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General Chemistry Principles and Modern Applications with MasteringChemistry -- Access Card Package

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Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9780136121497

ISBN10:
0136121497
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
3/22/2010
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $278.92

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Summary

The most trusted general chemistry text in Canada is back in a thoroughly revised 10 th edition. General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applicationsis recognized for its superior problems, lucid writing, precision of argument, and precise and detailed treatment of chemistry. Its innovative pedagogical features, which encourage students to understand, apply, and synthesize content, reinforce the principles of general chemistry and provide the ideal foundation for later studies. The new tenth addition boasts a number of improvements, including expanded coverage of organic chemistry, as well as a consistent 3-part structure (Analyze Solve Assess) for every worked example. All of the student-favourite, pedagogically rich elements of this textbook have returned in the tenth edition with renewed focus, including 10 to 25 new questions per chapter and updated integrative examples that are now enhanced with the Practice Example A and Practice Example B format.

Author Biography

Ralph H. Petrucci

Ralph Petrucci received his B.S. in Chemistry from Union College, Schenectady, NY, and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin—Madison. Following ten years of teaching, research, consulting, and directing the NSF Institutes for Secondary School Science Teachers at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, Dr. Petrucci joined the planning staff of the new California State University campus at San Bernardino in 1964. There, in addition to his faculty appointment, he served as Chairman of the Natural Sciences Division and Dean of Academic Planning before retiring from teaching.

 

F. Geoffrey Herring

Geoff Herring received his B.Sc. and his Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry, both from the University of London. He is currently a Professor in the Department of Chemistry of the University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Dr. Herring has research interests in the area of biophysical chemistry and has published over 100 papers in the area of physical chemistry and chemical physics. Recently, Dr. Herring has undertaken studies in the use of information technology and interactive engagement methods in teaching general chemistry with a view to improving student comprehension and learning. Dr. Herring has taught chemistry from undergraduate to graduate levels for 30 years and has twice been the recipient of the Killam Prize for Excellence in Teaching.

 

Jeffry D. Madura

Jeffry D. Madura received his B.A. from Thiel College and his Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry from Purdue University. He is currently Professor and Chair in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry of Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, PA. Dr. Madura’s research interests are in the area of computational chemistry and biophysical chemistry, and he has published over 70 papers in the area of physical chemistry and chemical physics. Recently, Dr. Madura has undertaken studies in the use of technology and interactive personal response systems in teaching general and physical chemistry with the goal of improving student comprehension and learning.  Dr. Madura has taught chemistry from undergraduate to graduate levels for 15 years and has been the recipient of a Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Award.

 

Carey Bissonnette

Carey Bissonnette received his B.Sc. in Chemistry from the University of Waterloo, Ontario and his Ph.D. in Theoretical Chemistry from the University of Camridge. He is currently Continuing Lecturer in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Waterloo. He has won awards for excellence in teaching, including the University of Waterloo’s Distinguished Teacher Award in 2005. Dr. Bissonnette has made extensive use of technology in both the classroom and the laboratory in order to create an interactive environment for his students to learn and explore. For the past several years, he has been actively engaged in undergraduate curriculum development, high school liaison activities, and the coordination of the University’s high school chemistry contests that are written each year by thousands of students around the world.

Table of Contents

1 MATTER–ITS PROPERTIES AND MEASUREMENT

1-1 The Scientific Method

1-2 Properties of Matter

1-3 Classification of Matter

1-4 Measurement of Matter: SI (Metric) Units

1-5 Density and Percent Composition: Their Use in Problem Solving

1-6 Uncertainties in Scientific Measurements

1-7 Significant Figures

 

2 ATOMS AND THE ATOMIC THEORY

2-1 Early Chemical Discoveries and the Atomic Theory

2-2 Electrons and Other Discoveries in Atomic Physics

2-3 The Nuclear Atom

2-4 Chemical Elements

2-5 Atomic Mass

2-6 Introduction to the Periodic Table

2-7 The Concept of the Mole and the Avogadro Constant

2-8 Using the Mole Concept in Calculations

 

