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Foundations of American Education : Perspectives on Education in a Changing World,9780205323876
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Foundations of American Education : Perspectives on Education in a Changing World

by ; ; ; ;
Edition:
12th
ISBN13:

9780205323876

ISBN10:
0205323871
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

Keeping pace with current issues and trends, this classic text offers solid coverage of the foundational areas of education.This best-selling text continues to develop successful teachers by providing a broad introduction to the foundations of education based on interesting and current discussion of important theory and practice. The text offers a thorough overview of the historical, legal, philosophical, social, and practical aspects of American education. Each chapter is written by one of the five main authors, all respected authorities in their fields.

Table of Contents

INTASC Standards Table v
NCATE Standards Table vi
List of Features
xxi
Preface xxiii
PART ONE The Profession of Teaching xxx
Viewing Education through Professional Lenses
1(2)
Teaching as a Profession
Education in the News: No Crisis, but Trouble on the Way
3(1)
Learner Outcomes
4(1)
Today's Teachers
5(13)
The Importance of Teachers to Society
6(1)
The Public View of Teachers and Schools
6(2)
Who Teaches?
8(4)
Teachers Needed
12(6)
Teaching as a Profession
18(7)
Characteristics of a Profession
18(2)
Quality Assurance Continuum
20(4)
Professional Responsibilities
24(1)
Debate
Should Nationally Certified Teachers Be Paid More?
25(5)
Professional Dilemma
Who Is Cheating Now?
30(1)
Reflecting on One's Practice
30(5)
Relevant Research
Making Meaning of the Educational Portfolios
35(1)
Working with Colleagues, Other Professionals, and Students' Families
36(1)
Participating in the Profession
37(5)
Global Perspectives
Education International
42(1)
Challenges Affecting Teachers
42(5)
Salaries
42(5)
Working Conditions
47(1)
Beginning and Continuing a Teaching Career
47(4)
Becoming Licensed
48(1)
Searching for a Teaching Position
49(1)
Remaining a Teacher
50(1)
Summary
51(1)
Discussion Questions
52(1)
Journal Entries
52(1)
Portfolio Development
52(1)
School-Based Experiences
53(1)
Websites
53(1)
Notes
54(1)
Bibliography
54(2)
State Teacher Licensure Offices
56(2)
Professional and Religious Education Associations: A Selected List
58(2)
PART TWO School and Society 60(110)
Viewing Education through Sociological Lenses
61(2)
Diversity in Society
Education in the News: Little Newcomers in a Strange Land
63(1)
Learner Outcomes
63(2)
Culture and Society
65(2)
Characteristics of Culture
65(1)
Dominant or Mainstream Culture
65(1)
Microcultural Groups
66(1)
Diversity and Education
67(4)
Assimilation
68(1)
Cultural Pluralism
69(1)
Cultural Choice
70(1)
Socioeconomic Status
71(4)
Social Stratification
72(1)
Class Structure
72(1)
Poverty
73(2)
Ethnicity and Race
75(3)
Race
75(1)
Ethnicity
76(1)
Ethnic Diversity
76(2)
Relevant Research
Development of Racial and Gender Identity
78(1)
Gender
78(3)
Differences between Females and Males
78(3)
Global Perspectives
Poverty, Illiteracy, and School Attendance in China
81(1)
Sexual Orientation
81(1)
Language
82(2)
Language Diversity
82(1)
Dialectal Diversity
83(1)
Professional Dilemma
Communicating with Parents of English Language Learners
84(1)
Exceptionalities
84(2)
Inclusion
85(1)
Debate
Are Too Many Kids Labeled Gifted?
86(2)
Cultural Differences
88(1)
Disproportionate Placements
88(1)
Religion
88(2)
Religious Pluralism
88(1)
Religion in Schools
89(1)
Geography
90(3)
Rural Communities
90(1)
Suburban Communities
91(1)
Urban Communities
92(1)
Cultural Identity
93(1)
Intragroup Differences
93(1)
Biculturalism and Multiculturalism
93(1)
Summary
94(2)
Discussion Questions
96(1)
Journal Entries
96(1)
Portfolio Development
96(1)
School-Based Experiences
97(1)
Websites
97(1)
Notes
98(1)
Bibliography
99(2)
Schools Facing Social challenges
Education in the News: Racial Gap in Schools Splits a Town Proud of Diversity
101(1)
Learner Outcomes
101(2)
Groups in Society
103(5)
Power and Domination
103(2)
Ethnocentrism
105(1)
Prejudice and Discrimination
106(2)
Today's Families
108(2)
Parenting
109(1)
Professional Dilemma
What If He Has Two Mommies?
