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Gender Roles : A Sociological Perspective,9780130104281
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Gender Roles : A Sociological Perspective

by
Edition:
4TH
ISBN13:

9780130104281

ISBN10:
0130104280
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $91.80
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Summary

The 4th edition ofGender Rolesprovides the best balance between "gender" and "women" as a focusespecially with the expanded content on men and masculinity. It addresses religion and integrates history at various points. An objective of the book is to dispel myths about gender. Both sociological and interdisciplinary content organized around clear and appropriate research serves this objective wellproviding readers with a sociological perspective of gender that can be meaningfully applied to their daily lives.The more controversial topics related to gender have a greater array of supporting references directing readers to explore the topics further.Gender Rolesintegrates insights and research from other disciplinesespecially biology, psychology, anthropology, and history. Interdisciplinary material is organized, presented, and guided by the sociological perspective, however, so readers can understand the commonalities and differences in the ways the various disciplines research and explain gender.An exciting and interesting read for anyone interested in gender roles and sexual identity.

Table of Contents

Preface x
PART I Theoretical and Interdisciplinary Perspectives
The Sociology of Gender: Theoretical Perspectives and Feminist Frameworks
1(19)
Basic Sociological Concepts
2(2)
Key Concepts for the Sociology of Gender
3(1)
Distinguishing Sex and Gender
4(1)
Sociological Perspectives on Gender Roles
4(9)
Functionalism
5(2)
Preindustrial Society
Contemporary Society
Critique
Conflict Theory
7(2)
Marx, Engels, and Social Class
Contemporary Conflict Theory
Gender and the Family
Critique
Symbolic Interaction
9(2)
Social Construction of Reality
Doing Gender
Doing Difference
Critique
Feminist Sociological Theory
11(2)
Linking Gender, Race, and Class
Feminist Perspectives on the Family
Critique
Feminism and Its Branches
13(7)
Liberal Feminism
14(1)
Cultural Feminism
Socialist Feminism
15(1)
Radical Feminism
15(1)
Multicultural and Global Feminism
16(1)
Ecofeminism
17(1)
Backlash to Feminism
17(1)
Summary
18(1)
Key Terms
19(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
19(1)
Gender Development: Biology, Sexuality, and Health
20(30)
Nature Versus Nurture
21(5)
Margaret Mead
21(1)
Critique
Sociobiology
22(1)
Critique
The Hormone Puzzle
23(3)
Aggression
Motherhood
Gendered Sexuality
26(10)
Sigmund Freud: Anatomy Is Destiny
26(1)
Critique
Feminism and Freud
Ambiguous Sex, Ambiguous Gender
27(3)
Transsexuals
Does Nature Rule? A Case of Sex Reassignment
Sexual Orientation
30(1)
Global Focus: Challenging Definitions of Sex and Gender
31(1)
Sexual Scripts
32(1)
Patterns of Sexual Attitudes and Behavior
33(3)
Gender and Orgasm
Premarital/Nonmarital Sex
Extramarital Relationships
The Double Standard
Sexuality in Later Life
Gender and Health
36(8)
Till Death Do Us Part: Gender and Mortality
36(2)
Global Patterns
In Sickness and in Health: Gender and Morbidity
38(6)
Men and Morbidity
Women and Morbidity
Premenstrual Syndrome
Menopause and Hormone Replacement Therapy
Eating Disorders
HIV/AIDS
Drug Use
Explaining Gendered Health Trends
44(1)
The Women's Health Movement
44(2)
Challenging Gender Bias in Research
45(1)
Midwives and Medicine
45(1)
Progress in Women's Health
46(1)
Nature Versus Nurture Revisited: The Politics of Biology
46(4)
Summary
48(1)
Key Terms
48(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
49(1)
Gender Development: The Socialization Process
50(25)
Gender Socialization and Cultural Diversity
51(4)
Culture and Socialization
51(1)
Gender Socialization: The Impact of Social Class and Race
52(3)
Theories of Gender Socialization
55(6)
Social Learning Theory
55(2)
Gender Socialization for Boys
Gender Socialization for Girls
Critique
Cognitive Development Theory
57(2)
Critique
Gender Schema Theory
59(2)
Critique
Agents of Socialization
61(11)
The Family
61(5)
Do You Want a Boy or a Girl?
Gender Socialization in Early Childhood
Gendered Childhood: Clothes and Toys
Gendered Parenting Practices
Peers and Preferences
66(2)
Games
School
68(1)
Television
69(1)
Television Teaches
Global Focus: Son Preference in Asia
