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Handbook of Polymer Synthesis, Characterization, and Processing

by ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780470630327

ISBN10:
0470630329
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
3/4/2013
Publisher(s):
Wiley

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Summary

Covering a broad range of polymer science topics, Handbook of Polymer Synthesis, Characterization, and Processing provides polymer industry professionals and researchers in polymer science and technology with a single, comprehensive handbook summarizing all aspects involved in the polymer production chain. The handbook focuses on industrially important polymers, analytical techniques, and formulation methods, with chapters covering step-growth, radical, and co-polymerization, crosslinking and grafting, reaction engineering, advanced technology applications, including conjugated, dendritic, and nanomaterial polymers and emulsions, and characterization methods, including spectroscopy, light scattering, and microscopy.

Author Biography

ENRIQUE SALDÍVAR-GUERRA is Senior Scientist and Head of the Polymerization Processes Department at the Center for Research on Applied Chemistry in Mexico. Formerly the president of the Mexican Polymer Society, he holds five patents and serves as a reviewer for the Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, and Macromolecular Theory and Simulations, among others.

EDUARDO VIVALDO-LIMA is Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering of the Faculty of Chemistry at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, and External Academic Member of the Institute for Polymer Research of the University of Waterloo in Canada. A former president of the Mexican Polymer Society, Dr. Vivaldo-Lima is a reviewer for quite a number of journals, including Polymer Engineering & Science, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Macromolecular Theory and Simulations, and Macromolecular Reaction Engineering.

Table of Contents

Part 1 Basic Concepts

Chapter 1 Introduction to Polymers and Polymer Types  
Enrique Saldívar-Guerra, Eduardo Vivaldo-Lima

Introduction to Polymers

1.1 Basic Concepts

1.2 History

1.3 Mechanical and Rheological Properties

1.4 Polymer States

Molecular Weight

Main Types and Uses

2 Classification of Polymers

2.1 Classification Based on Structure

2.2 Classification Based on Mechanism

2.3 Classification by Chain Topology

2.4 Other Classification Criteria

3 Nomenclature

3.1 Conventional Nomenclature

3.2 IUPAC Structure-based Nomenclature

3.3 Trade, Common Names and Abbreviations

References

Chapter 2  Polymer States and Properties
J. Betzabe González-Campos, Diana G. Zárate-Triviño, Arturo Mendoza-Galván, Evgen Prokhorov, Gabriel Luna-Bárcenas, F. Villaseñor-Ortega

1 Introduction     

2 Glass Transition Temperature (α-relaxation) Controversy in Chitin, Chitosan and PVA

3 Glass Transition Related to the α-relaxation

4 Moisture Content Effects on Polymer?s Molecular Relaxations

5 Dielectric Fundamentals

5.1. The Origin of the Dielectric Response

5.2 Dielectric Relaxation in Solid Polymers

5.3. ?-relaxation

5.4 ?-relaxation

5.5 dc Conductivity Calculation

6. Chitin, Chitosan and PVA Films Preparation for Dielectric Measurements

6.1. Chitin Films Preparation

6.2 Neutralized and Non-neutralized Chitosan Films Preparation

6.3 Electrode Preparation for Dielectric Measurements

7. Dielectric Relaxations in Chitin: Evidence for a Glass Transition

7.1. Effect of Moisture on Dielectric Spectra

7.2 X-Ray Diffraction Measurements        

7.3. Dielectric Spectra: General Features

8. Dielectric Relaxations in Neutralized and Non-neutralized Chitosan

8.1. Low Frequency Relaxations: the Influence of Moisture Content on Dielectric Measurements

8.2. High Frequency Relaxation

8.3. Chitosan Molecular Relaxations Conclusions

9. PVA Dielectric Relaxations

9.1 PVA Dielectric Relaxations Conclusions

10. References

Part 2 Polymer Synthesis and Modification

Chapter 3 Step Growth Polymerization
Luis Ernesto Elizalde, Gladys de los Santos, Manuel Aguilar-Vega

1. Introduction.

1.1. General Principles

1.2 Number-average Degree of Polymerization

1.3. Molecular Weight Distribution

1.4. Polymers Obtained by Step Growth Polymerization

2. Polymerization Kinetics

3. Polyamides

3.1. Polyamidation

3.2. Aromatic Polyamides

4. Polyimides

5 Polyesterification

5.1. Polyesters from Diacids

5.2. Polyethers

5.3. Polyesters

5.4. Polyurethanes

6. Inorganic Condensation Polymers

6.1. Polysylanes

6.2. Polyphosphazenes

7. Dendrimers

8. Thermoset Polycondensation Polymers

8.1 Polyester Resins

8.2. Epoxy Resins

8.3. Alkyd Resins

8.4. Phenolic Resins

9. Controlled Molecular Weight Condensation Polymers

9.1. Solid Phase Synthesis

9.2 Use of Macromonomers in Condensation Reactions

References

Chapter 4 Free Radical Polymerization
Ramiro Guerrero-Santos, Enrique Saldívar-Guerra, José Bonilla-Cruz