110(1)
Latchkey Children
110(2)
Homeless Students
112(1)
Abuse
112(1)
Today's Youth
113(9)
Who Is This Generation?
114(2)
Challenges of Youth Culture
116(6)
Democracy and Schooling
122(2)
Equality and Education
122(2)
Relevant Research
Conflict of Liberal Discourse and Self-Interest
124(1)
Roles of Schools
125(2)
Purposes of Schools
127(3)
Debate
Can Retention Be Good for a Student?
130(2)
Whose Schools?
132(1)
Global Perspectives
Universal Values
133(1)
Democratic Schools
133(2)
Summary
135(1)
Discussion Questions
136(1)
Journal Entries
136(1)
Portfolio Development
137(1)
School-Based Experiences
137(1)
Websites
137(1)
Notes
138(1)
Bibliography
139(2)
Education That is Multicultural
Education in the News: Internet at School is Changing Work of Students---and Teachers
141(1)
Learner Outcomes
142(1)
Undergirding Tenets
143(3)
Diversity
144(1)
Social Justice and Equality
145(1)
Global Perspectives
Antiracist and Multicultural Education
146(1)
Culture of the School
146(2)
Traditions
147(1)
Hidden Curriculum
147(1)
Culturally Relevant Teaching
148(5)
Building on cultural Context
148(1)
Centering the Cultures of Students
149(2)
Validating Student Voices
151(2)
Debate
Should We Correct Students' Grammar All the Time, Every Time?
153(1)
Educational Challenges
154(5)
The Challenge of Technology and Equity
155(2)
The Challenge of Gender-Sensitive Education
157(2)
Relevant Research
Boys and Girls in Performance-Based Science Classrooms
159(1)
The Challenge of Language Diversity
159(2)
Teachers as Social Activists
161(2)
Thinking Critically
161(1)
Practicing Equity in the Classroom
162(1)
Professional Dilemma
Harassment in Schools
163(1)
Teaching for Social Justice
163(1)
Involving Communities and Families
164(1)
Summary
165(1)
Discussion Questions
166(1)
Journal Entries
166(1)
Portfolio Development
166(1)
School-Based Experiences
167(1)
Websites
167(1)
Notes
168(1)
Bibliography
169(1)
PART THREE Governance and Support of American Education 170(108)
Viewing Education through Organizational Lenses
171(2)
Organizing and Paying for American Education
Education in the News: Study: School Choice Popular; Academic Results are Unclear
173(1)
Learner Outcomes
174(1)
The Structure of the American Education System
175(22)
The Organization of Schools
176(4)
Organization of the School District
180(2)
Organization of Education at the State Level
182(4)
The Federal Government's Role in Education
186(3)
Other Types of Education Agencies
189(1)
Choice: Increasing Options along with Uncertain Outcomes
190(5)
Issues Related to Organization and Structure
195(2)
Professional Dilemma
What is the Appropriate Role for Teachers When the Politics Get Rough?
197(3)
The Financing of Education: Sources of Funds and the Move from Equity to Adequacy
200(6)
A System of Taxation and Support for Schools
201(5)
Relevant Research
Reform of School Finance in Michigan
206(2)
Debate
Has Student Fund-Raising Gone Too Far?
208(2)
Education Spending
210(3)
Perennial School Finance Issues
213(2)
Accountability
215(4)
Global Perspectives
International Comparisons in Spending for Schools
219(1)
Summary
220(2)
Discussion Questions
222(1)
Journal Entries
222(1)
Portfolio Development
223(1)
School-Based Experiences
223(1)
Websites
223(1)
Notes
224(1)
Bibliography
225(2)
Legal Foundations of Education
Education in the News: Prayers are Heard at Football Games Despite Ruling
227(1)
Learner Outcomes
227(2)
Legal Aspects of Education
229(18)
Legal Provisions for Education: The U.S. Constitution
229(2)
Church and State
231(8)
Segregation and Desegregation
239(5)
Equal Opportunity
244(3)
Professional Dilemma
What Will You Do If a Child in Your Classroom Has AIDS?
