9780750672627

Geometric, Physical, and Visual Optics

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780750672627

  • ISBN10:

    0750672625

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2001-11-06
  • Publisher: BUTTERWORTH HEINEMANN

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Summary

* Fundamental text for an optometric curriculum, a student studying for the optometry boards, or a person interested in optics and vision * Uses the vergence-dioptric power-wavefront approach from the beginning * Emphasizes conceptual understanding and development of intuition

Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition xiii
Preface to the First Edition xv
Optics, Light, and Vision
The Search for Solutions
1(1)
The Scope of Optics and its Subfields
2(1)
An Overview of the Human Visual Process
2(1)
Perceptual Aspects of the Visual Process
3(1)
The Eye
3(1)
Electromagnetic Radiation
4(1)
Wavelengths and Color
5(1)
Absorption
6(1)
Reflection
6(1)
Scattering
7(1)
The Speed of Light in a Medium
8(1)
Refraction
8(2)
Rectilinear Propagation, Shadows, and Mirages
10(3)
Problems
11(2)
The Geometric Behavior of Light
Point Sources, Wavefronts, and Rays
13(1)
Converging Wavefronts, Point Images, and Blur Circles
14(1)
Diverging Wavefronts, Plane Waves, and Optical Infinity
15(1)
The Concept of Vergence
16(1)
Vergence: Conversion Factors
17(2)
Upstream and Downstream Vergence Changes
19(2)
Generalized or Reduced Vergence
21(1)
Extended Sources and Beams
21(1)
Extended Images and Blur
22(1)
Pinholes or Image Formation by Blur Minimization
23(2)
Refracting States of the Eye
25(4)
Problems
26(3)
Optical Objects and Images
Optically Real versus Physically Real Objects
29(1)
Optically Real versus Physically Real Images
30(1)
Real Images as Objects for the Eye
31(1)
Virtual Images
32(1)
Virtual Objects
33(1)
Object and Image Summary
34(1)
The Image for System 1 is the Object for System 2
34(1)
Conjugate Points and the Principle of Reversibility
35(1)
Object Space/Image Space
36(3)
Problems
37(2)
Thin Lenses and Ray Diagrams
How Spherical Lenses Work
39(2)
Optical Axis
41(1)
Thin Lenses
42(1)
Secondary Focal Point (F2)
42(1)
Primary Focal Point (F1)
43(1)
Equidistance of Focal Points for a Thin Lens in Air
43(1)
Predictable Rays/Converging Lenses/Off-Axis Object Points
44(2)
Nodal Rays
46(1)
Further Examples: Converging Lenses
47(1)
Predictable Rays/Diverging Lenses/Off-Axis Object Points
48(2)
Common Features
50(1)
Scaling of Ray Diagrams
51(2)
Problems
52(1)
Thin Lens Equations
Thin Lens Vergence Equation
53(1)
Object and Image Distances
54(1)
Dioptric Power: Focal Length Relationships
55(1)
Lateral Magnification
56(1)
Examples
56(6)
Boundary Role of the Focal Points
62(1)
The Symmetry Points
62(2)
Unit Lateral Magnification
64(1)
Object Movement/Image Movement
64(1)
Erect and Inverted Relationships: Single Lenses
65(1)
Two-Lens Systems
66(1)
Two Thin Lenses in Contact
67(3)
Bundles, Beams, and Lateral Magnification
70(1)
Image Sizes for Distant Objects
70(2)
Reversibility and Finding the Object
72(3)
Problems
73(2)
Thin Lens Eye Models
Emmetropes
75(1)
Myopes
76(2)
Hyperopes
78(1)
Spectacle Lens Corrections
79(3)
Lens Effectivity Terminology
82(1)
Ocular Accommodative Demand
82(1)
Near Point and Range of Clear Vision: Myope
83(1)
Range of Clear Vision: Emmetrope
84(1)
Range of Clear Vision: Hyperope
84(1)
Range of Clear Vision: Summary
85(2)
Spectacle Accommodative Demand
87(1)
Ocular Accommodative Demand through Spectacles
87(2)
The Downstream Vergence Equation
89(1)
Approximation for Accommodation through Spectacle Lenses
90(2)
Accommodation through Contact Lenses
92(1)
Over/Under Minus or Plus
93(1)
Range of Clear Vision through Various Lenses
94(1)
Retinal Image Sizes
95(1)
Retinal Image Sizes: Spectacle versus Contact Lenses
95(4)
Problems
97(2)
