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Four in One : Rhetoric, Reader, Research Guide, and Handbook,9780321261618
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Four in One : Rhetoric, Reader, Research Guide, and Handbook

by ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780321261618

ISBN10:
0321261615
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Longman
List Price: $81.33
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Summary

"This all-in-one rhetoric, reader, research paper guide, and brief handbook provides a flexible, comprehensive resource that fully integrates critical thinking into sections on the writing process and patterns of organization." This text provides a flexible, comprehensive resource that integrates critical thinking into sections on the writing process and patterns of organization. Writing guide, handbook, research guide. General Interest

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
PART I Effective Thinking 1(30)
CHAPTER 1 Critical and Creative Thinking
3(4)
Creative Thinking Generates Information
3(1)
Critical Thinking Evaluates Information
4(1)
Creative and Critical Thinking Work Together
4(3)
Activities
5(2)
CHAPTER 2 Critical Thinking Basics
7(14)
Profile of a Critical Thinker
8(1)
Critical Thinkers Interrogate Cultural Values
8(1)
Critical Thinkers Engage in Self-Analysis
8(1)
Critical Thinkers Keep an Open Mind
8(1)
Critical Thinkers Build Consensus
9(1)
Becoming a Critical Thinker
9(3)
Distinguish Between Facts and Opinions
9(1)
Identify Assumptions Buried in Information
10(1)
Analyze Inferences for Reliability
11(1)
Verify the Reliability of Interpretations
11(1)
Evaluate Information with Care
12(1)
Identify Logical Fallacies
12(9)
Activities
15(9)
Gary Soto, "Like Mexicans"
17(4)
CHAPTER 3 Critical Thinking and Reasoning
21(10)
Examine the Language of an Argument
22(1)
Examine Patterns of Reasoning
22(1)
Inductive Reasoning
23(1)
Tracing the Inductive Process
23(1)
Evaluating Inductive Reasoning
24(1)
Deductive Reasoning
24(9)
Tracing the Deductive Process
24(4)
Evaluating the Deductive Process
28(1)
Activities
28(3)
PART II Writing College Essays 31(120)
CHAPTER 4 Preparing to Write an Essay
33(13)
Writing and Thinking
33(2)
Writing Sharpens Critical Thinking
33(1)
Writing Provides a Record of Thinking
34(1)
Levels of Thinking
34(1)
Assess the Writing Situation
35(5)
Determine an Assignment's Length and Time Limit
35(1)
Clarify the Purpose of the Assignment
35(3)
Use Common Information Sources
38(1)
Picture a Reader
38(2)
Employ Common Essay Conventions
40(6)
Have a Dominant Purpose
40(1)
Use a Consistent Essay Strategy
41(1)
Use Consistent Paragraph Strategies
42(1)
Activities
42(4)
CHAPTER 5 The Composing Process: Prewriting and Informal Planning
46(21)
A Student's Composing Process
47(5)
Assessment of the Writing Situation
50(2)
Use Prewriting Techniques to Explore an Assignment
52(4)
Listing
52(1)
Freewriting
53(1)
Clustering
53(2)
Asking Questions
55(1)
Consulting
55(1)
Identify and Limit a Subject
56(1)
Compose a Purpose Statement
57(1)
A Student's Prewriting Activities
58(9)
Prewriting Activities at Work
58(4)
Formulating a Purpose Statement
62(1)
Developing an Informal Plan
62(2)
Activities
64(3)
CHAPTER 6 Writing a Thesis Statement a Formal Plan Write an Effective Thesis Statement
67(11)
Make a Promise
68(4)
Use Precise Language
69(1)
Imply a Method of Development
70(1)
Forecast a Development Pattern
71(1)
Develop a Formal Plan
72(6)
Plan with a Reader in Mind
72(1)
Formal Outlines
72(2)
A Student's Outlining Process
74(1)
Activities
75(3)
CHAPTER 7 Writing Paragraphs for the Rough Draft
78(24)
Write the Introduction
79(3)
A Student Roughs Out an Introduction
81(1)
Write the Discussion
82(13)
Organize Discussion Paragraphs
82(10)
A Student Roughs Out Discussion Paragraphs
92(3)
Write the Conclusion
95(2)
A Student Roughs Out a Conclusion
96(1)
