9780735713635

Game Architecture and Design A New Edition

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  • ISBN13:

    9780735713635

  • ISBN10:

    0735713634

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2003-10-24
  • Publisher: New Riders

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Summary

Game Architecture and Design: A New Editionis a revision of the classic that you have been waiting for! This is a detailed guide to game design and planning from first concept to the start of development, including case studies of well known games. Originally published in 1999,Game Architecture and Design, has been updated by the original authors Andrew Rollings and Dave Morris. They tap back into what they teach so well and update this classic with skills and techniques found in the industry today. With more than just re-usable code, it's a comprehensive study that deals specifically with the issues of game design, team building and management, and game architecture. Through the use of real-world experiences and case studies, Andrew and Dave share it all. They show you what's worked and why as well as what to avoid and how to fix any errors. This intelligent and well-argued book is a glimpse into the often-disordered world of game development. Readers will gain solid advice and know-how that can bring some order to the often-chaotic world found in game development.

Author Biography

Andrew Rollings (co-author of the highly acclaimed book Andrew Rollings and Ernest Adams on Game Design) has a B.S. in Physics from Imperial College, London, and Bristol University, and has worked as a technical consultant spanning the games industry and the financial industry since 1995 Dave Morris has worked as a designer and creative consultant on PC and console games for several major publishers, most notably Eidos. He has done creative development and scriptwriting on television shows for Endemol, Pearson, TV2 Norway, and the BBC

