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Generalist Social Work Practice : An Empowering Approach

by ; ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780205319510

ISBN10:
0205319513
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $63.00
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Summary

This text is now well known as the first to incorporate the empowerment or strengths approach into the generalist (introductory) practice course. The Third Edition continues to emphasize a generalist, empowerment-oriented approach to practice at all levels (individual, family, groups, organizations, and community). The revision has incorporated more information on cultural groups, including consideration of white privilege and added emphasis on developing cross-cultural skills (Chapter 3), and updated information on cultural group strengths (Chapter 9). There is also a renewed emphasis on larger systems including new frameworks for larger system assessment (Chapter 10) and more discussion of closure issues within larger systems (Chapter 16). Over 200 new resources have been added to update the research base and add breadth and depth to the consideration of empowerment-based practice.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
PART 1 Social Work Practice Perspectives 1(116)
Generalist Social Work Practice
3(19)
Social Work Values and Purpose
6(3)
Human Dignity and Worth
6(1)
Social Justice
7(1)
Translating Values into Practice
7(1)
Achieving the Purpose of Social Work
8(1)
Generalist Social Work
9(5)
Levels of Intervention in Generalist Practice
10(2)
Policy and Generalist Practice
12(1)
Research in Generalist Practice
13(1)
Advantages of a Multifaceted Approach
13(1)
Social Work Functions and Roles
14(6)
Consultancy
14(2)
Resource Management
16(2)
Education
18(2)
Integrating Generalist Functions
20(1)
Reflecting Back
20(1)
Looking Forward
21(1)
The Ecosystems Perspective
22(28)
The Knowledge Base of Generalist Practice
24(4)
Theoretical Frameworks for Practice
24(3)
Developing a Practice Framework
27(1)
Analyzing Theoretical Perspectives
27(1)
Key Perspectives for Empowering Practice
28(3)
Ecosystems
28(1)
Constructivism
29(1)
Social Constructionism
29(1)
Social Constructivism
30(1)
Feminism
30(1)
The Ecosystems Perspective
31(6)
Humans in Context
32(1)
Focus on Transactions
32(1)
Development as Evolutionary Change
33(1)
Goodness-of-Fit
34(1)
View of Dysfunction
34(2)
Implications for Change
36(1)
Human Systems
37(7)
System Defined
37(1)
Dimensions of Systems
38(1)
A Structural View of Systems
39(1)
An Interactional View of Systems
40(2)
Biopsychosocial Dimensions
42(1)
Cultural Influences
43(1)
Ecosystems: A Conceptual Framework for Practice
44(5)
Identify the Focal System
44(2)
What's Happening Inside the System?
46(1)
What's Happening Outside the System?
46(1)
How Do the Inside and Outside Connect?
47(1)
How Does the System Move through Time?