Create the Title
97(2)
A Student Creates a Title
98(1)
Combine the Sections of the Rough Draft
98(1)
A Student Completes a Rough Draft
99(3)
Activities
101(1)
CHAPTER 8 Responses to a Rough Draft: Instructor and Peer Comments
102(5)
Instructor Comments
102(1)
Peer Comments
103(4)
Peer-Review Responsibilities
103(3)
Activities
106(1)
CHAPTER 9 Revising a Rough Draft Structure, Paragraphs, and Sentences
107(32)
Approach Revision Systematically
108(9)
Revise the Whole Essay
108(1)
Revise from the Reader's Perspective
108(1)
Revise to Add or Delete Content
109(1)
Revise the Organization for Unity
110(2)
Revise for Point of View
112(2)
Revise the Paragraphs
114(1)
Revise the Sentences
115(2)
Guidelines for Revision
117(1)
1. Cut Unnecessary Words
117(2)
2. Cut Intensifiers
119(2)
3. Select Specific and Concrete Words
121(3)
4. Replace Weak Verbs with Strong Verbs
124(2)
5. Make Passive Sentences Active
126(1)
6. Eliminate Sexist Language
127(1)
7. Consider the Denotations and Connotations of Words
128(1)
8. Use Figurative Language with Care
128(2)
9. Revise Sentences for Proper Coordination
130(2)
10. Revise Sentences for Proper Subordination
132(1)
11. Place Modifiers with Care
133(1)
12. Correct Faulty Pronoun References
134(1)
13. Eliminate Inconsistencies
135(2)
14. Complete Incomplete Sentences
137(1)
15. Maintain Parallelism
137(1)
Activities
138(1)
CHAPTER 10 Preparing to Submit an Essay
139(12)
Proofread Your Revised Draft
139(6)
Proofread for Consistent Diction
139(1)
Proofread for Sentence Flow and Variety
140(1)
A Student Proofreads Her Revised Draft
141(4)
Prepare the Final Draft Using Standard Manuscript Form
145(8)
Materials
145(1)
Margins
145(1)
Indentation
146(1)
Pagination
146(1)
Identification
146(1)
Title
146(1)
A Student's Final Draft
146(4)
Activities
150(1)
PART III Development Patterns 151(148)
CHAPTER 11 Description: Rendering Experience
153(17)
Thinking by Description
153(1)
A Student Essay Developed by Description
154(3)
Writing an Essay Developed by Description
157(8)
Provide Descriptive Detail
158(2)
Distinguish Objective from Subjective Description
160(2)
Create a Dominant Impression
162(1)
Consider Arrangement of Details
163(1)
Use Transitions
164(1)
Revising Descriptive Paragraphs
165(5)
Guidelines for Writing Descriptive Essays
166(1)
Suggestions for Descriptive Essays
166(4)
CHAPTER 12 Narration: Connecting Events
170(18)
Thinking by Narration
170(2)
A Student Essay Developed by Narration
172(4)
Writing an Essay Developed by Narration
176(8)
Create a Narrative Effect
176(2)
Follow a Narrative Structure
178(1)
Use Scene and Summary
179(2)
Establish Point of View
181(1)
Follow Chronological or Psychological Time
182(2)
Use Transitions
184(1)
Revising Narrative Paragraphs
184(4)
Guidelines for Writing Narrative Essays
185(1)
Suggestions for Narrative Essays
185(3)
CHAPTER 13 Examples: Illustrating Experience
188(16)
Thinking by Examples
188(1)
A Student Essay Developed by Examples
189(4)
Writing an Essay Developed by Examples
193(6)
Use a Variety of Examples
193(1)
Select Examples with Care
194(1)
Use Examples with Purpose
194(5)
Use Transitions
199(1)
Revising Examples Paragraphs
199(5)
Guidelines for Writing Examples Essays
201(1)
Suggestions for Examples Essays
201(3)
CHAPTER 14 Comparison: Showing Similarities and Differences
204(13)
Thinking by Comparison
204(1)
A Student Essay Developed by Comparison
204(3)
Writing an Essay Developed by Comparison
207(6)
Select Appropriate Subjects for Comparison
208(1)
Establish the Comparison Early
209(1)
Decide on the Appropriate Arrangement
210(2)
Use Transitions
212(1)
Revising Comparison Paragraphs
213(4)
Guidelines for Writing Comparison Essays
214(1)
Suggestions for Comparison Essays
214(3)
CHAPTER 15 Cause and Effect: Exploring Reasons and Results
217(19)
Thinking by Cause and Effect
217(1)
A Student Essay Developed by Cause and Effect
218(3)
Writing an Essay Developed by Cause and Effect