70(2)
China
South Asia
Androgyny in Socialization
72(3)
Summary
73(1)
Key Terms
74(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
74(1)
Gendered Language and Socialization
75(20)
The Generic Myth
76(4)
Titles and Occupations
77(1)
What's in a Name?
78(2)
Children's Names
Gendered Language Usage
80(4)
Registers
81(2)
Female Register
Male Register
The Language of Friendship
83(1)
Nonverbal Communication
84(2)
Facial Expressions and Eye Contact
84(2)
Touch and Personal Space
86(1)
Global Focus: The Language of Japanese Women
86(2)
Explaining Gendered Language Patterns: Dual-Culture, Dominance, and Social Constructionist Models
88(3)
The Dual-Culture Model
89(1)
Critique
The Dominance Model
89(1)
Critique
The Social Constructionist Model
90(1)
Critique
The Impact of Linguistic Sexism
91(4)
Toward Language Change
92(1)
Summary
93(1)
Key Terms
94(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
94(1)
Western History and the Creation of Gender Roles
95(36)
Placing Women in History
96(2)
The Gender, Race, and Class Link in History
97(1)
Historical Themes about Women
97(1)
Classical Societies
98(5)
The Glory That Was Greece
98(3)
Partnership
Oppression
Athens
Sparta
The Grandeur That Was Rome
101(2)
The Middle Ages
103(4)
Christianity
103(2)
Feudalism
105(1)
The Renaissance
105(2)
Martin Luther and the Reformation
The American Experience
107(15)
The First American Women
107(2)
Gender Role Balance
Colonization and Christianity
The Colonial Era
109(3)
Gendered Puritan Life
A Golden Age for Colonial Women?
The Victorians: True Womanhood
112(1)
Frontier Life
113(2)
Industrialization
115(3)
The Union Movement
The Depression
World War II
118(4)
Demand for Women's Labor
Women's Diversity in the Labor Force
What about the Children?
Peacetime
The Postwar Era to the Millennium
122(1)
The Women's Movement
122(9)
The Early Movement: 1830 to 1890
124(3)
The Seneca Falls Convention
The Nineteenth Amendment
127(1)
The Contemporary Movement
127(2)
National Organization for Women
Summary
129(1)
Key Terms
130(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
130(1)
Global Perspectives on Gender
131(42)
The United Nations Conferences on Women
132(3)
The Legacy of Beijing: A Personal Perspective
133(2)
Women in Development
135(2)
The Impact of Development on Women
135(2)
A Model of Women in Development
137(1)
Russia
137(5)
The Soviet Legacy
138(1)
Employment
138(2)
The Collision of Family and Employment
Marriage and Family
140(1)
Support or Backlash to Feminism?
141(1)
China
142(5)
Reform and the Chinese Family
142(2)
Footbinding
Marriage
The One-Child Policy
144(1)
Son Preference
To Get Rich Is Glorious
145(1)
The Paradox of Women and Economic Development
146(1)
India
147(4)
The Religious-Political Heritage
147(1)
The Social Reform Movement
147(1)
The Gandhis and Nehru
The Gender Gap in Human Development
148(2)
Health
Feminism in an Indian Context
150(1)
Japan
151(6)
The Occupation
151(1)
Gender Equity and Public Policy
152(1)
Work and Family: A Nondilemma
153(1)
Marriage and the Family
154(2)
Demography and Family Change
Motherhood
A Japanese Woman's Profile
156(1)
Latin America
157(3)
The Gender Divide
157(1)
Family Planning
Latin American Women, Globalization, and Development
158(1)
Feminist Agendas
159(1)
The Class--Gender Link
Israel
160(3)
Religion, Family, and Employment
161(2)
Kibbutzim
Education
The Workplace
Jewish Feminism
163(1)
The Muslim World
163(6)
Islamization: Iran and Afghanistan
164(2)
The Shah and Khomeini
Toward Reform
The Arab Middle East
166(1)
North Africa: Female Genital Mutilation
167(2)
To Veil or Not to Veil
169(1)
Scandinavia: Norway and Sweden
169(4)
Summary
170(2)
Key Terms
172(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
172(1)
PART II Gender Roles, Marriage, and the Family
Gendered Love, Marriage, and Emerging Lifestyles
173(33)
Love
174(6)
Linking Love and Marriage
174(1)
Friends and Lovers
175(1)
Defining Love
Distinguishing Love and Friendship
Same-Gender Friends
Other-Gender Friends
Gendered Love and Love Myths
176(4)
Love Conquers All
Love Is Blind
Love at First Sight
Women Are the Romantic Sex (Gender)
No Sex Without Love
The Opposite of Love Is Hate
Gender and Styles of Romance
Critique
Androgynous Love
Mate Selection
180(5)
The Marriage Gradient
180(3)
Age
Race
Attractiveness
The Marriage Squeeze
183(1)
African American Women
Sociological Perspectives on Mate Selection
184(1)
Gender Roles in Marriage and the Family
185(13)
