9780130125064

Geotechnical Aspects of Landfill Design and Construction

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780130125064

  • ISBN10:

    0130125067

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2001-09-20
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Summary

Focuses on actual, state-of-the-art design/construction procedures as opposed to a discussion of solid waste management issues and to general descriptions and/or conceptual designs. Provides an integrated package of analytical tools, design equations, and step-by-step construction procedures for all elements of a landfill, giving the reader a better sense of the necessary site investigation, planning, analysis, and organization that go into a landfill design and construction project.The characteristics of landfill containment envelopes and their design/construction are treated in detail. Physico-chemical and engineering properties of solid waste that are relevant and important to landfill design and construction are tabulated and described. Includes explanation of how to evaluate and assess potential problems that affect landfill performance such as sideslope stability, settlement, containment effectiveness, and erosion control. Discusses vertical landfill expansion; how leachate moves across a liner or barrier under both advection and diffusion; compares the containment effectiveness of different liner systems to the combined advective-diffusive transport of dissolved leachate solutes. Includes a detailed explanation with numerical examples and calculations of how to design a gas collection and piping system in a landfillincluding the collection and handling of condensate in the gas. Detailed installation and inspection guidelines are provided for both earthen and geosynthetic liner/cover systemscomparing the relative advantages and limitations of each.For professional training courses in Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering.