47(1)
Applying the Ecosystems Framework
48(1)
Reflecting Back
49(1)
Looking Forward
49(1)
Values and Multicultural Competence
50(25)
Frames of Reference
51(2)
Your Frame of Reference Shows
52(1)
Professional Values and Practice Principles
53(6)
Acceptance
54(1)
Individualization
54(1)
Nonjudgmentalism
55(1)
Objectivity
55(1)
Self-Determination
56(1)
Access to Resources
56(1)
Confidentiality
57(1)
Accountability
57(1)
Value Conflicts in Practice: An Example
57(2)
Personal Values and Resources
59(4)
Use of Self in Social Work
59(1)
Increasing Self-Awareness
59(1)
Values and Principles in Action: A Practice Example
60(2)
How Values Influence Practice
62(1)
Values and Diversity
63(1)
Multicultural Competence
63(3)
Cultural Diversity Defined
64(1)
Proficient Multicultural Practice
65(1)
Cultural Competence
65(1)
Cultural Sensitivity
66(1)
Cultural Responsiveness
66(1)
A Generalist View of Cultural Competence
66(8)
Practitioner-Level Cultural Competence
66(5)
Agency-Level Cultural Competence
71(2)
Community-Level Cultural Competence
73(1)
Reflecting Back
74(1)
Looking Forward
74(1)
Strengths and Empowerment
75(20)
Strengths Perspective
77(4)
Practice Assumptions
78(1)
Key Transitions
78(3)
Applying a Strengths Perspective
81(1)
Empowerment
81(7)
Personal Dimensions of Empowerment
82(1)
Interpersonal Dimensions of Empowerment
83(1)
Sociopolitical Dimensions of Empowerment
84(1)
Power
85(2)
Empowerment as a Concept and a Process
87(1)
Empowerment-Based Practice
88(6)
The Paradox of an Empowering Process
88(1)
Collaboration and Partnership
88(3)
Empowerment-Oriented Strategies
91(2)
Tenets for Empowerment-Based Social Work Practice
93(1)
Reflecting Back
94(1)
Looking Forward
94(1)
An Empowering Approach to Generalist Practice
95(22)
Elements of an Empowering Generalist Approach
96(2)
Infusing an Ecosystems Perspective
96(1)
Reflecting a Social-Justice Commitment
97(1)
Applying a Strengths Orientation
97(1)
Collaborating with Clients
97(1)
Constructing an Empowering Reality
98(1)
Phases and Processes of Empowering Practice
98(6)
The Dialogue Phase
99(1)
The Discovery Phase
100(2)
The Development Phase
102(1)
From Solving Problems to Promoting Competence
103(1)
Processes in Action: Practice Examples
104(10)
An Example at the Microlevel
104(4)
An Example at the Midlevel
108(3)
An Example at the Macrolevel
111(2)
A Process for All Human Systems
113(1)
Maintaining Flexibility in Application
114(1)
The Recurring Nature of Social Work Processes
114(1)
Structuring Sessions
114(1)
Reflecting Back
114(1)
Looking Forward
115(2)
PART 2 The Dialogue Phase: Building Relationships and Describing Situations 117(84)
Forming Partnerships
119(26)
Collaboration and Partnership
120(3)
The Dilemma of Social Workers as Experts
121(1)
The Rewards of Clients as Experts
121(1)
The Social Worker's Role
122(1)
Agency Influences on Worker-Client Relationships
123(1)
Making Initial Contacts
123(5)
Recognizing What Clients Bring
123(1)
Beginning Steps: A Practice Example
124(4)
Qualities of Professional Partnerships
128(5)
Genuineness
129(1)
Acceptance and Respect
129(2)
Trustworthiness
131(1)
Empathy
131(1)
Cultural Sensitivity
132(1)
Purposefulness
133(1)
Constructing Empowering Relationships
133(6)
Recognizing Rights
133(1)
Taking Responsibilities
134(1)
Discussing Rights and Responsibilities
135(1)
Augmenting Power
136(1)
When Clients Feel Powerless
136(1)
Collaborating with Oppressed Clients
137(1)
Voluntary and Involuntary Clients
138(1)
Partnerships with Larger Systems
139(1)
Respecting Confidentiality
139(5)
Absolute and Relative Confidentiality
139(1)
Violating Confidentiality