247(1)
Teachers' Rights and Responsibilities
248(1)
Conditions of Employment
248(6)
Academic Freedom
254(2)
Liability for Negligence
256
Students' Rights and Responsibilities
248(14)
Students' Rights as Citizens
259(3)
Debate
Should Teachers and Support Staff Be Able to Suspend Students?
262(3)
Students' Rights and Responsibilities in School
265(7)
Relevant Research
Zero Tolerance, Zero Sense
272(1)
Global Perspectives
Legal Aspects of Education in Other Countries
272(2)
Summary
274(1)
Discussion Questions
275(1)
Journal Entries
275(1)
Portfolio Development
276(1)
School-Based Experiences
276(1)
Websites
276(1)
Notes
277(1)
Bibliography
277(1)
PART FOUR Historical Foundations of Education 278(96)
Viewing Education through Historical Lenses
279(2)
Antecedents of American Education
Education in the News: Quintilian Defines ``An Ideal Teacher''
281(1)
Learner Outcomes
281(1)
The Beginnings of Education (to A. D. 476)
282(1)
Global Perspectives
Educational Ideas Borrowed from around the World
283(1)
Non-Western Education
283(2)
Western Education ---The Greeks
285(2)
Western Education---The Romans
287(1)
Relevant Research
School Violence
288(1)
Education in the Middle Ages (476--1300)
289(2)
The Dark Ages (400--1000)
289(1)
The Revival of Learning
290(1)
Professional Dilemma
Can a Knowledge of History Help to Improve Multicultural Education?
291(1)
Education in Transition (1300--1700)
291(3)
The Renaissance
292(1)
The Reformation
292(2)
Modern Period (1700-Present)
294(2)
The Age of Reason
294(1)
The Emergence of Common Man
295(1)
Debate
Should Kids Read Goosebumps?
296(4)
summary
300(1)
Discussion Questions
301(1)
Journal Entries
301(1)
Portfolio Development
302(1)
School-Based Experiences
302(1)
Websites
302(1)
Notes
302(1)
Bibliography
303(2)
The Important Role of Education in Our Developing Nation
Education in the News: Why Study History?
305(1)
Learner outcomes
306(1)
Providing Education in the New World
307(3)
Colonial Education
307(2)
The Struggle for Universal Elementary Education
309(1)
Global Perspectives
Educational Transplantation from Europe
310(1)
The Need for Secondary Schools
311(2)
Aims of American Education
313(1)
Relevant Research
Critiquing Historical Sources
314(2)
History of Federal Involvement
316(1)
Preparation of Teachers
317(1)
Global Perspectives
European Beginnings of Teacher Training
317(4)
Evolution of Teaching Materials
321(1)
Debate
Should NEA Affiliates Help Get Rid of Bad Teachers?
322(5)
Education for Diverse Populations
327(5)
Education of African Americans
327(4)
Education of Women
331(1)
Global Perspectives
Maria Montessori
332(1)
Private Education in America
333(1)
Professional Dilemma
Can a Teacher Both Defend and Criticize Past and Present Schools?
334(2)
Summary
336(1)
Discussion Questions
337(1)
Journal Entries
337(1)
Portfolio Development
338(1)
School-Based Experiences
338(1)
Websites
338(1)
Notes
339(1)
Bibliography
339(2)
Using Recent History to Improve Student Learning
Education in the News: Is History Knowable?
341(51)
Learner Outcomes
392
More Students and Bigger Schools
342(4)
The Rapid Growth of the Educational Enterprise
342(1)
School District Consolidation
343(2)
Growth of Programs
345(1)
Debate
Should Seat Belts Be Mandatory on School Buses?
346(3)
Relevant Research
Student Homework
349(2)
A Developing Profession
351(6)
The Increasing Complexity of the Educational Enterprise
351(6)
Recent Trends in Education
357(3)
New Emphases in Education
358(2)
Global Perspectives
Jean Piaget
360(2)
Professional Dilemma
How Can the Busy Teacher Keep Up with Historical and Contemporary Research?