Author Biography

Xuede Qian is currently a statewide Geotechnical Engineering Specialist with the Waste Management Division, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality Robert M. Koerner is currently an H. L. Bowman Professor of Civil Engineering with Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Donald H. Gray is a Professor Emeritus of Civil and Environmental Engineering with the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
Introduction
2(26)
Need for Landfills
2(2)
Principal Landfill Requirements
4(1)
Landfill Components and Configuration
5(1)
Landfill Envelope
6(3)
Liner System
7(1)
Leachate Collection and Removal System
8(1)
Gas Collection and Control System
9(1)
Final Cover System
9(1)
Composite Liners
9(4)
Benefits of Double Composite Liners
13(1)
Liner Leakage Mechanisms
14(9)
Steady Advection
15(1)
Steady Diffusion
16(1)
Unsteady Diffusion
17(1)
Combined Advection-Diffusion
17(6)
Scope and Organization of Book
23(5)
Problems
24(1)
References
25(3)
Landfill Siting And Site Investigation
28(24)
Siting Considerations
29(2)
Location Restrictions
31(3)
Airport Safety
31(1)
Floodplains
32(1)
Wetlands
32(1)
Fault Areas
32(1)
Seismic Impact Zones
33(1)
Unstable Areas
34(1)
Siting Process
34(2)
Site Investigation
36(3)
Preinvestigation Study
37(1)
Field Exploration
37(2)
Borrow Source Investigation
39(3)
Clay
40(1)
Sand
41(1)
Gravel
41(1)
Siltysoil
41(1)
Topsoil
41(1)
Field Hydraulic Conductivity Tests
42(4)
Sealed Double-Ring Infiltrometer
42(3)
Two-Stage Borehole Test
45(1)
Comparison of Methods
45(1)
Material Laboratory Tests
46(6)
Water Content
46(1)
Particle Size Distribution
46(1)
Moisture Density Relationship
46(1)
Hydraulic Conductivity
47(1)
Shear Strength
48(1)
Compressibility
48(1)
Problems
49(1)
References
50(2)
Compacted Clay Liners
52(34)
Overview Compacted Clay Liners
52(3)
Compaction and Permeability Considerations
55(6)
Compaction Test
56(2)
Permeability Test
58(3)
Design of Compacted Clay Liners
61(8)
Low Hydraulic Conductivity
61(3)
Adequate Shear Strength
64(1)
Minimal Shrinkage Potential
65(3)
Acceptable Zone to Meet All Design Criteria
68(1)
Influence of Clods on Hydraulic Conductivity
69(4)
Influence of Clod Size on Compaction Curve
69(1)
Influence of Clod Size on Hydraulic Conductivity
70(1)
Particle Orientation versus Clod Structure
71(1)
Laboratory Testing and Design Implications
72(1)
Effect of Gravel Content on Hydraulic Conductivity
73(2)
Effect of Freezing and Thawing on Hydraulic Conductivity
75(5)
Processes Occuring during Soil Freezing
76(1)
Effect of Freeze-Thaw on Hydraulic Conductivity
77(1)
Factors Affecting Hydraulic Conductivity during Freeze-Thaw
78(2)
Summary Comments Regarding Compacted Clay Liners
80(6)
Problems
81(1)
References
82(4)
Geomembranes
86(45)
Composition and Thickness of Geomembranes
87(1)
Current Uses of Geomembranes in Landfills
88(4)
High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Geomembranes
88(1)
Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) Geomembranes
89(1)
Coextrusion Variations of HDPE and LLDPE
89(1)
Textured Geomembrances
90(1)
Flexiable Polypropylene (fPP) Geomembranes
91(1)
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Geomembranes
91(1)
Chlorosulphonated Polyethylene (CSPE) Geomembranes
92(1)
Tensile Behavior of Geomembranes
92(4)
Friction Behavior of Geomembranes
96(2)
Tension Stresses due to Unbalanced Friction Forces
98(3)
Tension Stresses due to Localized Subsidence
101(3)
Runout and Anchor Trenches
104(15)
Design of Runout Length
104(2)
Design of Rectangular Anchor Trench
106(8)
Design of V-Shaped Anchor Trench
114(5)
Assessment of Leakage through Liners
119(8)
Flow Rate through Compacted Clay Liner
120(1)
Flow Rate through Geomembrane Liner
121(1)
Flow Rate through Composite Liners
122(2)
Comparison of Three Types of Liners
124(3)
Concluding Comments Regarding Geomembranes
127(4)
Problems
127(2)
References
129(2)
Geosynthetic Clay Liners
131(49)
Types and Current Uses of Geosynthetic Clay Liners
132(2)
Geotextile-Encased, Adhesive-Bonded GCL
132(1)
Geotextile-Encased, Stitch-Bonded GCL
133(1)
Geotextile-Encased, Needle-Punched GCL
133(1)
Geomembrane-Supported, Adhesive-Bonded GCL
134(1)
Hydraulic Conductivity
134(7)
Effect of Permeating Liquids
134(1)
Effect of Confining Stress
135(1)
Wet-Dry Response
136(2)
Freeze-Thaw Response
138(3)
Ability to Withstand Differential Settlement
141(2)
Shear Strength
143(9)
Internal Shear Strength
144(4)
Interface Shear Strength
148(3)
Design Implications
151(1)
Differences between Geosynthetic Clay Linears and Compacted Clay Liners
152(2)
Contaminant Transport through Geosynthetic Clay Liner and Compacted Clay Linear
154(7)
Steady Advection
154(1)
Steady Diffusion
155(2)
Advective Breakthrough Time
157(1)
Combined Advection-Diffusion
158(3)
Comparison of Mass Transport through a GCL and CCL
161(11)
Recommendations for Use of Geosynthetic Clay Liners
172(1)
Summarizing Comments Regarding Geosynthetic Clay Liners
173(7)