221(9)
Avoid Reasoning Errors
223(1)
Distinguish Causes and Effects
224(5)
Use Transitions
229(1)
Revising Cause and Effect Paragraphs
230(6)
Guidelines for Writing Cause and Effect Essays
231(1)
Suggestions for Cause and Effect Essays
231(5)
CHAPTER 16 Process Analysis: Explaining Step by Step
236(13)
Thinking by Process Analysis
236(1)
A Student Essay Developed by Process Analysis
237(2)
Writing an Essay Developed by Process Analysis
239(5)
Determine the Appropriate Type of Analysis
240(3)
Consider the Reader's Level of Knowledge
243(1)
Use Transitions
243(1)
Revising Process Analysis Paragraphs
244(5)
Guidelines for Writing Process Analysis Essays
245(1)
Suggestions for Process Analysis Essays
245(4)
CHAPTER 17 Classification and Division: Analyzing and Arranging Experience
249(13)
Thinking by Classification and Division
249(2)
A Student Essay Developed by Classification and Division
251(3)
Writing an Essay Developed by Classification and Division
254(3)
Create Categories
254(1)
Arrange and Label Categories
255(2)
Use Transitions
257(1)
Revising Classification and Division Paragraphs
257(5)
Guidelines for Writing Classification and Division Essays
259(1)
Suggestions for Classification and Division Essays
259(3)
CHAPTER 18 Definition: Creating Impressions
262(16)
Thinking by Definition
262(2)
A Student Essay Developed by Definition
264(3)
Writing an Essay Developed by Definition
267(6)
Determine the Appropriate Type of Definition
267(4)
Use Extended Definition with Other Development Patterns
271(2)
Use Transitions
273(1)
Revising Definition Paragraphs
273(5)
Guidelines for Writing Definition Essays
274(1)
Suggestions for Extended Definition Essays
275(3)
CHAPTER 19 Argumentation: Convincing Others
278(21)
Thinking by Argument
278(1)
Writing an Essay Developed by Argument
278(12)
A Student Essay Developed by Argument
279(5)
Establish an Assertion and Provide Evidence
284(1)
Arrange the Argument Logically
285(1)
Recognize the Reader
286(1)
Examine the Argument
286(2)
Structure Argument Paragraphs
288(2)
Revising Argument Paragraphs
290(9)
Guidelines for Writing Argument Essays
292(1)
Suggestions for Argument Essays
293(6)
PART IV The Research Essay
CHAPTER 20 Finding and Researching a Topic
299(27)
What Is a Research Essay?
299(3)
Length
300(1)
Organization
300(1)
Including Your Own Ideas
301(1)
Getting Started: Find and Narrow a Suitable Topic
302(9)
Frame a Research Question
302(1)
Start with a Topic That Interests You
303(1)
Select a Topic That Allows for Discussion
304(1)
Use Library Resources to Find and Narrow a Topic
304(3)
Research Other Libraries Online
307(1)
Look for a Topic Online
307(4)
Gather Information on the Research Topic
311(3)
Consult Bibliographies
311(1)
Use Book, Magazine, and Journal Indexes
312(1)
Use Newspaper Indexes
313(1)
Prepare a Working Bibliography
314(2)
Take Notes on Your Research
316(10)
Take Notes Strategically
316(1)
Take Notes with a Purpose in Mind
316(2)
Use Effective Notetaking Methods
318(4)
Avoid Plagiarism
322(1)
Work with a Preliminary Thesis
322(2)
Research Exercises
324(2)
CHAPTER 21 Researching on the World Wide Web
326(20)
Web Addresses
326(1)
Researching with URLs
327(1)
Search Engines: Workhorses of the Web
327(5)
Using a Search Engine
327(1)
Directories
328(1)
True Search Engines
329(1)
Performing Keyword Searches
329(1)
Refining a Search Engine Query
330(1)
Using a Metasearch Engine
331(1)
Finding a Search Engine to Use
331(1)
A Sample Search: Locating Internet Sources to Narrow a Topic
332(4)
E-Mail: Electronic Letters
336(2)
Accessing E-Mail
336(1)
Researching with E-mail
337(1)
Listservs and Mailing Lists: Group E-Mail
338(1)
Joining a Mailing List
338(1)
Reasearching with Mailing Lists
338(1)
Usenet/Newsgroups: Posting Information
339(1)
Understanding Usenet Postings
339(1)
Accessing Usenet
339(1)
Researching with Usenet
340(1)
Evaluating Internet Resources: Whom Can You Trust?