362(1)
Global Perspectives
Educators' Worldwide Responsibility
363(3)
Summary
366(1)
Discussion Questions
367(1)
Journal Entries
367(1)
Portfolio Development
368(1)
School-Based Experiences
368(1)
Websites
368(1)
Notes
369(1)
Bibliography
369(1)
Important Dates in the History of Western Education
370(4)
PART FIVE Philosophical Foundations of Education 374(86)
Viewing Education through Philosophical Lenses
375(2)
Philosophy: The Passion to Understand
Education in the News: The Cheating Game
377(1)
Learner Outcomes
378(1)
Structure and Methodology of Philosophy
378(6)
The Branches of Philosophy
379(2)
Thinking as a Philosopher
381(3)
Professional Dilemma
Should Ethics Be Taught in Public Schools?
384(1)
Schools of Philosophy and Their Influence on Education
385(2)
Idealism
386(1)
Relevant Research
Teaching for Critical Thinking
387(2)
Realism
389(3)
Pragmatism
392(1)
Existentialism
393(1)
Debate
Should Schools Sell Cola Companies Exclusive Rights?
394(3)
Eastern Ways of Knowing
397(2)
Global Perspectives
The Fabric of Eastern Ways of Knowing
399(1)
Native North American Ways of Knowing
400(2)
Summary
402(1)
Discussion Questions
403(1)
Journal Entries
403(1)
Portfolio Development
403(1)
School-Based Experiences
403(1)
Websites
404(1)
Notes
404(1)
Bibliography
405(2)
Educational Theory in American Schools: Philosophy in Action
Education in the News: A Wake-Up Call
407(1)
Learner Outcomes
407(3)
Authoritarian Educational Theories
410(3)
Perennialism
410(2)
Essentialism
412(1)
Debate
Should Today's Education Be Relevant to Tomorrow's Job Market?
413(3)
Behaviorism
416(2)
Positivism
418(1)
Nonauthoritarian Educational Theories
419(7)
Progressivism
419(2)
Reconstructionism
421(2)
Humanism
423(2)
Constructivism
425(1)
Professional Dilemma
Should I Use Homogeneous or Heterogeneous Ability Grouping?
426(1)
Relevant Research
Developing Authentic Assessments
427(2)
Global Perspectives
Looking beyond the Boundaries
429(1)
Summary
430(1)
Discussion Questions
430(1)
Journal Entries
431(1)
Portfolio Development
431(1)
School-Based Experiences
431(1)
Websites
431(1)
Notes
432(1)
Bibliography
432(3)
Building an Educational Philosophy
Education in the News: Authors Add Character to Curriculum
435(1)
Learner Outcomes
436(2)
Using Philosophy in the Classroom
438(2)
Classroom Organization
438(2)
Debate
Is Environmental Education Scaring Our Kids to Death?
440(2)
Motivation
442(1)
Relevant Research
The Three C's of Safe Schools: Cooperation, Conflict Resolution, and Civic Values
443(2)
Discipline
445(2)
Professional Dilemma
Should You Use Authentic Assessment to Grade Students?
447(1)
Classroom Climate
448(3)
Using Philosophy Beyond the Classroom
451(4)
Teachers as Change Agents
451(2)
Teachers as Leaders
453(2)
Global Perspectives
The World as Classroom
455(1)
Summary
455(2)
Discussion Questions
457(1)
Journal Entries
457(1)
Portfolio Development
457(1)
School-Based Experiences
457(1)
Websites
458(1)
Notes
458(1)
Bibliography
459(1)
PART SIX Student Programs, Teacher Practices, and Standards-Based Education and Assessment 460(117)
Viewing Education through Program Development Lenses
461(2)
Designing Programs for Learners
Education in the News: Charter Schools Working Together
463(1)
Learner Outcomes
463(1)
Types of Curriculum Design
464(3)
Separate Courses Design
464(1)
Fused Courses Design
465(1)
Core Courses Design
466(1)
Activity Courses Design
466(1)
Students Served by the Curriculum
467(2)
Terminal Students
467(1)
College-Bound Students
468(1)
Vocational-Technical Students
468(1)
Destination Unknown
468(1)
Nontraditional Students
468(1)
Purposes of Curriculum
469(5)
General Education
469(2)
Exploratory Education
471(1)
Education for Career
472(2)
Alternative Curriculum Programs
474(1)
Charter Schools
474(1)
Debate
Are Charter Schools Eroding Support for Public Schools?