Problems
175(1)
References
176(4)
Engineering Properties of Municipal Solid Waste
180(31)
Constituents of Municipal Solid Waste
181(1)
Unit Weight of Municipal Solid Waste
182(3)
Moisture Content of Municipal Solid Waste
185(3)
Porosity of Municipal Solid Waste
188(1)
Hydraulic Conductivity of Municipal Solid Waste
189(1)
Field Capacity and Wilting Point of Municipal Solid Waste
190(3)
Shear Strength of Municipal Solid Waste
193(6)
Compressibility of Municipal Solid Waste
199(12)
Problems
204(2)
References
206(5)
Leachate Generation and Evaluation in MSW Landfills
211(36)
MSW Leachate Characterization
212(1)
Factors Affecting Leachate Quantity
213(5)
Estimation of Leachate Production rate in an Active Condition
218(5)
Precipitation
218(1)
Waste Squeeze Liquid
219(2)
Evaporation
221(1)
Waste Moisture Absorption
221(2)
Estimation of Leachate Production Rate in a Postclosure Condition
223(7)
Snowmelt Infiltration
225(1)
Surface Runoff
226(2)
Evapotranspiration
228(1)
Soil Moisture Storage
229(1)
Lateral Drainage
229(1)
Moisture Extraction from Waste
230(1)
Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) Model
230(17)
Versions of HELP Model
231(1)
Data Generation and Default Values
232(3)
Landfill Profile and Layer Descriptions
235(3)
Modeling Procedure
238(1)
Program Input
239(1)
Program Output
240(1)
Limits of Applications
241(1)
Problems
242(1)
References
243(4)
Liquid Drainage Layer
247(47)
Profile of Leachate Drainage Layer
247(4)
Soil Drainage and Filtration Layer
251(3)
Geotextile Design for Filtration
254(9)
Geotextiles Overview
254(2)
Allowable versus Ultimate Geotextile Properties
256(1)
Cross-Plane Permeability
257(1)
Soil Retention
258(3)
Long-term Compatibility
261(2)
Geonet Design for Leachate Drainage
263(11)
Geonets Overview
263(1)
Hydraulic Properties of Geonets
264(2)
Allowable Geonet Flow Rate
266(3)
Designing with Geonets for Drainage
269(5)
Estimate of Maximum Liquid Head in a Drainage Layer
274(20)
Methods for Estimating Maximum Liquid Head
275(8)
Comparison of Various Calculation Methods
283(6)
Problems
289(2)
References
291(3)
Leachate Collection and Removal Systems
294(38)
Subbase Grading
294(1)
Leachate collection Trenches
295(2)
Selection of Leachate Collection Pipe
297(7)
Type of Pipe Material
297(1)
Pipe of Design Issues
297(2)
Pipe Performations
299(5)
Deformation and Stability of Leachate Collection Pipe
304(10)
Pipe Deflection
304(7)
Pipe Wall Buckling
311(3)
Sump and Riser Pipes
314(6)
Leachate Removal Pumps
320(12)
Problems
328(2)
References
330(2)
Gas Collection and Control Systems
332(67)
Gas Generation
333(1)
Gas Composition
334(2)
Factors Affecting Gas Generation
336(2)
Gas Generation Rate
338(1)
Gas Migration
339(2)
Types and Components of Gas Collection Systems
341
Passive Gas Collection System
341(1)
Active Gas Collection System
342
Gas Control and Treatment
249(103)
Gas Flaring
350(1)
Gas Processing and Energy Recovery
351(1)
Design of Gas Collection System
352(47)
Calculation of NMOC Emission Rate
352(2)
Estimation of Gas Generation Rate
354(5)
Gas Extraction Well System Layout and Spacing
359(1)
Gas Flow Generated from Each Extraction Well or Collector
360(5)
Collection Piping System Layout and Routing
365(1)
Estimation of Condensate Production
366(4)
Header Pipe Sizing and Pressure Loss Calculations
370(6)
Valve and Fitting Pressure Loss Calculations
376(18)
Problems
394(2)
References
396(3)
Final Cover System
399(41)
Components of Final Cover System
400(12)
Erosion Control Layer
401(1)
Protection Layer
401(3)
Drainage Layer
404(1)
Hydraulic Barrier Layer
405(4)
Gas Vent Layer
409(1)
Foundation Layer
409(3)
Alternative Landfill Cover
412(5)
Water Balance of Earthen Covers
412(1)
Capillary Barrier
413(3)
Monolayer Barrier
416(1)
Field Study of Landfill Covers
417(1)
Soil Erosion Control
417(14)
Nature of Soil Erosion
418(2)
Soil Loss Prediction
420(9)
Limitations of Universal Soil Loss Equation
429(1)
Erosion Control Principles
429(1)
Manufactured Erosion Control Materials
430(1)
Effects of Settlement and Subsidence
431(3)
Differential Subsidence Case History
434(6)
Problems
435(2)
References
437(3)
Landfill Settlement
440(37)
Mechanism of Solid Waste Settlement
440(2)
Effect of Daily Cover
442(2)
Landfill Settlement Rate
444(5)
Estimation of Landfill Settlement
449(5)
Settlement of New Solid Waste
449(2)
Settlment of Existing Solid Waste
451(3)
Effect of Waste Settlement on Landfill Capacity
454(4)
Other Methods for Estimating Landfill Settlement
458(11)
Empirical Functions
459(2)
Application of Empirical Functions to Field Case Study
461(2)
Summary for Three Empirical Functions
463(6)
Estimation of Landfill Foundation Settlement
469(8)
Total Settlement of Landfill Foundation
469(3)
Differential Settlement of Landfill Foundation
472(1)
Problems
473(2)
References
475(2)
Landfill Stability Analysis
477(67)
Types of Landfill Failures
478(2)
Sliding Failure of Leachate Collection System
478(1)
Sliding Failure of Final Cover System
479(1)