Theoretical Perspectives on Marriage and the Family
185(5)
Functionalism
Critique
Conflict Theory
Critique
Feminist Perspective
Critique
Symbolic Interaction
Critique
Gender and the Family Values Debate
190(1)
Housewives
191(2)
Housewife Status
The Issue of Housework
193(2)
Global Trends
Dual Earners
Subcultural Variations
Extramarital Relationships
195(2)
Gender Differences
Single Women
Global Focus: The Second Wives of Hong Kong Men
197(1)
Gender Roles in Emerging Marriages and Lifestyles
198(8)
Egalitarian Marriage
198(2)
Scandinavia
Commuter Marriage
200(1)
Cohabitation
201(1)
Gender Differences
Singlehood
202(2)
Gender Differences
Gender Stereotypes
Summary
204(1)
Key Terms
205(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
205(1)
Gender and Family Relations
206(30)
The Parenthood Transition
207(6)
Motherhood
208(3)
The Motherhood Mandate
Functionalism
Conflict Theory
Challenging the Motherhood Mandate
Feminism
Fatherhood
211(2)
New Fathers
Children's Development
A Fatherhood Mandate
Voluntary Childlessness
213(1)
Parents as Dual Earners
213(3)
Children of Employed Women
214(2)
The Child Care Issue
Children's Time with Parents
Adolescents
Families in Multicultural Perspective
216(8)
African American Families
216(3)
The Myth of Black Matriarchy
Multiple Risks of Race, Class, and Gender
Latino Families
219(3)
Puerto Rican Families
Mexican American Families
Cuban American Families
Asian American Families
222(1)
Native American Families
223(1)
Divorce
224(5)
Gender and Adjustment in Divorce
224(1)
Gender Role Beliefs and Emotional Well-Being
Age
Employment
The Impact of Gendered Law in Divorce
225(4)
Custody
Divorce and Poverty
Remarriage
Single-Parent Families
229(2)
Mothers and the Single-Parent Household
229(1)
Fathers and the Single-Parent Household
230(1)
Gender Patterns in Gay and Lesbian Families
231(5)
Same-Sex Marriage
231(1)
Children, Egalitarianism, and Gender Roles
232(1)
Lesbian Mothers
233(1)
Gay Fathers
233(1)
Summary
234(1)
Key Terms
235(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
235(1)
Men and Masculinity
236(31)
Historical Notes and Masculine Markers
237(4)
Patriarchy and History
237(2)
War and Soldiering
The Depression
Vietnam and the Gulf Wars
Sports
239(2)
Brutalized Bodies
Sports Violence
On Masculinity
241(6)
Hegemonic Masculinity
241(1)
Masculinity's Norms
241(6)
Antifeminine Norm (No Sissy Stuff)
Interpersonal Relations
Success Norm (The Big Wheel)
Gendered Occupations
Intellectual Success
Toughness Norm (Sturdy Oak)
Aggression Norm (Give 'Em Hell)
School Violence
Sexual Prowess Norm (Macho Man)
Tenderness Masculinity (Sensitive Guy)
Homophobia
247(3)
The Demography of Homophobia
247(2)
The Risks of Race and Ethnicity
Gender
Masculinity and Homophobic Labels
249(1)
Gay Men
Gay Rights
Masculinity and Fatherhood
250(3)
Images of Fatherhood
250(1)
Socialization
Parents as Partners
251(2)
Men in the Delivery Room
Divorce
253(1)
Men at Middle Age and in Later Life
253(3)
Retirement
253(1)
Midlife as Crisis
254(1)
Families at Midlife
Widowhood
255(1)
Widows
Widowers
Gendered Violence
256(6)
Rape
257(3)
Profile of the Rapist
Rape on College Campus
Pornography and Rape
Masculinity and Rape
Domestic Violence and Battered Women
260(2)
Why Doesn't She Leave?
Sociological Perspectives
The Men's Movement in the United States
262(5)
National Organization of Men Against Sexism
262(1)
Mythopoetic Men
263(1)
African American Men
263(1)
Promise Keepers
264(1)
Critique: Looking Toward the Future
264(1)
Summary
265(1)
Key Terms
266(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
266(1)
PART III Gender Roles: Focus on Social Institutions
Gender, Work, and the Workplace
267(26)
Historical Overview
268(2)
The Home as the Workplace
268(2)
The Industrial Revolution
War and Jobs
Balancing Multiple Work and Family Roles
270(3)
Employment and Health
270(1)
Caregiving
271(1)
Unpaid Work
272(1)
Money and Mental Health
Summary
Gendered Institutions in Choice of Work
273(6)
The Impact of Family on Workplace
273(4)
Socialization
The Child Care Crisis
Married with Children: The Demography of Career Achievement
Career versus Job
Economic Trends and the Family
277(1)
The Legal System
278(1)
Women in the Labor Force
279(10)
Gender-Typing in Occupational Distribution
280(2)
Women in the Professions
White Collar Women
Blue Collar Women
The Wage Gap
282(3)
Triple Jeopardy: Gender, Race, and Social Class
The Human Capital Model
Symbolic Interaction and Conflict Theory
Summary
Corporate Women
285(1)