475(2)
Effective Schools
477(1)
School Vouchers
478(1)
Outcomes-Based Education
478(1)
Private Industry
479(1)
Essential Schools
480(1)
Magnet Schools
480(1)
Relevant Research
Do Magnet Schools Boost Achievement?
481(1)
Home-Based Schools
481(1)
The Comer Model
482(1)
Global Perspectives
Schools of Reconciliation in Northern Ireland
483(1)
Putting Change in Perspective
484(1)
Assessing the Magnitude of Change
484(1)
Professional Dilemma
``I've Been There, Seen That, Done That Before''
485(1)
Restructuring Schools
486(1)
Transforming Schools
486(1)
Summary
487(1)
Discussion Questions
488(1)
Journal Entries
488(1)
Portfolio Development
488(1)
School-Based Experiences
488(1)
Websites
488(1)
Notes
489(1)
Bibliography
489(2)
Providing Instruction
Education in the News: Program Recognizes Teachers' Extra Efforts
491(1)
Learner Outcomes
491(1)
Organizing Teachers to Provide Instruction
492(2)
School Organization
493(1)
Global Perspectives
German Education
494(1)
Graded and Nongraded Schools
495(2)
Arrangements for Staff
497(1)
Instructional Scheduling
498(1)
Relevant Research
Block Scheduling Can Enhance the School Climate
499(1)
Organizing Students
500(2)
Class Size for Management and Grouping
500(1)
Grouping Philosophy
500(2)
Professional Dilemma
Adjusting the Attitude of Learners
502(1)
Instructional Practices
503(1)
Goals for Learning
503(1)
Models of Learning
504(5)
Mastery Model
505(1)
Individualized Models
505(1)
Thinking Skills Model
506(1)
Hunter Model
507(1)
Teacher Expectation and Student Achievement Model
508(1)
4Mat Model
508(1)
Instructional Technology
509(6)
Classroom Learning Centers
510(1)
Educational Television
511(1)
Computer Technology in Education
512(1)
Personal Computers
513(2)
Debate
Should School Computer Labs Be Phased Out?
515(4)
Summary
519(1)
Discussion Questions
520(1)
Journal Entries
520(1)
Portfolio Development
520(1)
School-Based Experiences
520(1)
Websites
520(1)
Notes
521(1)
Bibliography
521(1)
Domains of Learning
522(3)
Standards-Based Education and Assessment
Education in the News: High-Stakes Testing: They're Here and They're Not Going Away
525(1)
Learner Outcomes
526(1)
Standards-Based Education
527(10)
Differing Conceptions of Standards
527(3)
Differing Uses of Standards
530(1)
Differing Sources of Standards
530(1)
Three Types of Standards
531(2)
An Example of National Performance Standards
533(1)
Standards Frameworks
534(1)
The Debate over Setting Standards
535(1)
The Ongoing Debate over the Value of Standards
535(2)
Global Perspectives
Australia Is Exploring a New Approach to Education Reform
537(1)
The Changing Face of Assessment
537(8)
What Is Assessment?
538(1)
Purposes for Assessment
539(2)
Authentic Contextualized Assessment
541(2)
Methods of Authentic Assessment
543(2)
Relevant Research
A Case Study of Alternative Assessment: Student, Teacher, and Observer Perceptions in a Ninth Grade Biology Classroom
545(1)
Designing Authentic Performance Assessments
546(5)
Professional Aspects of Good Assessments
551(1)
The Ups and Downs of Testing
552(3)
Professional Dilemma
What Is the Proper Way to Prepare for High-Stakes, State-Mandated Tests?
555(1)
Debate
Should States Determine the Specifics of Education Standards?
556(1)
Bringing Standards to the Classroom: A True Story
557(18)
A School District Moves to Standards-Based Education
558(2)
Assessing Student Learning in Standards-Based Education
560(1)
Supporting Teachers and Students in Implementing Standards-Based Education
561(6)
Standards-Based Education as a Paradigm Change
567(2)
Summary
569(1)
Discussion Questions
570(1)
Journal Entries
571(1)
Portfolio Development
571(1)
School-Based Experiences
571(1)
Websites
572(1)
Notes
572(1)
Bibliography
573(2)
Epilogue: Education in the Twenty-First Century
Debate
Will Public Education Survive the Next Century?
575(2)
Name Index 577(4)
Subject Index 581


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