140(1)
Informed Consent for Releasing Information
141(1)
Privileged Communication
141(2)
Balancing Accountability and Privacy
143(1)
Reflecting Back
144(1)
Looking Forward
144(1)
Articulating Situations
145(31)
Empowering Dialogue
146(2)
Listening and Responding
147(1)
Professional Responding
147(1)
Proactive Responding
148(2)
Describing the Current Situation
148(1)
Orienting toward the Future
149(1)
Searching for Strengths and Resources
150(1)
Sizing Up Situations
150(1)
Exchanging Information
150(6)
Verbal Communication
151(2)
Nonverbal Communication
153(1)
Influences on Communication Processes
154(2)
Describing Situations
156(1)
Assessing the Client's Perspective
156(1)
Beginning the Dialogue
157(1)
Responding to Thoughts
157(10)
Allowing Space
158(1)
Nonverbal Responses
159(1)
Single Word Responses
159(1)
Restatement
159(1)
Clarification
160(1)
Summary Clarification
161(1)
Request to Continue
162(1)
Questioning
163(1)
Combining Responses
164(1)
Practice Example
164(3)
Responding to Feelings
167(2)
The Experience of Feelings
167(1)
Identifying Feelings
167(1)
Verbalizing Feelings
168(1)
Validating Feelings
169(1)
Special Issues in Responding
169(4)
Responding to Anger
169(2)
Responding to Silence
171(1)
Responding to Questions
172(1)
Responding to Feedback from Clients
172(1)
Responding to Larger Client Systems
173(1)
Facilitating Discussion
173(1)
Respecting Existing Functioning
174(1)
Reflecting Back
174(1)
Looking Forward
175(1)
Defining Directions
176(25)
Transforming Challenges into Directions
178(4)
Orienting Forward, Not Back
180(1)
Framing the Search for Resources
181(1)
Integrating Transactional Dimensions
181(1)
Considering Client Motivation
182(3)
A Transactional View of Motivation
182(1)
Motivating Clients Who Have Given Up
182(1)
Aligning Worker and Client Motivations
183(1)
Motivating Larger Systems
184(1)
Collaborating with Clients Who Resist
185(2)
Resistance Is Motivated
185(1)
Cooperating with Resistance
186(1)
Overcoming Environmental Resistance
186(1)
Cooperating with Mandated Clients
187(2)
Constructing Workers' Expectations
187(1)
Structuring a Working Partnership
188(1)
Defining a Motivating Direction
189(1)
Taking Priority Actions
189(10)
Responding to Trauma
190(1)
Responding to the Threat of Suicide
191(3)
Responding to Threats toward Others
194(1)
Responding to Child Abuse
195(2)
Responding to Elder Abuse
197(1)
Responding to Intimate Partner Violence
197(1)
Responding to Survival Needs
198(1)
Responding to Signs of Addiction
198(1)
Reflecting Back
199(1)
Looking Forward
199(2)
PART 3 The Discovery Phase: Assessing Resources and Planning Change 201(94)
Identifying Strengths
203(26)
Infusing a Strengths Perspective
205(4)
What Are Strengths?
205(1)
Why Identify Strengths?
206(2)
Balancing Strengths and Challenges
208(1)
Looking for Strengths
209(1)
Highlighting Strengths in General Functioning
209(3)
Strengths in Individuals
209(1)
Strengths in Families
210(1)
Strengths in Groups
210(1)
Strengths in Organizations
211(1)
Strengths in Communities
211(1)
Solution-Focused Dialogue
212(3)
Creating a Solution-Saturated Atmosphere
212(1)
Searching for Exceptions
213(1)
Detecting Incremental Steps
213(1)
Searching for Transferable Skills
214(1)
Recognizing Cultural Strengths
215(1)
Strengths in Diversity
215(1)
Ethnic Group Strengths
216(4)
African Americans
216(1)
Latino Americans
217(1)
Asian Americans
218(1)
Native Americans
219(1)
Strengths in Cultural Group Memberships
220(5)
Women
221(1)
Gays and Lesbians
222(1)
Older Adults
223(1)
Religious Affiliations and Spirituality
223(1)
Persons with Disabilities
224(1)