3 CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS

3-1 Types of Chemical Compounds and their Formulas

3-2 The Mole Concept and Chemical Compounds

3-3 Composition of Chemical Compounds

3-4 Oxidation States: A Useful Tool in Describing Chemical Compounds

3-5 Naming Compounds: Organic and Inorganic Compounds

3-6 Names and Formulas of Inorganic Compounds

3-7 Names and Formulas of Organic Compounds

 

4 CHEMICAL REACTIONS

4-1 Chemical Reactions and Chemical Equations

4-2 Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry

4-3 Chemical Reactions in Solution

4-4 Determining the Limiting Reactant

4-5 Other Practical Matters in Reaction Stoichiometry

 

5 INTRODUCTION TO REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

5-1 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions

5-2 Precipitation Reactions

5-3 Acid-Base Reactions

5-4 Oxidation-Reduction: Some General Principles
5-5 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations

5-6 Oxidizing and Reducing Agents

5-7 Stoichiometry of Reactions in Aqueous Solutions: Titrations

 

6 GASES

6-1 Properties of Gases: Gas Pressure

6-2 The Simple Gas Laws

6-3 Combining the Gas Laws: The Ideal Gas Equation and the General Gas Equation

6-4 Applications of the Ideal Gas Equation

6-5 Gases in Chemical Reactions

6-6 Mixtures of Gases

6-7 Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases

6-8 Gas Properties Relating to the Kinetic-Molecular Theory

6-9 Nonideal (Real) Gases

 

7 THERMOCHEMISTRY

7-1 Getting Started: Some Terminology

7-2 Heat

7-3 Heats of Reaction and Calorimetry

7-4 Work

7-5 The First Law of Thermodynamics

7-6 Heats of Reaction: ΔU and ΔH

7-7 Indirect Determination of  ΔH: Hess’s Law

7-8 Standard Enthalpies of Formation

7-9 Fuels as Sources of Energy

 

8 ELECTRONS IN ATOMS

8-1 Electromagnetic Radiation

8-2 Atomic Spectra

8-3 Quantum Theory

8-4 The Bohr Atom

8-5 Two Ideas Leading to a New Quantum Mechanics

8-6 Wave Mechanics

8-7 Quantum Numbers and Electron Orbitals

8-8 Interpreting and Representing the Orbitals of the Hydrogen Atom

8-9 Electron Spin: A Fourth Quantum Number

8-10 Multielectron Atoms

8-11 Electron Configurations

8-12 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table

 

9 THE PERIODIC TABLE AND SOME ATOMIC PROPERTIES

9-1 Classifying the Elements: The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table

9-2 Metals and Nonmetals and their Ions

9-3 Sizes of Atoms and Ions

9-4 Ionization Energy

9-5 Electron Affinity

9-6 Magnetic Properties

9-7 Periodic Properties of the Elements

 

10 CHEMICAL BONDING I: BASIC CONCEPTS

10-1 Lewis Theory: An Overview

10-2 Covalent Bonding: An Introduction

10-3 Polar Covalent Bonds and Electrostatic Potential Maps

10-4 Writing Lewis Structures

10-5 Resonance

10-6 Exceptions to the Octet Rule

10-7 Shapes of Molecules
10-8 Bond Order and Bond Lengths

10-9 Bond Energies

 

11 CHEMICAL BONDING II: ADDITIONAL ASPECTS

11-1 What a Bonding Theory Should Do

11-2 Introduction to the Valence-Bond Method

11-3 Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals

11-4 Multiple Covalent Bonds

11-5 Molecular Orbital Theory

11-6 Delocalized Electrons: Bonding in the Benzene Molecule

11-7 Bonding in Metals

11-8 Some Unresolved Issues; Can Electron Charge-Density Plots Help?

