9780231134996

Globalized Islam : The Search for a New Ummah

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780231134996

  • ISBN10:

    0231134991

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-03-15
  • Publisher: Columbia Univ Pr

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Summary

The spread of Islam around the globe has blurred the connection between a religion, a specific society, and a territory. One-third of the world's Muslims now live as members of a minority. At the heart of this development is, on the one hand, the voluntary settlement of Muslims in Western societies and, on the other, the pervasiveness and influence of Western cultural models and social norms. The revival of Islam among Muslim populations in the last twenty years is often wrongly perceived as a backlash against westernization rather than as one of its consequences. Neofundamentalism has been gaining ground among a rootless Muslim youth -- particularly among the second- and third-generation migrants in the West -- and this phenomenon is feeding new forms of radicalism, ranging from support for Al Qaeda to the outright rejection of integration into Western society. In this brilliant exegesis of the movement of Islam beyond traditional borders and its unwitting westernization, Olivier Roy argues that Islamic revival, or "re-Islamization," results from the efforts of westernized Muslims to assert their identity in a non-Muslim context. A schism has emerged between mainstream Islamist movements in the Muslim world -- including Hamas of Palestine and Hezbollah of Lebanon -- and the uprooted militants who strive to establish an imaginary ummah, or Muslim community, not embedded in any particular society or territory. Roy provides a detailed comparison of these transnational movements, whether peaceful, like Tablighi Jama'at and the Islamic brotherhoods, or violent, like Al Qaeda. He shows how neofundamentalism acknowledges without nostalgia the loss of pristine cultures, constructing instead a universal religious identity that transcends the very notion of culture. Thus contemporary Islamic fundamentalism is not a single-note reaction against westernization but a product and an agent of the complex forces of globalization.

Table of Contents

Preface ix
1. Introduction: Islam: A Passage to the West 1(57)
The failure of political Islam: and what?
1(16)
Islam as a minority
17(4)
Acculturation and 'objectation' of Islam
21(5)
Recasting identities, westernising religiosity
26(3)
Where are the Muslim reformers?
29(4)
Crisis of authority and self-enunciation
33(2)
Religion as identity
35(3)
The triumph of the self
38(2)
Secularisation through religion?
40(1)
Is jihad closer to Marx than to the Koran?
41(14)
What is Bin Laden's strategy?
55(3)
2. Post-Islamism 58(42)
The failure of political Islam revisited
58(4)
From Islamism to nationalism
62(3)
States without nation, brothers without state
65(2)
The crisis of diasporas
67(2)
Islam is never a strategic factor as such
69(3)
The political integration of Islamists
72(3)
From utopia to conservatism
75(3)
The elusive 'Muslim vote'
78(2)
Democracy without democrats
80(3)
The Iranian Islamic revolution: how politics defines religion
83(5)
Islamisation as a factor of secularisation
88(4)
Conservative re-Islamisation
92(5)
Post-Islamism: the privatisation of religion
97(3)
3. Muslims in the West 100(48)
How to live as a stateless Muslim minority
107(4)
Historical paradigms of Muslims as a minority
111(6)
Acculturation and identity reconstruction
117(31)
4. The Triumph of the Religious Self 148(53)
The loss of religious authority and the 'objectification' of Islam
151(5)
Immigration and reformulation of Islam
156(2)
The crisis of authority and religious knowledge
158(13)
The religious market and the sociology of Islamic actors
171(4)
Individualisation of enunciation and propaganda
175(10)
Faith and self
185(2)
Humanism, ethical Islam and salvation
187(5)
Enunciation of the self
192(5)
Recommunitarisation and construction of identity
197(4)
5. Islam in the West or the Westernisation of Islam 201(31)
The building of Muslim 'churches'
201(19)
Neo-brotherhoods and New Age religiosity
220(12)
6. The Modernity of an Archaic Way of Thinking: Neofundamentalism 232(58)
Sources and actors of neofundamentalism
234(9)
The basic tenets of neofundamentalism
243(4)
Neofundamentalists and Islamists
247(7)
Neofundamentalists and radical violence
254(3)
Why is neofundamentalism successful?
257(30)
The new frontier of the imagined ummah
287(3)
7. On the Path to War: Bin Laden and Others 290(36)
Al Qaeda and the new terrorists
294(10)
Deterritorialisation
304(4)
Re-Islamisation in the West
308(1)
Uprooting and acculturation
309(3)
The peripheral jihad
312(3)
The Western-born or second generation Muslims
315(2)
The converts and the 'protest conversion'
317(2)
The subcontractors
319(2)
The future of Al Qaeda
321(5)
8. Remapping the World: Civilisation, Religion and Strategy 326(15)
Culture, religion and civilisations: the conundrum of clash and dialogue
328(7)
The debate on values
335(2)
Military strategy on abstract territories
337(4)
Index 341

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