Clients as Resources for Understanding Cultures
224(1)
Uncovering Strengths in Adversity
225(3)
Surviving Oppression
225(1)
Surviving Violence
226(1)
Surviving Family Disruption
227(1)
Reflecting Back
228(1)
Looking Forward
228(1)
Assessing Resource Capabilities
229(38)
Exploring Resource Systems
230(3)
Recognizing Environmental Resources
231(1)
Turning Challenging Situations into Resources
231(1)
Collaborating to Search for Resources
232(1)
Applying Theoretical Frameworks
233(4)
Organizing Assessment Using a Five-Point Ecosystemic Schema
233(1)
Practice Example: Franklin Courts
233(4)
Organizing Assessment: Applying Ecosystemic Questions
237(7)
Assessing Structures
237(3)
Assessing Interactions
240(1)
Assessing Thinking and Feeling
241(1)
Assessing Cultural Influences
241(2)
Assessing Physical Environments
243(1)
Putting the Pieces Together
244(1)
Using Assessment Tools
244(12)
Social Histories
244(2)
Genograms
246(1)
Eco-maps
246(3)
Culturally Sensitive Assessment
249(1)
Social Network Maps
249(1)
Group Assessment
249(4)
Organizational Assessment
253(1)
Neighborhood and Community Assessment
254(2)
Tools as Resources for Empowerment
256(1)
Adding Viewpoints
256(2)
Bringing in Significant Others
256(1)
Contacting Other Professionals
257(1)
Assessing through Observation
258(2)
Observations by Clients
258(1)
Observations by Workes
259(1)
Recordkeeping
260(5)
Recording
260(1)
Types of Recording Formats
261(2)
Ethical and Legal Issues in Recordkeeping
263(2)
Reflecting Back
265(1)
Looking Forward
265(2)
Framing Solutions
267(28)
Collaborative Planning Processes
268(4)
Client Expertise in Planning
269(1)
Worker Expertise in Planning
269(1)
Issues Affecting Collaborative Planning
270(1)
Planning in Multiperson Systems
271(1)
Goals and Objectives
272(6)
Differentiating Goals and Objectives
273(1)
Considering Goals
273(1)
Translating Goals into Objectives
274(4)
Constructing Action Plans
278(13)
Crystallizing Outcome Goals
280(2)
Writing Effective Objectives
282(2)
Prioritizing Objectives
284(1)
Screening Generalist Intervention Strategies
284(4)
Choosing Effective Strategies
288(2)
Delineating Tasks and Responsibilities
290(1)
Setting Reviews and Evaluations
290(1)
Contracting
291(3)
The Evolving Contract
292(1)
Contracting as an Empowering Process
293(1)
Reflecting Back
294(1)
Looking Forward
294(1)
PART 4 The Development Phase: Implementing, Evaluating, and Stabilizing Change 295(144)
Activating Resources
297(30)
Applying Generalist Intervention Skills
300(1)
Intervention across System Levels
300(1)
Maintaining Progress in the Action Plan
300(7)
Implementing Action Plans
301(1)
Enhancing Interactions
302(3)
Sustaining Motivation
305(2)
Developing Power
307(3)
Promoting Leadership
307(1)
Recognizing Choices
308(1)
Locating Genuine Options
308(1)
Magnifying Strengths
309(1)
Changing Perspectives
310(7)
Offering Feedback
310(1)
Constructing Feedback
310(2)
Creating New Concepts
312(1)
Using Narrative Strategies
313(1)
Trying Out New Behaviors
314(3)
Managing Resources
317(4)
Linking Clients with Resources
318(1)
Case Advocacy
319(1)
Maximizing Clients' Rights
319(2)
Educating
321(4)
Teaching
321(2)
Sharing Information
323(2)
Reflecting Back
325(1)
Looking Forward
325(2)
Creating Alliances
327(32)
The Power of Alliances
329(1)
Developing Alliances through Groups
329(6)
Groups and Empowerment
329(2)
Mutual Aid in Groups
331(1)
Facilitating Group Functioning
332(1)
Social Action in Groups
333(1)
Self-Help Groups
334(1)
Strengthening Natural Support Alliances
335(3)
Social Support
335(1)
Workers' Roles in Encouraging Social Support
336(2)