 

12 INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS

12-1 Intermolecular Forces

12-2 Some Properties of Liquids

12-3 Some Properties of Solids

12-4 Phase Diagrams

12-5 Network Covalent Solids and Ionic Solids

12-6 Crystal Structures

12-7 Energy Changes in the Formation of Ionic Crystals

 

13 SOLUTIONS AND THEIR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

13-1 Types of Solutions: Some Terminology

13-2 Solution Concentration

13-3 Intermolecular Forces and the Solution Process

13-4 Solution Formation and Equilibrium

13-5 Solubilities of Gases

13-6 Vapor Pressures of Solutions

13-7 Osmotic Pressure

13-8 Freezing-Point Depression and Boiling-Point Elevation of Nonelectrolyte Solutions

13-9 Solutions of Electrolytes

13-10 Colloidal Mixtures

 

14 CHEMICAL KINETICS

14-1 The Rate of a Chemical Reaction

14-2 Measuring Reaction Rates

14-3 Effect of Concentration on Reaction Rates: The Rate Law

14-4 Zero-Order Reactions

14-5 First-Order Reactions

14-6 Second-Order Reactions

14-7 Reaction Kinetics: A Summary

14-8 Theoretical Models for Chemical Kinetics

14-9 The Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rates

14-10 Reaction Mechanisms

14-11 Catalysis

 

15 PRINCIPLES OF CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

15-1 Dynamic Equilibrium

15-2 The Equilibrium Constant Expression

15-3 Relationships Involving Equilibrium Constants

15-4 The Magnitude of an Equilibrium Constant

15-5 The Reaction Quotient, Q: Predicting The Direction of Net Change

15-6 Altering Equilibrium Conditions: Le Châtelier’s Principle

15-7 Equilibrium Calculations: Some Illustrative Examples

 

16 ACIDS AND BASES

16-1 Arrhenius Theory: A Brief Review

16-2 Brønsted-Lowry Theory of Acids and Bases

16-3 Self-Ionization of Water and the pH Scale

16-4 Strong Acids and Strong Bases

16-5 Weak Acids and Weak Bases

16-6 Polyprotic Acids

16-7 Ions as Acids and Bases

16-8 Molecular Structure and Acid-Base Behavior

16-9 Lewis Acids and Bases

 

17 ADDITIONAL ASPECTS OF ACID—BASE EQUILIBRIA

17-1 Common-Ion Effect in Acid-Base Equilibria

17-2 Buffer Solutions

17-3 Acid-Base Indicators

17-4 Neutralization Reactions and Titration Curves

17-5 Solutions of Salts of Polyprotic Acids

17-6 Acid-Base Equilibrium Calculations: A Summary

 

18 SOLUBILITY AND COMPLEX-ION EQUILIBRIA

18-1 Solubility Product Constant, Ksp

18-2 Relationship Between Solubility and Ksp

18-3 Common-Ion Effect in Solubility Equilibria

18-4 Limitations of the Ksp Concept

18-5 Criteria for Precipitation and its Completeness

18-6 Fractional Precipitation

18-7 Solubility and pH

18-8 Equilibria Involving Complex Ions

18-9 Qualitative Cation Analysis

 

19 SPONTANEOUS CHANGE: ENTROPY AND Gibbs ENERGY

19-1 Spontaneity: The Meaning of Spontaneous Change

19-2 The Concept of Entropy

19-3 Evaluating Entropy and Entropy Changes

19-4 Criteria for Spontaneous Change: The Second Law of Thermodynamics

19-5 Standard Gibbs Energy Change, ΔG°      

19-6 Gibbs Energy Change and Equilibrium

19-7 ΔG° and K as Functions of Temperature

19-8 Coupled Reactions

 

20 ELECTROCHEMISTRY

20-1 Electrode Potentials and their Measurement

20-2 Standard Electrode Potentials

20-3 Ecell, ΔG, and K

20-4 Ecell as a Function of Concentrations

20-5 Batteries: Producing Electricity Through Chemical Reactions

20-6 Corrosion: Unwanted Voltaic Cells

20-7 Electrolysis: Causing Nonspontaneous Reactions to Occur

20-8 Industrial Electrolysis Processes

 