340(6)
The Range of Web Content
342(1)
A Reliability Checklist for Web Sources
342(2)
Research Activities
344(2)
CHAPTER 22 Writing the Research Essay
346(29)
Planning Your Essay
346(3)
Use Your Research Notes
346(1)
Review Your Research Question
347(1)
Review Your Preliminary Thesis Statement
347(1)
Devise a Final (Working) Thesis Statement
348(1)
Develop an Outline
348(1)
Use Other Planning Strategies, as Needed
349(1)
Writing Your Essay
349(3)
Write an Effective Introduction
349(1)
Develop a Discussion of the Topic
350(1)
Write a Concluding Paragraph
351(1)
Revise, Edit, and Proofread
352(3)
Revise to Improve Global Qualities
353(1)
Edit for Clarity and Correctness
353(1)
Proofread to Make Minor Corrections
353(2)
Guidelines for Typing Your Research Essay
355(2)
A Student's Research Essay
357(18)
Research Exercises
374(1)
CHAPTER 23 Documenting Sources in a Research Essay
375(46)
MLA-Style Documentation
376(26)
Parenthetical Citation
376(6)
Content Notes
382(1)
Preparing the Works Cited Page
383(19)
Sample Works Cited Page
402(1)
APA-Style Documentation
402(21)
Abstracts and Headings
403(1)
Parenthetical Citation
403(6)
Preparing the References Page
409(10)
Sample References Page
419(1)
Research Exercises
420(1)
PART V Writing for Other Purposes 421(46)
CHAPTER 24 Writing about Literature
423(14)
Read to Respond to the Work
423(1)
Take Notes As You Read
423(1)
List Your Ideas As You Read
424(1)
Formulate a Thesis Statement about the Work
424(1)
Write an Effective Introduction to Your Essay
425(1)
Develop Your Discussion of the Literary Work
426(1)
Write an Effective Conclusion to Your Essay
427(1)
Identify Your Sources
427(2)
Use Parenthetical Citation
428(1)
Follow Other Standard Practices for Writing about Literature
429(2)
Mention Authors' Names
429(1)
Write in the Present Tense
430(1)
Avoid Using Excessive Summary
430(1)
Create an Accurate Title
430(1)
A Sample Essay on a Literary Work
431(4)
Glossary of Literary Terms and Concepts
435(2)
Activities
436(1)
CHAPTER 25 Writing about Images
437(8)
Interpreting Images
438(1)
Structuring an Essay about Images
439(3)
Writing an Introduction
439(1)
Writing Discussion Paragraphs
440(1)
Writing a Conclusion
441(1)
A Sample Essay about Images
442(3)
Activities
444(1)
CHAPTER 26 Writing for an Essay Exam
445(9)
Preparing for an Essay Exam
445(3)
Review Major Course Concepts
445(1)
Use Direction Words to Write Practice Questions
446(1)
Prepare a List or Outline
447(1)
Write a Practice Response
447(1)
Make a Spelling List
448(1)
Prepare Yourself for the Exam
449
Writing the Essay Exam
448(3)
Read and Understand the Question
448(1)
Plan Your Time
449(1)
Plan Your Answer
449(1)
Write Your Response
449(2)
Revise and Proofread
451(1)
A Sample Essay Exam Response
451(3)
Activities
453(1)
CHAPTER 27 Writing for Business: Letters, Resumes, Memos, FAXes, and E-Mail
454(13)
Writing a Business Letter
454(5)
Formats of Business Letters
454(2)