Table of Contents

Introduction xxiii
Part 1 Game Design
Chapter 1 First Concept
3(32)
The Shock of the New
3(1)
The Creative Road Map
4(2)
Having the Idea
6(5)
Inspiration
7(1)
Synthesis
8(1)
Resonance
9(1)
Convergence
10(1)
Shaping the Idea
11(4)
Dramatic Effect
11(4)
The Treatment
15(1)
Taking Stock
16(4)
Analysis
16(1)
Evaluation
17(1)
Justification
17(1)
Case Study 1.1 The One-Page Pitch
18(2)
Feasibility
20(1)
Commercial
20(1)
Technological
20(1)
Developmental
21(1)
Getting it Down
21(14)
Case Study 1.2 Initial Treatment for Conquerors
22(13)
Chapter 2 Core Design
35(24)
What Is a Game?
35(3)
Cool Features
36(1)
Fancy Graphics
36(1)
Puzzles
37(1)
Setting and Story
37(1)
Games Aren't Everything
38(1)
Case Study 2.1 Story Versus Gameplay
39(1)
Games Mean Gameplay
39(3)
Case Study 2.2 A Missed Opportunity?
40(2)
Creating the Game Spec
42(17)
Case Study 2.3 Integrating Game Objectives
43(1)
Features
43(2)
Case Study 2.4 An Instance of Emergence
45(1)
Gameplay
45(2)
Interface
47(1)
Case Study 2.5 An Elegant Interface
48(1)
Rules
48(1)
Case Study 2.6 The Rules Must Serve the Features
49(1)
Level Design
50(1)
Case Study 2.7 Interesting Level Design
51(2)
Example Game Spec
53(1)
Case Study 2.8 Game Spec
53(4)
The Value of Prototypes...
57(1)
...And the Necessity of Documents
58(1)
Chapter 3 Gameplay
59(28)
What Is Gameplay?
60(20)
Implementing Gameplay
61(1)
The Dominant Strategy Problem
62(1)
Near Dominance
63(4)
Case Study 3.1 Environment Plus Rules Equals Gameplay
67(3)
Supporting Investments
70(1)
Versatility
71(1)
Case Study 3.2 Unexpected Versatility
72(2)
Compensating Factors
74(1)
Case Study 3.3 Balancing Compensating Factors
75(1)
Impermanence
76(1)
Shadow Costs
77(1)
Case Study 3.4 Shadow Costs in Age of Empires
77(1)
Synergies
78
A Final Word About Gameplay
19(61)
Interactivity
80(7)
Kinds of Interactivity
81(1)
Case Study 3.5 A Different Kind of Interactivity
82(2)
"Why?" Versus "What?"
84(3)
Chapter 4 Detailed Design
87(18)
The Designer's Role
87(5)
Case Study 4.1 A Development Timeline
88(4)
Design Documentation
92(3)
The Gameplay Spec
92(1)
The Designer's Notes
93(1)
Case Study 4.2 The Need for Documenting the Spec
94(1)
Using The Design Documents
95(2)
Fitting Design to Development
97(5)
Tiers and Testbeds
98(2)
Case Study 4.3 Planning the Mini-Specs to Fit the Architecture
100(2)
Why Use Documents at All?
102(3)
Chapter 5 Game Balance
105(36)
Player/Player Balance
106(5)
Symmetry
107(4)
Player/Gameplay Balance
111(5)
Case Study 5.1 Is This Supposed to Be Fun?
111(2)
Reward the Player
113(1)
Let the Machine do the Work
113(1)
Make a Game You Play With, Not Against
114(1)
Case Study 5.2 The Save Game Problem
114(2)
Gameplay/Gameplay Balance
116(23)
Component and Attribute Balance
117(2)
Case Study 5.3 Component and Attribute Balance in Dungeon Keeper
119(1)
Intransitive Game Mechanics Guarantees Balance
120(6)
Case Study 5.4 Attribute Balance Using SPS
126(6)
Case Study 5.5 Using Game Theory Analysis to Achieve Balance
132(7)
A Game Balance Checklist
139(2)
Chapter 6 Look and Feel
141(30)
Ambience
142(6)
Sound
143(1)
Case Study 6.1 Sound Effects at Their Best
143(1)
Vision
144(2)
Case Study 6.2 A Discordant Note
146(1)
Touch
147(1)
Interface
148(4)
Case Study 6.3 Meshing the Interface With Look and Feel
148(2)
Case Study 6.4 Sometimes Less Is Less
150(2)
Storytelling
152(17)
A Toolbox of Storytelling Techniques
153(4)
Case Study 6.5 An Example of a Look-and-Feel Document
157(5)
Case Study 6.6 An Unexpected Development
162(5)
Case Study 6.7 An Unsatisfying Conclusion
167(2)
The Sum of the Parts
169(2)
Chapter 7 Wrapping Up
171(26)
The Professionals
172(25)
The Game Concept
173(1)
Planning for Change
174(6)
The Technology
180(2)
Development
182(4)
The Team
186(1)
Costs and Timelines
187(2)
Gameplay
189(3)
The Future
192(5)
Chapter 8 The Future of Game Design
197(30)
The Necessity of Design
197(6)
Don't Be Afraid to Plan
198(1)
Case Study 8.1 Design Saves Time
198(2)
Why Design Is Fine
200(2)
Case Study 8.2 Keep the Design up to Date
202(1)
Essentials of Game Design
203(4)
Is it Original?
204(1)
Is it Coherent?
204(1)
Is it Interactive?
205(1)
Is it Interesting?
206(1)
Is it Fun?
206(1)
The Future of Design
207(5)
Making Designs More Generic
208(1)
Nonsymbolic Design
209(2)
Case Study 8.3 Comparing Nonsymbolic and Symbolic Design
211(1)
The Future of Games
212(10)
The Next Decade
213(1)
The Strengths of Software
214(1)
The Crossroads of Creativity
215(4)
Case Study 8.4 An Example of Mise En Scene
219(3)
Games as Entertainment
222(2)
The Way Forward
224(3)
Part II Team Building and Management
Chapter 9 Current Methods of Team Management
227(18)