21 CHEMISTRY OF THE MAIN-GROUP ELEMENTS I: GROUPS 1, 2, 13, AND 14

21-1 Periodic Trends and Charge Density

21-2 Group 1: The Alkali Metals

21-3 Group 2: The Alkaline Earth Metals

21-4 Group 13: The Boron Family

21-5 Group 14: The Carbon Family

 

22 CHEMISTRY OF THE MAIN-GROUP ELEMENTS II: GROUPS 18, 17, 16, 15, AND HYDROGEN

22-1 Periodic Trends in Bonding

22-2 Group 18: The Noble Gases

22-3 Group 17: The Halogens

22-4 Group 16: The Oxygen Family

22-5 Group 15: The Nitrogen Family

22-6 Hydrogen: A Unique Element

 

23 THE TRANSITION ELEMENTS

23-1 General Properties

23-2 Principles of Extractive Metallurgy

23-3 Metallurgy of Iron and Steel

23-4 First-Row Transition Metal Elements: Scandium to Manganese

23-5 The Iron Triad: Iron, Cobalt, and Nickel

23-6 Group 11: Copper, Silver, and Gold

23-7 Group 12: Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury

23-8 Lanthanides

23-9 High-Temperature Superconductors

 

24 COMPLEX IONS AND COORDINATION COMPOUNDS

24-1 Werner’s Theory of Coordination Compounds: An Overview

24-2 Ligands

24-3 Nomenclature

24-4 Isomerism

24-5 Bonding in Complex Ions: Crystal Field Theory

24-6 Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds and Crystal Field Theory

24-7 Color and the Colors of Complexes

24-8 Aspects of Complex-Ion Equilibria

24-9 Acid-Base Reactions of Complex Ions

24-10 Some Kinetic Considerations

24-11 Applications of Coordination Chemistry

 

25 NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY

25-1 Radioactivity

25-2 Naturally Occurring Radioactive Isotopes

25-3 Nuclear Reactions and Artificially Induced Radioactivity

25-4 Transuranium Elements

25-5 Rate of Radioactive Decay

25-6 Energetics of Nuclear Reactions

25-7 Nuclear Stability

25-8 Nuclear Fission

25-9 Nuclear Fusion

25-10 Effect of Radiation on Matter

25-11 Applications of Radioisotopes

 

26 STRUCTURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

26-1 Organic Compounds and Structures: An Overview

26-2 Alkanes

26-3 Cycloalkanes

26-4 Stereoisomerism in Organic Compounds

26-5 Alkenes and Alkynes

26-6 Aromatic Hydrocarbons

26-7 Organic Compounds Containing Functional Groups

26-8 From Molecular Formula to Molecular Structure

 

27 REACTIONS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

27-1 Organic Reactions: An Introduction

27-2 Organic Acids and Bases

27-3 Introduction to Substitution Reactions

27-4 Introduction to Elimination Reactions

27-5 Reactions of Alcohols

27-6 Introduction to Addition Reactions: Reactions of Alkenes
27-7 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution

27-8 Nitration: Substitution of −H with −NO2

27-9 Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives: The Addition—Elimination Mechanism

27-10 Reactions of Alkanes

27-11 Polymers and Polymerization Reactions

27-12 Synthesis of Organic Compounds

 

28 CHEMISTRY OF THE LIVING STATE

28-1 Chemical Structure of Living Matter: An Overview

28-2 Lipids

28-3 Carbohydrates

28-4 Proteins

28-5 Aspects of Metabolism

28-6 Nucleic Acids

 

APPENDIXES

A      Mathematical Operations

B       Some Basic Physical Concepts

C      SI Units

D      Data Tables:

  • Table D.1 Ground-State Electron Configurations
  • Table D.2 Thermodynamic Properties of Substances at 298.15 K
  • Table D.3 Equilibrium Constants
  • Table D.4 Standard Electrode (Reduction) Potentials at 25ÚC
  • Table D.5 Isotopic Masses and their Abundance

E       Concept Maps

F       Glossary

G      Answers to Concept Assessment Questions



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