Corporate Barriers
The Glass Ceiling
Toward Corporate Success
Women as Business Owners
286(1)
Gendered Management Styles: The Partnership Alternative
287(2)
Critique
Global Focus: Microenterprise and Women
289(4)
Women and Microcredit
289(1)
Critique
Summary
290(1)
Key Terms
291(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
291(2)
Education and Gender Role Change
293(25)
A Brief Lesson in History
294(2)
The Enlightenment
294(1)
Progressive Education
295(1)
The Process of Education
296(13)
Kindergarten
296(1)
Elementary School
297(2)
Jane and the Gendered Curriculum
Dick and the Gendered Curriculum
High School
299(6)
Gender and Mathematics
Race and Social Class
Gender Diversity: Race, Self-Esteem, and Academic Achievement
Gendered Tracking and Vocational Education
The Boy or Girl Hidden Curriculum
Athletics and Masculinity
Higher Education
305(4)
Gender, Love, and Achievement in College
The Gendered College Classroom
Major and Career Paths
Graduate School
Academic Women
Gender Issues in Education
309(4)
Single-Gender Education
309(2)
Sexual Harassment in Schools
311(1)
Single-Gender Military Schools: Sexual Harassment or Bullying?
312(1)
The Lessons of Title IX
313(1)
Global Focus: The Developing World's Gender Gap in Education
314(4)
Summary
315(1)
Key Terms
316(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
316(2)
Religion and Patriarchy
318(27)
Rediscovering the Feminine Face of God
319(4)
Goddess Images
319(3)
Women's Religious Roles
Goddess as Creator
Africa
Asia
The Principle of Gender Complementarity
322(1)
Critique
Islam
323(2)
Feminist Views of Islam
324(1)
Islamic Women in the United States
324(1)
Hinduism
325(2)
The Feminine in Hindu Scripture
325(1)
Sati
326(1)
Judaism
327(2)
Family Life
327(1)
Sexuality and Social Control
The Texts of Terror
328(1)
Contemporary Images
329(1)
Christianity
329(5)
The Bible and Patriarchy
330(2)
The Writings of Paul
Biblical Men
Alternative Views of Biblical Women
332(1)
Gender Roles and American Christians
333(1)
American Protestants
American Catholics
Gender, Religiosity, and Leadership
334(5)
Gender and Religious Orientation
334(1)
Sociological Perspectives
The Issue of Ordination
335(3)
Confucianism and Islam
Judaism
Christianity
Catholicism
Protestantism
Clergy Women as Leaders
338(1)
Toward an Inclusive Theology
339(6)
The Language of Religion
339(1)
Reinterpretation of Scripture
340(1)
Feminist Theology
341(1)
Summary
342(1)
Key Terms
343(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
344(1)
Media
345(29)
Print Media
346(4)
Magazines
346(1)
Fiction
Articles
Advertising
347(3)
Film
350(5)
Screen History
350(2)
Good Women and Bad Women
James Bond and ``His'' Girls
Pairing Sex and Violence
352(1)
Aging Females, Ageless Males
353(2)
Music
355(4)
Rock Music
356(3)
The Women of Rock
Rock Videos
Television
359(5)
Gendered Violence
359(1)
Prime Time
360(2)
Employed Women
Soap Operas
362(1)
Commercials
363(1)
Children's Commercials
Men's Images in Media
364(4)
Advertising
364(1)
Film
365(1)
Television
365(1)
Situation Comedies: Men in Families
TV's Gender, Race, and Class Link
366(2)
Working Class Men
Gender and Mass Media Industries
368(3)
Television
368(1)
Broadcast Journalism
369(1)
Film
369(2)
Media and Social Change
371(3)
Summary
371(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
372(2)
Power, Politics, and the Law
374(32)
The Law
375(17)
Employment
375(5)
BFOQ
Equal Pay Act
Comparable Worth
Critique
Affirmative Action
The Gender-Race Link
The Courts
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Education and Title IX
380(2)
The Courts
Athletics
Critique
Sexual Harassment
382(2)
The Thomas-Hill Controversy
Impact of Sexual Harassment
The Social Construction of Sexual Harassment
Domestic Relations
384(3)
Divorce
Family Economics
Domestic Abuse and the Courts
Reproductive Rights
387(2)
Legal History
Pro-Life or Pro-Choice
Crime
389(3)
Socialization
Economics
Criminal Justice
Prostitution: A Case Study
Politics
392(7)
Women in Office
392(1)
Barriers to the Female Candidate
393(4)
Socialization Factors
Beliefs about Women's Roles
Structural Barriers
The Gender Gap
397(2)
Political Party
The Equal Rights Amendment
399(3)
Ratification's Rocky Path
400(1)
The New Christian Right
Issues of Interpretation
400(2)
Feminism in the Twenty-First Century
402(4)
Summary
403(1)
Key Terms
404(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
405(1)
Glossary 406(5)
References 411(61)
Name Index 472(11)
Subject Index 483

