development
369(4)
Prescriptive Perspective
369(1)
Deliberative Perspective
370(1)
Critical Perspective
371(1)
Perspectives Compared
372(1)
Curriculum Mapping
373(1)
Patterns of Curriculum Design
373(2)
The Subject-Area Curriculum Design
374(1)
Historical Note: Phillips Exeter Academy Curriculum, 1818
375(3)
The Integrated Curriculum Design
376(1)
The Core Curriculum Design
376(1)
The Student-Centered Curriculum Design
377(1)
The Constructivism Curriculum Design
377(1)
The Social Justice Curriculum Design
378(1)
Curriculum Contrasts
378(1)
The Hidden and Null Curricula
378(1)
Controversial Issue: The Subject-Centered and Student-Centered Curricula
379(1)
The Curriculum Cycle
380(1)
Professional Reflection
380(1)
Summary
381(1)
Key Terms
381(1)
Professional Development Workshop
381(3)
Instructional Practices in Effective Schools
384(26)
Instructional Goals and Objectives
386(1)
Educational Goals
386(1)
Educational Objectives
386(1)
Taxonomies of Educational Objectives
387(1)
Models of Instruction
387(8)
The Information Processing Family of Models
389(2)
The Social Family of Models
391(3)
The Personal Family of Models
394(1)
The Behavioral Systems Family of Models
394(1)
Relationship Between Teaching and Learning
395(2)
Controversial Issue: Whole-School Reform Programs
397(1)
Historical Note: Polingaysi Qoyawayma
398(1)
Whole-School Reform Models
398(7)
Professional Reflection
405(1)
Summary
406(1)
Key Terms
406(1)
Professional Development Workshop
406(4)
PART 7 Projections for the Future
Trends in Education
410(17)
Historical Note: Nostradamus---Astrologer, Physician, and Futurist
412(1)
Changing Demographics
413(2)
Educational Implications of Changing Demographics
414(1)
Changing Governmental Roles
415(1)
Controversial Issue: Federally Mandated Assessments
416(1)
Educational Implications of Changing Governmental Roles
417(1)
Choice
417(2)
Educational Implications of Choice
418(1)
Increased Reliance on Technology
419(2)
Educational Implications of the Increased Reliance on Technology
420(1)
Globalization
421(2)
Educational Implications of Globalization
421(2)
Coping With the Future
423(1)
Professional Reflection
423(1)
Summary
424(1)
Key Terms
424(1)
Professional Development Workshop
425(2)
Glossary 427(10)
References 437(16)
Author Index 453(4)
Subject Index 457


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