Elements of Business Letters
456(3)
Writing a Resume and Cover Letter
459(2)
Creating a Resume
459(2)
Writing a Cover Letter
461(1)
Writing a Memo
461(2)
Memo Form
463(1)
Writing a FAX and an E-Mail
463(6)
Sending a FAX
463(2)
Sending an E-Mail
465(1)
Activities
466(1)
PART VI Readings for Writers 467(148)
CHAPTER 28 Critical Reading
469(9)
Critical Reading Phases
469(9)
Phase 1: Preview the Essay
470(1)
Phase 2: Read the Essay
471(1)
Phase 3: Reread the Essay
471(2)
Phase 4: Evaluate the Essay
473(1)
Phase 5: Write a Response to the Essay
474(1)
Barbara Ehrenreich,
In Defense of Talk Shows
475(3)
Contemporary Essays for Study
478(108)
David Brooks,
Love, Internet Style
479(3)
K.C. Cole,
Entropy
482(3)
Rene Denfield,
The Lady of the Ring
485(3)
Teresa L. Ebert and Masud Zavarzadeh,
Our American Diet Divides
488(2)
Gretel Ehrlich,
About Men
490(4)
Neal Gabler,
How Urban Myths Reveal Societys Fears
494(3)
George Gilder,
Why Men Marry
497(4)
Ellen Goodman,
Becoming Desensitized to Hate Words
501(3)
Gina Greenlee,
No Tears for Frankie
504(2)
Rose Del Castillo Guilbault,
Americanization Is Tough on "Macho"
506(3)
Peter Hamill,
Crack and the Box
509(5)
John Kifner,
Good as a Gun: When Cameras Define a War
514(4)
Stephen King,
Why We Crave Horror Movies
518(3)
Jeff Z. Klein,
Watching My Back
521(3)
Marcus Laffey,
Cop Diary
524(6)
Michael Levin,
The Case for Torture
530(4)
William Lutz,
Doublespeak
534(5)
Mary McNamara,
A Gentle Man and His Love of Guns
539(3)
William Ian Miller,
Gifts and Honor: An Exchange
542(6)
Charles Murray,
Well, It Seemed Like a Good Idea
548(3)
Francine Prose,
Gossip
551(4)
Torn Regan,
Animal Rights, Human Wrongs
555(5)
Stephen Rose,
Proud to Be a Speciesist
560(4)
George Simpson,
The War Room at Bellevue
564(6)
Brent Staples,
Black Men and Public Space
570(3)
Amy Tan,
Mother Tongue
573(6)
Garry Trudeau,
Anatomy of a Joke
579(4)
Marie Winn,
TV Addiction
583(3)
Enduring Essays for Study
586(29)
George Orwell,
A Hanging
586(5)
Jonathan Swift,
A Modest Proposal
591(7)
Lewis Thomas,
On Natural Death
598(3)
Mark Twain,
The Damned Human Race
601(8)
E.B. White,
Once More to the Lake
609(6)
PART VII Writer's Handbook 615(70)
Sentence Errors
617(36)
Sentence Fragments
617(3)
Run-On Sentences
620(2)
Subject/Verb Agreement
622(5)
Verb Tense
627(1)
Pronoun Case
628(5)
Pronoun/Antecedent Agreement
633(2)
Pronoun Reference
635(2)
Gender-Neutral Language
637(2)
Reminders for ESL Writers
639(14)
Punctuation
653(23)
Commas
653(8)
Semicolons
661(1)
Colons
662(2)
Dashes
664(1)
Apostrophes
665(2)
Quotation Marks
667(4)
Ellipses
671(1)
Parentheses
672(1)
Brackets
673(1)
Slashes
673(1)
End Punctuation Marks
674(2)
Mechanics
676(9)
Capitalization
676(2)
Underlining
678(2)
Numbers
680(1)
Abbreviations
680(2)
Hyphens
682(3)
Author Biographies 685(4)
Rhetorical Index 689(4)
Thematic Index 693(2)
General Index 695(16)
Text Credits 711(2)
Photo Credits 713


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