Single Spherical Refracting Interfaces
Convex/Concave Terminology
99(1)
Sagittas and the Sagittal Approximation
100(2)
Derivation of the Vergence Equation
102(1)
Dioptric Power
103(2)
Focal Points
105(4)
The Nodal Point
109(1)
Lateral Magnification
110(1)
Imaging Examples
111(3)
The Symmetry Points
114(2)
Unit Magnification
116(1)
The Nodal Plane
116(1)
Strange Cases
117(2)
Object Space/Image Space
119(1)
Imaging a Distant Object
120(1)
Changing Media without Changing Curvature
121(1)
Lens Clock Readings
121(4)
Problems
123(2)
Plane Refracting Interfaces and Reduced Systems
Plane Interfaces as a Special Case of Spherical Interfaces
125(1)
Diverging and Converging Wavefronts
126(1)
Lateral Magnification
127(1)
Ray Tracing through a Flat Slab in Equi-index Media
128(1)
Flat Slabs
129(2)
Converging Light and Reduced Systems
131(1)
Single Spherical Refracting Interfaces and Reduced Systems
132(2)
Systems with Multiple Spherical Surfaces
134(4)
Front and Back Vertex Powers
138(2)
Vertex Neutralization
140(1)
Reduced Angles
141(2)
Problems
141(2)
Lenses Revisited
Lens Shapes
143(1)
Thin Lens Power
143(2)
Thick Lenses: Front and Back Vertex Powers
145(1)
Thin Lenses in Different Media
146(1)
Another Eye Model
147(1)
Exploding a Single Spherical Refracting Interface
148(1)
Contact Lenses
149(1)
The Tear Lens Effect
150(1)
Newton's Equations
151(3)
Axial Magnification
154(3)
Problems
154(3)
Astigmatism: On Axis
Introduction
157(1)
Cylindrical Lenses
157(3)
Standard Axis Notation
160(2)
Perpendicularly Crossed Cylindrical Lenses
162(3)
Collapsing the Conoid by Equalizing the Cross Cylinders
165(1)
Equivalent Combinations and Transposition
165(3)
Toric Surfaces
168(2)
Extended Objects and Multiple Conoids
170(2)
The Circle of Least Confusion and the Spherical Equivalent
172(2)
Virtual Line Images
174(1)
Through a Glass Astigmatically
175(1)
Classification and Correction of Astigmats
175(4)
The Clock Dial Chart
179(1)
Jackson Cross Cylinder Power Refinement
180(2)
Effectivity and Spherocylindrical Lenses
182(1)
Accommodation and Spherocylindrical Corrections
183(4)
Problems
184(3)
Prisms
Introduction
187(2)
Total Internal Reflection
189(3)
Deviation by a Thick Prism
192(3)
Minimum Deviation
195(2)
Deviation at Normal Incidence
197(1)
Thick Prism Comparisons
198(1)
Thin Prisms
198(1)
Ophthalmic Base Directions
199(1)
Prism-Diopters
200(1)
Thin Prism Combinations
201(2)
Centrads
203(1)
The Risley Prism
204(1)
Prism Effectivity
204(2)
Fresnel Prisms
206(1)
Reflecting Prisms
207(4)
Problems
208(3)
Prism Properties of Lenses
Prentice's Rule
211(3)
Prism-Lens Combinations
214(2)
Prism in Cylindrical Lenses
216(2)
Rotational Deviations by a Cylindrical Lens
218(1)
Motions of Hand Neutralization
219(1)
Motions of Retinoscope Reflex
220(4)
Fresnel Lenses
224(1)
Prism Effectivity with Thin Lenses
225(8)
Problems
230(3)
Prism and Dioptric Power in Off-Axis Meridians
Curvature and Torsion
233(1)
Stenopeic slits
233(1)
Curvature and Lens Clock Readings
234(4)
Torsional Component of Dioptric Power
238(1)
Isothickness Curves
238(3)
Matrix Form of Prentice's Rule
241(2)
Prism in Spherocylindrical Lenses
243(3)
Matrix Properties and Expanded Power Crosses
246(1)
Decentration with Spherocylindrical Lenses
247(2)
Prism for Combined Spherocylindrical Lenses
249(1)
Finding S C x &thetas; from the Dioptric Power Matrix
250(1)
Combining Obliquely Crossed Spherocylindrical Lenses
251(3)
Over-Refraction
254(2)
The Vector Addition Method
256(2)
The Residual Refractive Error
258(1)
Axis Refinement with a JCC
259(1)
The Vergence Matrix
260(1)
Average Strength of a Spherocylindrical Lens
261(2)
Three Dimensional Dioptric Power Representations
263(4)
Problems
264(3)
Reflection
Mirrors and Other Reflecting Interfaces
267(2)
Focal Points
269(2)
Ray Diagrams and the Nodal Ray
271(5)
Vergence Equations
276(1)