The Current Development Model
228(17)
The Origins of the Industry
228(3)
The Trouble with Game Developers
231(3)
The Problem Developer
234(7)
Excessive Long Hours Mean an Unsuccessful Project
241(1)
Exceptions to the Rule
242(1)
Case Study 9.1 Quake, StarCraft, and XCOM: Interceptor
243(2)
Chapter 10 Roles and Divisions
245(18)
Assigning Personnel
245(10)
Management and Design Division
247(2)
Programming Division
249(1)
Art Division
250(1)
Music and Miscellaneous Division
251(2)
Support and Quality Assurance Division
253(2)
Improving Morale and the Working Environment
255(7)
Morale Boosters
255(6)
Morale Booster Caveats and Warnings
261(1)
Spreading the Risk
262(1)
Chapter 11 The Software Factory
263(30)
What Is a Software Factory?
263(2)
Why Use a Software Factory?
265(6)
Solving Game Development Issues
266(2)
Case Study 11.1 The Effects of Losing Key Personnel
268(1)
Case Study 11.2 Code Reuse
269(2)
Organizing a Software Factory
271(14)
A Structural Overview
271(2)
Group Responsibilities and Interactions
273(1)
Case Study 11.3 Ineffective Problem Handling in Action
274(2)
Case Study 11.4 Effective Problem Handling in Action
276(5)
Case Study 11.5 The Benefits Of Tool Reuse
281(4)
Applying the Software Factory Structure and Methodology
285(5)
Getting off the Ground
286(1)
Knowing When to Use Each Team-a Parallel Development Timeline
287(2)
Rotating and Reassigning Team Members
289(1)
Case Study 11.6 The Indispensables
289(1)
The Suitability of a Software Factory
290(1)
Smaller Teams
290(1)
The Final Word
291(2)
Chapter 12 Milestones and Deadlines
293(34)
How Milestones Currently Work
294(5)
Case Study 12.1 What Fuzzy Milestones Can Do to a Project
297(2)
Fuzzy Milestones
299(1)
Milestones and Mini-Milestones
299(2)
When to Use Milestones
301(1)
Making Your Milestones Accurate
301(13)
Case Study 12.2 The Costs of Canceling Projects
304(1)
Checkpoint 1.0 General Requirements Gathering
305(2)
Checkpoint 1.1 Technological Requirements Gathering
307(1)
Checkpoint 1.2 Resource Requirements Gathering
308(1)
Checkpoint 2.0 General Feasibility Study
309(2)
Checkpoint 2.1 Technological Feasibility Study
311(1)
Checkpoint 2.2 Resource Availability Study
312(1)
Checkpoint 3.0 Draft Architecture Specification
312(1)
Checkpoint 3.1 Project Initialization
313(1)
The Next Steps
314(1)
Defining Milestones
314(13)
Bad Milestones
316(5)
Good Milestones
321(1)
Case Study 12.3 A Real-Life Milestone
322(1)
Research Versus Deadlines
323(1)
Evaluation of Milestones
324(3)
Chapter 13 Procedures and "Process"
327(40)
Procedures
328(13)
Reviews
329(4)
Testing in General
333(8)
"Process"
341(7)
Case Study 13.1 Process Gone Mad
345(3)
Procedures: Where to Use Them?
348(7)
The Design Phase
349(3)
The Development Phase
352(2)
The Testing Phase
354(1)
Source Control and Code Reviews: A Synergy
355(3)
Case Study 13.2 Source Control? We Don't Need No Steenkin' Source Control!
355(3)
What Should Source Control Be Used For?
358(1)
The Importance of Information Transmission
358(9)
Proactive and Reactive Information Transmission
362(5)
Chapter 14 Troubleshooting
367(42)
Risks
372(37)
Design and Architecture Problems
376(3)
Case Study 14.1 The Case of the Deaf Manager
379(9)
Schedule Threats
388(6)
Case Study 14.2 Applied Schedule Readjustment
394(2)
Organizational Problems
396(2)
Contractor Problems
398(1)
Personnel Problems
399(2)
Development Problems
401(5)
Process Problems
406(3)
Chapter 15 The Future of the Industry
409(24)
The State of the Industry
409(12)
The First Era
410(1)
The Second Era
411(1)
The Third Era
411(4)
Violence in Games
415(6)
The New Model Developers
421(6)
Case Study 15.1 It's Hard for Developers
423(4)
The Online Revolution
427(6)
Delivering Games Online
427(1)
Playing Games Online
428(5)
Part III Game Architecture
Chapter 16 Current Development Methods
433(24)
The History of Development Techniques
436(16)
The Rise and Fall of the Original Game Idea?
437(4)
The Development Environment
441(11)
The Present Day
452(5)
Reusability
453(4)
Chapter 17 Initial Design
457(54)
The Beginning
459(3)
Case Study 17.1 Abstraction in Quake II
461(1)
Hardware Abstraction
462(17)
Graphics Hardware Abstraction
463(5)
Sound Hardware Abstraction
468(2)
Other Hardware Considerations
470(6)
"Not Built Here" Can Be Better
476(2)
The Twilight Zone
478(1)
The Problem Domain
479(3)
What Is a Game? (Revisited)
480(2)
Thinking in Tokens
482(29)
Tokenization of Pong
483(10)
Tokenization of Pac-Man
493(7)
State Transitions and Properties
500(2)
Case Study 17.2 The Inflexibility Trap
502(9)
Chapter 18 Use of Technology
511(42)
The State of the Art
515(13)
The Rise and Fall of the 3D Engine
516(6)