Rotational Failure of Sidewall Slope or Base
480(1)
Rotational Failure through Waste, Liner and Subsoil
480(1)
Rotational Failure within the Waste Mass
480(1)
Translational Failure by Movement along Liner System
480(1)
Factors Influencing Landfill Stability
480(1)
Selection of Appropriate Properties
481(6)
Geosynthetic Materials Properties
481(3)
Solid Waste Properties
484(1)
In-Situ Soil Slope and Subsoil Properties
485(2)
Veneer Slope Stability Analysis
487(26)
Cover Soil (Gravitational) Forces
487(3)
Tracked Construction Equipment Forces
490(7)
Inclusion of Seepage Forces
497(11)
Inclusion of Seismic Forces
508(5)
General Remarks
513(1)
Subsoil Foundation Failures
513(7)
Method of Analysis
514(1)
Case Histories
514(6)
General Remarks
520(1)
Waste Mass Failures
520(17)
Translational Failure Analysis
521(7)
Case Histories
528(7)
General Remarks
535(2)
Concluding Remarks
537(7)
Problems
538(2)
REferences
540(4)
Vertical Landfill Expansions
544(32)
Considerations Involved in Vertical Expansions
545(1)
Liner Systems for Vertical Expansion
546(2)
Settlement of Existing Landfill
548(3)
Current Methods for Estimating Localized Subsidence
551(1)
Elastic Solution Method Applied to a Vertical Expansion
552
Estimation of Differential Settlement due to Waste Heterogeneity
551(6)
Vertical Expansion over Unlined Landfills
557(1)
Design Considerations for Landfill Structures
557(1)
Geosynthetic Reinforcement Design for Vertical Expansions
558(14)
Stability Analysis for Vertical Expansion
572(4)
Problems
573(1)
References
574(2)
Bioreactor Landfills
576(27)
Introduction
577(1)
Liquids Management Strategies
578(3)
Natural Attenuation
579(1)
Remove, Treat and Discharge
579(1)
Leachate Recycling
579(1)
Comparison of Strategies
580(1)
Concepts of Waste Degradation
581(3)
Phases of Degradation
581(2)
Field Capacity Moisture Content
583(1)
Related Aspects
584(1)
Leachate Recycling Methods
584(3)
Surface Spraying
585(1)
Surface Ponding
585(1)
Leach Fields
585(1)
Shallow Wells
585(1)
Deep Wells
585(2)
Comparison of Methods
587(1)
Bioreactor Landfill Issues and Concerns
587(9)
Liner System Integrity
587(1)
Leachate Collection System
588(3)
Leachate Removal System
591(1)
Filter and/or Operations Layer
591(1)
Daily Cover Material
592(1)
Final Cover Issues
592(3)
Waste Stability Concerns
595(1)
Performance-to-Date
596(2)
Summary Comments
598(5)
Problems
599(1)
References
600(3)
Construction of Compacted Clay Liners
603(31)
Subgrade Preparation
605(1)
Soil Materials for Compacted Soil Lines
606(1)
Compaction Objectives and Choices
607(6)
Destruction of Soil Clods
607(1)
Molding Water Content
608(2)
Dry Unit Weight
610(1)
Type of Compaction
610(1)
Compactive Energy
611(1)
Lift Interfaces
612(1)
Initial Saturation Specifications
613(1)
Clay Liner Compaction Considerations
614(2)
Compaction Specifications
616(2)
Leachate Collection Trench Construction
618(2)
Protection of Compacted Soil
620(2)
Protection against Desiccation
620(1)
Protection against Freezing
621(1)
Excess Surface Water
622(1)
Field Measurement of Water Content and Dry Unit Weight
622(2)
Construction Quality Assurance and Quality Control Issues
624(10)
Critical Quality Assurance and Quality Control Issues
625(1)
Quality Assurance and Quality Control for Compacted Clay Liner Construction
626(3)
Documentation Report
629(1)
Problems
630(1)
References
630(4)
Installation of Geosynthetic Materials
634(41)
Material Delivery and Conformance Tests
635(2)
Installation of Geomembranes
637(23)
Geomembrane Placement
637(2)
Geomembrane Seaming
639(7)
Geomembrane Seam Tests
646(8)
Geomembrane Defects and Repairs
654(2)
Geomembrane Protection and Backfilling
656(4)
Installation of Geonets
660(2)
Geonet Placement
660(1)
Geonet Joining
660(1)
Geonet Repairs
661(1)
Installation of Geotextiles
662(5)
Geotextile Placement
662(1)
Geotextile Overlapping and Seaming
663(2)
Geotextile Defects and Repairs
665(1)
Geotextile Backfilling and Covering
666(1)
Installation of Geocompostes
667(2)
Geocomposite Placement
667(1)
Geocomposite Joining and Repairs
667(1)
Geotextile Covering
668(1)
Installation of Geosynthetic Clay Liners
669(6)
Geosynthetic Clay Liner Placement
669(2)
Geosynthetic Clay Liner Joining
671(1)
Geosynthetic Clay Liner Repairs
672(1)
Geosynthetic Clay Liner Backfilling or Covering
672(1)
Problems
673(1)
References
673(2)
Postclosure Uses of MSW Landfills
675(14)
Athletic and Recreational Facilities
675(5)
Golf Courses/Driving Ranges
676(1)
Sport Fields
677
Golf Courses/Driving Ranges
676(1)
Sport Fields
677(1)
Paths, Trails, and Nature Walks
677(2)
Wildlife and Conservation Areas
679(1)
Multiple Use Facilities
679(1)
Industrial Development
680(4)
Parking Lots
680(3)
Equipment/ Material Storage
683(1)
Light Industrial Buildings
683(1)
Aesthetics
684(2)
Concluding Remarks
686(3)
Problems
686(1)
References
687(2)
Appendix I Help Model Input and Output --- Active Condition 689(9)
Appendix II Help Model Input and Output --- Postclosure Condition 698(12)
Index 710