Imaging Examples in Air
276(3)
Imaging Examples for n ≠ 1
279(3)
Through a Glass Darkly
282(1)
Unit Lateral Magnification and the Radiuscope
283(1)
Keratometry
284(1)
Plane Mirrors
285(1)
Left-Right Inversion
286(1)
Ghost Images and Partially Silvered Mirrors
286(1)
Equivalent Mirrors
287(8)
Problems
292(3)
The Gauss System
Introduction
295(1)
The Secondary Principal Plane
295(2)
The Primary Principal Plane
297(2)
Ray Diagrams
299(1)
Conjugacy of the Principal Planes
300(3)
Vergence Equations
303(2)
Power and Focal Length Relations
305(2)
Systems in Air
307(1)
The Symmetry Points
308(1)
Reduced Systems
309(1)
The Nodal Points
310(3)
The Cardinal Points and Reversibility
313(1)
SSRI and Thin Lens as a Gauss System
314(1)
Newton's Equation
315(1)
The Nodal Slide
316(1)
Thick Lenses
317(3)
Special Thick Lens Examples
320(2)
Summary of the Important Equations
322(3)
Problems
322(3)
System Matrices
The Translation Matrix
325(1)
The Refraction Matrix
326(1)
The System Matrix
327(3)
Determinant Condition
330(1)
Subsystem Matrices
331(1)
Two Lens Systems
332(1)
The Object-Image Matrix
333(1)
The Front Vertex to Secondary Focal Plane Matrix
334(2)
Ametropic Eyes
336(1)
The Gullstrand #1 Schematic Eye
337(2)
Vertex Vergence Relations
339(1)
Derivation of the Gauss Equation
340(1)
Conversion to abcd notation
340(1)
Astigmatic Systems
341(2)
Asymmetric Equivalent Dioptric Power
343(4)
Problems
344(3)
Angular Magnification
Relative Size Magnification
347(1)
Angular Magnification without a Physical Size Change
348(1)
Relative Distance Magnification
349(1)
Plus Lens as a Simple Magnifier: Intuitive Method
350(1)
Plus Lens as a Collimating Magnifier
351(2)
The Conventional Reference Distance
353(1)
Collimating Magnifier: Object to Eye Distance Unchanged
354(1)
Magnifiers and Maximum Accommodation
355(1)
The Badal Principle
356(1)
General Equation for a Simple Magnifier
357(1)
The Compound Microscope
358(3)
Equivalent Power Formulation for Magnification
361(1)
Afocal Telescopes
362(2)
Alternate Afocal Telescope Equations
364(2)
Erecting Systems in Keplerian Telescopes
366(1)
Vergence Amplification through Afocal Telescopes
367(1)
Telemicroscopes
368(1)
Magnification Terminology
369(1)
Equation Summary
370(3)
Problems
370(3)
Spectacle Magnification and Relative Spectacle Magnification
The Aperture Stop and the Entrance Pupil
373(5)
The Exit Pupil and Blurred Image Sizes
378(3)
Thin Lens Spectacle Magnification
381(3)
Spectacle Magnification Approximation
384(1)
Telescope Concepts and Spectacle Magnification
384(1)
Magnification Properties of a Thick Plano Lens
385(1)
Shape and Power Factors
386(2)
Shape and Power Factor Approximations
388(1)
Comparison of Different Lenses for the Same Eye
389(1)
Gauss Formulation for Spectacle Magnification
390(2)
Telescopes for Ametropes
392(1)
Relative Spectacle Magnification
393(5)
Prism Effectivity and Dynamic Magnification
398(1)
Meridional Telescopes
399(2)
Power Factor in Spherocylindrical Corrections
401(1)
Summary of Important Equations
402(3)
Problems
403(2)
Stops and Related Effects
Field of View---Two Component Systems
405(7)
Field of View of a Thin Collimating Magnifier
412(1)
Multi-Component Systems
413(4)
Telescope Entrance and Exit Pupils
417(3)
Galilean Telescope Field of View
420(1)
Keplerian Telescope Field of View
420(3)
Terrestrial Telescopes
423(1)
Direct and Indirect Ophthalmoscopes
424(6)
Dynamic or Foveal Field of View
430(2)
Film Exposure and the F-Number
432(2)
Cosine To the Fourth Law
434(1)
Depth of Field
435(3)
Depth of Focus
438(3)
Problems
438(3)
Aberrations
Detriments to Image Quality
441(1)
Dispersion and Chromatic Aberration
441(1)
Longitudinal and Lateral Chromatic Aberration
442(1)
Standard Wavelengths and Abbe Number
443(2)
The Achromatic Doublet
445(1)
Achromatic Prisms
446(1)
Thick Lenses and Chromatic Aberration
446(1)