The Perception of Technology
522(1)
Case Study 18.1 A First Impression
523(5)
Blue-Sky Research
528(14)
Research Types
531(2)
Case Study 18.2 Losing Sight of the Ball
533(5)
Case Study 18.3 Tetris: A Caveat
538(1)
Case Study 18.4 Outcast: Good Use of Technology
539(2)
Keeping a Journal
541(1)
Reinventing the Wheel
542(1)
Use of Object Technology
543(10)
The Pros and Cons of Abstraction
549(4)
Chapter 19 Building Blocks
553(54)
Reusability in Software
555(52)
Code Reuse
555(1)
Case Study 19.1 Reuse of Engines
556(2)
Design Reuse: Patterns
558(48)
Game-Specific Patterns
606(1)
Chapter 20 Initial Architecture Design
607(30)
The Birth of an Architecture
608(9)
Architectural Concepts
610(7)
The Tier System
617(11)
Tier Zero: The Prototype
617(6)
Case Study 20.1 A Database-Driven Approach
623(1)
Tier One and Beyond
623(5)
Architecture Design
628(9)
Applying the Tier-Based Approach to Architecture Design
631(2)
Case Study 20.2 Discussing the Architecture of Warbots
633(2)
Architecture Orthogonality
635(2)
Chapter 21 Development
637(50)
The Development Process
638(3)
Code Quality
641(27)
Coding Standards
642(26)
Coding Priorities
668(4)
Speed
669(1)
Size
670(1)
Flexibility
671(1)
Portability
671(1)
Maintainability
671(1)
Debugging and Module Completion
672(9)
Types of Bugs
674(1)
Case Study 21.1 Class A Bugs or Not?
675(6)
The Seven Golden Gambits
681(4)
Reuse
681(1)
Case Study 21.2 Reusable Architecture
682(1)
Documentation
682(1)
Design First
683(1)
Schedule
684(1)
Catch Mistakes as You Go Along
684(1)
Limit R&D
684(1)
Know When to Draw the Line
685(1)
The Three Lead Balloons
685(2)
Bad Management
685(1)
Feature Creep
686(1)
Coder Insularity
686(1)
Chapter 22 The Run-Up to Release
687(32)
Late Evaluation
688(15)
Final Analysis
689(2)
Is the Game Pp to Scratch?
691(1)
Case Study 22.1 A Self Inflicted Disaster
692(2)
Case Study 22.2 A Recovery Plan
694(6)
Case Study 22.3 Licensing Hell
700(1)
Case Study 22.4 Last-Minute Madness
701(2)
Late Localization
703(5)
Licenses
703(1)
Languages
704(2)
Demos
706(1)
Case Study 22.5 Giving the Game Away
707(1)
Case Study 22.6 Keep Something Back
708(1)
Playtesting
708(4)
Case Study 22.7 How Did They Miss These!?
710(2)
Focus Groups
712(1)
The Web Site
713(1)
Getting Ready for the Gold Master
714(1)
Patches
715(4)
Chapter 23 Postmortem
719(28)
Case Study 23.1 A Tale of Two Projects
722(3)
Team Dynamics
725(5)
Case Study 23.2 It's All Gone Horribly Wrong!
726(4)
Concept
730(7)
Climate
730(1)
Case Study 23.3 Misjudging the Climate
731(3)
Accessibility
734(3)
Development
737(5)
Software Planning
738(1)
Case Study 23.4 Oubliette
739(2)
Coding
741(1)
Testing
742(1)
Business Aspects
742(3)
Case Study 23.5 Secure Your Revenue Stream
743(2)
The Postmortem Postmortem
745(2)
Chapter 24 The Future of Game Development
747(38)
Development in Context
748(4)
Future Development
752(11)
Marketing
752(2)
Case Study 24.1 Marketing Means Targeting
754(2)
Content
756(1)
Case Study 24.2 Development Without Strategy
757(3)
Planning
760(2)
Developers
762(1)
Small Is Beautiful Too
763(1)
Building the Team of the Future
764(7)
Character
764(3)
Motivation
767(2)
Morale
769(2)
New Directions in Development
771(9)
The Holistic Approach
771(2)
"Jurassic Park" Software
773(2)
Immanent and Transcendent Worlds
775(5)
The Shape of Things to Come?
780(5)
Part IV Appendixes
A Sample Game Design Documents
785(102)
Detailed Design Discussions
785(32)
1. Balls! Introduction
785(1)
2. Overview of Gameplay
786(1)
3. Platforms
787(1)
4. Time Scales
788(1)
5. Why Puzzle Games Aren't as Good as They Used to Be
789(1)
6. Puzzle Game Appeal
790(1)
7. Why Balls! Would Be Good
791(3)
8. Game Design: User Interface Elements
794(5)
9. Physics of Balls!
799(6)
10. Blocks
805(3)
11. Special Case Block-Block Collisions
808(2)
12. Playing the Game
810(3)
13. Further Embellishments
813(4)
Initial Treatments and Sample Designs
817(1)
Racketeers: Gang Warfare in the Roaring Twenties
817(39)
1. Overview
818(1)
2. Game Objectives
819(2)
3. Graphics
821(3)
4. Playing a Game
824(1)
5. Character Types
825(6)
Gangsters
826(3)
Non-Gang Members
829(2)
6. Personality
831(2)
7. Orders
833(1)
8. Combat
834(1)
9. The Game World
835(4)
10. Joints
839(4)
11. Messages
843(1)
12. Tutorial Campaign
844(2)
13. Target Platform
846(1)
Postscript
846(1)
Liberator
847(1)
1. Introduction
847(2)
2. Game Elements
849(5)
3. How Does it Play?
854(2)
Technical Specifications
856(29)
Technical Specification: Fully 3D Plug-In Graphics Module for Balls!
857(28)
Code Review Form
885(1)
Test Scripts
886(1)
B Bibliography and References 887(6)
Glossary 893(4)
Index 897

Excerpts

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