Excerpts

Preface The United States produces about 300 million tons of solid waste per year. Up to 75 percent of the solid waste continues to be landfilled--in spite of vigorous efforts aimed at waste reduction, recycling, and re-use. A modern, well-constructed landfill can be characterized as an engineered structure that consists primarily of a composite liner, leachate collection and removal system, gas collection and control system, and final cover. A landfill also behaves as a giant in-situ bioreactor whose contents undergo complex biochemical reactions. The production of landfill gas is a major byproduct of waste decomposition processes. The adoption of suitable design and construction methods is essential not only to reduce design and construction costs, but also to minimize long term operation, maintenance, and monitoring expenses. Geotechnical Aspects of Landfill Design and Constructionaddresses landfill siting, design, and construction issues in a comprehensive manner. The characteristics of landfill containment envelopes and their design/construction are treated in detail. The attributes and advantages of composite liners relative to conventional compacted clay liners are examined carefully. The book discusses both the material properties and engineering design of geosynthetic components (e.g., geomembranes, geotextiles, geocomposites, and geosynthetic clay liners) that are used in modern landfill construction. Methods of estimating landfill leachate quantities and gas generation in addition to the design of leachate and gas collection systems are also described in detail. We include other important topics as well--such as vertical expansion and bioreactor concepts--that are ways of increasing capacity at existing landfills. Several chapters in the book are devoted to the measurement and determination of landfill performance. These performance considerations include settlement estimates, mass stability, liner leakage rates (by both hydraulic convection and chemical diffusion), envelope durability, leachate and gas collection, and drainage efficiency. Final cover design to limit rainfall infiltration, frost problems, and erosion is addressed as well. Geotechnical Aspects of Landfill Design and Constructionfocuses on actual design and construction procedures, as opposed to a discussion of solid waste management issues and to general descriptions and/or conceptual designs. We present the reader with a complete, integrated package of analytical tools, design equations, and construction procedures for all elements of a landfill. The purpose of the book is to show the reader how to design and construct a real landfill step by step. To this end, we provide in the book not only design equations, but also specific guidelines and procedures, and calculation examples for constructing various elements of a modern landfill. Since landfill design and construction in the United States uses English Computational units almost exclusively (and there is no end in sight of this practice), we have complied by using these units as primary. Worldwide, however, SI units are the norm and we have accompanied the U.S. units with SI computational units in parentheses. The conversion to SI units is "soft." The notable exception to this is hydraulic conductivity where we have used in the traditional metric unit of "cm/sec." Geotechnical Aspects of Landfill Design and Constructionis intended as (i) a reference book for practicing professionals, (ii) an agency training manual, and (iii) university textbook. A draft manuscript of the book has been used and tested by the principal author in a geoenvironmental graduate course at the University of Michigan since 1995. Carefully selected design examples, diagrams, and tables are incorporated into the book. These give the reader a better sense of the necessary site investigation, planning, analysis, and organization that go into a landfill design and construction project. In addition to worked design examples we have also included homework problems and an extensive reference list at the end of every chapter. The authors wish to express their appreciation to the following individuals for their encouragement and support throughout the preparation of the manuscript: Professors Richard D. Woods and E. Benjamin Wylie, University of Michigan; and Jim J. Sygo, Kenneth J. Burda, Delores M. Montgomery, and Elizabeth M. Browne, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. The authors also would like to acknowledge and thank the following individuals for sharing their knowledge and ideas during the course of many discussions about the book: Stephen R. Blayer, V Wesley Sherman, Jr., and Carolyn B. Parker, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; Dr. Gary R. Schmertmann, Geosyntec Consultants; Dr. Te-Yang Soong, Earth Tech, Inc.; Dr. Jengwa Lyang, NTH Consultants, Ltd.; and Scott R Lockhart, Hull and Associates, Inc. XUEDE (DAN) QIAN ROBERT M. KOERNER DONALD H. GRAY

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