Separated Lenses of the Same Material
447(1)
The Monochromatic Wavefront Aberration
448(1)
The Seidel or Third Order Aberrations
449(1)
Spherical Aberration
450(2)
Coma
452(3)
Radial Astigmatism
455(6)
Curvature of Field
461(2)
Distortion
463(1)
Lens Design
464(1)
Oblique Central Refraction for Spherocylindrical Lenses with Horizontal and Vertical Principal Meridians
465(1)
Oblique Central Refraction in Spherocylindrical Lenses with Oblique Principal Meridians
466(2)
Mirrors
468(1)
Taylor and Zernike Classifications
468(3)
Problems
468(3)
Waves and Superposition
Introduction
471(1)
Basic Wave Properties
471(2)
Harmonic Waves
473(1)
Intensity
474(1)
Frequency Invariance and Wavelength Changes
475(1)
Superposition
476(2)
Interference in a Ripple Tank
478(1)
Standing Waves
479(1)
Coherence
479(1)
Young's Double-Slit Experiment
480(2)
Partial Coherence and Fringe Visibility
482(2)
Acuity Testing of the Visual Pathways by Interference Fringes
484(1)
Other Methods for Producing Interference
484(1)
Speckles and Laser Refraction
485(2)
Thin Film Interference
487(1)
Phase Changes at Reflection
488(1)
Soap Films
489(1)
Antireflection Coatings
490(2)
Interference Filters
492(1)
Newton's Rings
493(2)
Problems
493(2)
Diffraction
The Huygens-Fresnel Principle
495(1)
Single-Slit Diffraction
496(3)
Diffraction by a Square Aperture
499(1)
Diffraction by a Circular Aperture
499(1)
Changing from a Square to a Circular Aperture
500(2)
Fraunhofer versus Fresnel Diffraction
502(2)
Diffraction Limit on Resolution
504(2)
Diffraction and Acuity
506(1)
Diffraction Halos
507(1)
Apodized Circular Aperture
507(3)
Diffraction Gratings
510(2)
Simple Observations
512(1)
Iridescence in Nature
512(1)
Sinusoidal Amplitude Grating
512(1)
Zone Plates
513(4)
Ophthalmic Diffractive Lenses
517(1)
Holography
517(3)
Snell's Law from Huygens' Principle
520(3)
Problems
521(2)
Scattering, Absorption, Dispersion, and Polarization
Dipole Radiation
523(1)
Incoherent Scattering
523(1)
Rayleigh Scattering
524(1)
Multiple Incoherent Scattering
525(3)
Coherent Scattering
528(1)
Intraocular Light Scatter
529(1)
Scattering and Selective Absorption
529(1)
Resonance Radiation
530(1)
Dispersion
531(1)
Group versus Phase Velocity
532(1)
Polarization Fundamentals
533(1)
Polaroid
534(1)
Polarization Plane Rotation by Polaroids
535(1)
Polarization by Reflection
536(1)
Polarization by Scattering
537(1)
Birefringence
537(2)
Circular Polarization
539(1)
Phase Retarders
540(1)
Circular Polarizers
541(1)
Optical Activity and Induced Effects
541(1)
Binocular Vision and Polarized Light
542(1)
Ocular Birefringence and Haidinger's Brush
542(3)
Problems
543(2)
Emission, Absorption, Photons, and Lasers
The Doppler Shift
545(1)
Blackbody Radiation
545(3)
Photons
548(2)
Bohr Model of the Atom
550(2)
Fluorescence and Phosphorescence
552(1)
Stimulated Emission
553(1)
Laser Theory
554(4)
Gaussian Laser Beams
558(4)
Common Lasers
562(2)
Ophthalmic Laser Surgery
564(2)
Laser Safety
566(1)
Photons and Probability
566(1)
Uncertainty
567(1)
Diffraction and Single Photons
568(1)
Interference and Single Photons
568(2)
Photon Finale
570(1)
Problems
570(1)
Spatial Distribution of Optical Information
Spatial Frequency
571(1)
Sine versus Square Wave Gratings
571(2)
The Modulation Transfer Function
573(1)
Periodic Gratings and Linear Systems
574(3)
Spread Functions and the MTF
577(3)
MTFs of Various Systems
580(2)
Coupled Systems
582(1)
General Objects
583(1)
A Nonlinear Example
583(1)
MTFs in terms of cycles per degree
584(1)
The Coherent Transfer Function
584(1)
Abbe Theory of Image Formation
584(2)
Spatial Filtering
586(2)
Frequency Doubling of Laser Light
588(3)
Problems
588(3)
Appendix A: Trigonometry Review 591(4)
Appendix B: Basic Matrix Algebra 595(4)
Answers to Selected Problems 599(4)
Index 603

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