Case Management: Client-Service Alliances
338(12)
Case Management Defined
338(2)
The Purpose of Case Management
340(1)
Case Management in Action: A Practice Example
341(1)
Case Management Activities with Clients
342(2)
Case Management Activities with the Delivery System
344(1)
Workers' Resources for Case Management
345(1)
Critical Issues and Ethical Dilemmas
346(4)
Organizational Alliances for Service Delivery
350(3)
Building Interagency Coalitions
351(1)
Working on Teams
351(1)
Leading Effective Meetings
352(1)
Professional Support Networks
353(5)
Alliances within Organizations
353(2)
Job Stress and Burnout
355(1)
Professional Memberships
356(1)
Connections in Cyberspace
357(1)
Reflecting Back
358(1)
Looking Forward
358(1)
Expanding Opportunities
359(28)
Opportunities: Keys to Empowerment
361(3)
Environmental Opportunities
361(1)
Environmental Risks
362(1)
Empowerment and Opportunities
362(1)
Empowerment in Groups and Communities
363(1)
Resource Expansion
364(3)
Identifying Resource Shortages
364(1)
Mobilizing Resources
365(1)
Educating the Public
366(1)
Writing Grants
366(1)
Community Change
367(5)
Community Theories
367(1)
Community Organizing
368(1)
Community Development
369(2)
Empowerment and Community Development
371(1)
Policy Development
372(2)
Policy Analysis and Change
372(1)
Consumer Participation in Policy Development
373(1)
Social Activism and Social Advocacy
374(5)
A Heritage of Social Reform
375(1)
Promoting Social Action
375(1)
Advocacy Role
376(2)
Political Awareness
378(1)
Social Work and Political Perspectives
379(1)
Legislative Advocacy
379(4)
Legislative Analysis
380(1)
Lobbying
380(1)
Legislative Testimony
381(1)
Successful Legislation: The Americans with Disabilities Act
382(1)
Resources for Professionals
383(1)
Staff Development Training
383(1)
Continuing Education
383(1)
Professional Reading
384(1)
Reflecting Back
384(2)
Looking Forward
386(1)
Recognizing Success
387(26)
Social Work Evaluation and Research
388(2)
Integrating Practice and Research
390(1)
Practice Evaluation
390(7)
Progress Evaluation
390(1)
Client Outcome Assessment
391(2)
Program Evaluation
393(4)
Research
397(6)
The Research Process
397(1)
Research Terminology
398(4)
Qualitative and Quantitative Data Analysis
402(1)
Ethics in Research
402(1)
Single-System Designs
403(7)
Phases of Single-System Designs
404(1)
Types of Single-System Designs
405(5)
Limitations of Single-System Designs
410(1)
Action Research
410(2)
Reflecting Back
412(1)
Looking Forward
412(1)
Integrating Gains
413(26)
Social Work Endings
415(1)
Completing Contracts
416(9)
Preparing for Resolution
417(1)
Discussing Readiness
418(1)
Evaluating
419(1)
Reviewing Progress
420(1)
Sharing Feelings
420(2)
Generalizing Outcomes
422(1)
Firming Up Social Supports
422(1)
Celebrations and Ritualized Endings
423(2)
Closing with Referral
425(4)
Acknowledging Limited Resources
425(1)
Implementing Legal Mandates
426(1)
Recognizing Interim Success
427(1)
Making Referrals
427(2)
Responding to Clients' Discontinuation of Services
429(2)
Preparing for Early Withdrawal
429(1)
Recognizing Exit Clues
430(1)
Pursuing Mutual Resolutions
430(1)
When Clients Die
431(3)
Grief
432(1)
Grieving the Death of a Client
433(1)
Resolving Relationships with Larger Systems
434(4)
Small Group Endings
434(1)
Resolving Intermember Relationships
435(1)
Endings with Organizations and Communities
436(2)
Endings Are Beginnings
438(1)
Epilogue 439(2)
Glossary 441(9)
Appendix A NASW Code of Ethics 450(19)
Appendix B The Northside Community 469(4)
References 473(26)
Author Index 499(5)
Subject Index 504


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