Excerpts

Interest in gender related topics continues to expand rapidly in all disciplines and sociology is no exception. This interest has led to such an explosion of theory and research on gender and how gender intersects with other social categories, such as race, social class, ethnicity, religion, age, and sexuality, that the discipline itself is being reshaped. An important ingredient of this reshaping is that the feminist paradigm has joined with functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interaction to become sociology's fourth major theoretical perspective. The globalization process is yet another reshaping trend--a process that fuels diversity yet makes people more connected to one another than at any other time in human history. Gender role change in our relationships, homes, workplaces, and schools is a fundamental feature of globalization. Through abundant data documenting cutting edge research on gender and theoretical applications demonstrating how this research can be interpreted differently according to various sociological theories, the 4th edition ofGender Roleseffectively captures all these trends. This edition strongly emphasizes the junction between sociological theory and its application to gender and issues of diversity that are reverberating around the globe. Students will better understand the theory-research connection through the new critiques this edition incorporates throughout. In addition, students will be able to locate themselves when they examine material on the intersection of gender with the other social categories they occupy and as they grapple with gender issues in their everyday lives.Since the last edition ofGender Roles,the rapid growth of gender related scholarship has brought with it more interpretations, more sophistication, and more complexity. The good news is that there is a wealth of material from which to choose. Students need to be introduced to the richness and complexity of scholarship on gender and the important issues emerging from this scholarship. Because only a fraction of this abundant information can be included, material for this edition had to be carefully chosen to adequately and accurately represent competing theoretical views on gender and how various groups are portrayed according to these views. Interdisciplinary work aids in these portrayals. This edition makes focused choices from the contributions of other disciplines as they impinge on the sociology of gender roles. Although the task in selecting new material and discarding old material is formidable, it is manageable when a sociological perspective directs the process. Students will find a solid sociological foundation that links the range of information presented.Written primarily as a core text for courses variously titled Sociology of Gender, Sex and Gender, Gender Roles, or Sex Roles, this text may be used for those studying the sociology of the family, psychology of women, gender and globalization, and women's or men's studies. Although guided by a sociological perspective, those with little or no background in sociology will find the text easy to navigate. It is also an excellent review for upper division students who will have their sociological expertise reinforced early in the text. Both groups will have the requisite knowledge to tackle the more complex gender issues they will then confront. The opening chapter provides an overview of the sociological perspective, its theories, and its basic concepts. Basic concepts from women's and men's studies are also introduced. Key terms are defined and boldfaced. Students will quickly understand that these theories and concepts can be used in explaining the sometimes contradictory research on gender issues. Theoretical discussions and applications that are both meaningfully linked with research as well as critiqued reinforce this understanding.Part I provides insights on gender roles and the development of beliefs abou


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