1 Introduction

2 Basic Mechanism

2.1 Initiation

2.2 Propagation

2.3 Termination

3 Other Free Radical Reactions

3.1 Chain Transfer to Small Species

3.2 Chain Transfer to Monomer

3.3 Chain Transfer to Initiator

3.4 Chain Transfer to Solvent and Chain Transfer Agents

Chain Transfer to Impurities

Chain Transfer to Polymer

Backbiting

Inhibition

Kinetics and Polymerization Rate

Variations of kp and kt with Length and Conversion. Auto-acceleration

Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distribution

Full Molecular Weight Distribution

Experimental Determination of Rate Constants

Thermodynamics of Polymerization

Controlled Radical Polymerization

8.1 Stable Free Radical or Nitroxide Mediated Radical Polymerization (SFRP, NMRP)

8.2 Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP)

8.3 Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain-Transfer Polymerization (RAFT)

8.4 Outlook of CRP Techniques

Chapter 5 Coordination Polymerization
Joao B. P. Soares, Odilia Pérez

Introduction

Polymer Types

3. Catalysts Types

3.1 Phillips Catalyst

3.2 Classical Ziegler-Natta Catalysts

3.3 Single-Site Catalyst

4. Coordination polymerization Mechanism

5. Polymerization Kinetics and Mathematical Modeling

5.1 Polymer Microstructural Models

5.2. Particle Break-up, Inter- and Intraparticle Mass and Heat Transfer Resistance Models

5.3. Polymerization Reactor Models

References

Chapter 6 Copolymerization  
Marc A. Dubé, Enrique Saldívar-Guerra, Iván Zapata-González

1. Introductory Section

What Are Copolymers ?

Commercial Copolymer Examples

Step Growth Copolymerization

2. Types of Copolymers

Statistical Copolymers

Alternating Copolymers

Block Copolymers

Gradient Copolymers

Graft Copolymers

Notes on Nomenclature

3. Copolymer Composition and Microstucture

Terminal Model Kinetics

Other Copolymerization Models

Reactivity Ratio Estimation

Sequence Length Distribution

Composition Measurement Methods

Extensions to Multicomponent Copolymerization

4. Reaction Conditions Considerations

Copolymerization Rate

Effect of Temperature

Reaction Medium

Effect of Pressure

Achieving Uniform Copolymer Composition

References

Chapter 7 Anionic Polymerization
Roderick Quirk

1. Introduction

2. Living Anionic Polymerization

2.1. Molecular Weight Control

2.2. Molecular Weight Distribution

3. General Considerations

3.1. Monomers

3.2. Solvents

3.3. Initiators

4. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Polymerization

4.1. Styrene and Diene Monomers

4.2 Polar Monomers

5. Stereochemistry

5.1. Polydienes

5.2. Methacrylate Stereochemistry

5.3. Styrene

5.4.Vinylpyridines

6. Copolymerization of Styrenes and Dienes

6.1. Tapered Block Copolymers

6.2. Random Styrene-Diene Copolymers (SBR)

7. Synthetic Applications of Living Anionic Polymerization

7.1 Block Copolymers

7.2. Star-Branched Polymers

7.3. Synthesis of Chain-End Functionalized Polymers.

References

Chapter 8 Cationic Polymerization
Filip E. Du Prez, Eric J. Goethals, Richard Hoogenboom

1 Introduction

2 Carbocationic Polymerization

2.1 Isobutene

2.2 Vinyl Ethers

2.2 Styrene Monomers

3 Cationic Ring-opening Polymerization

3.1 Cyclic Ethers

3.2 Cyclic Amines

3.3 Cyclic Imino ethers

4 Summary and Prospects

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 9 Crosslinking
Julio César Hernández-Ortiz, Eduardo Vivaldo-Lima

1. Introduction

2. Background on Polymer Networks

2.1 Types of Polymer Networks Based on Structure

2.2 Chemical and Physical Networks

2.3 Intermolecular and Intramolecular Crosslinking

2.4 Monomer Functionality (f)

2.5 Crosslink Density

2.6 Gelation and Swelling Index

3. Main Chemical Routes for Synthesis of Polymer Networks

3.1 Step-growth Polymerization

3.2 Vulcanization

3.3 End-linking

3.4 Free Radical Copolymerization (FRC)

4. Characterization of Polymer Networks and Gels

4.1 Determination of the Gelation Point

4.2 Measurement of Crosslink Density

5. Theory and Mathematical Modeling of Crosslinking

5.1 Statistical Gelation Theories

5.2 Percolation Gelation Theories

5.3 Kinetic Theories

5.4 Crosslinking and Controlled-living Radical Polymerization

6. References

Appendix I. Calculation of Average Chain Lengths

Appendix II. Calculation of Sol and Gel Fractions

Chapter 10  Polymer Modification: Functionalization and Grafting
José Bonilla-Cruz, Mariamné Dehonor, Enrique Saldívar-Guerra, Alfonso González-Montiel

1. General Concepts

1.1 Methods for the Synthesis of Functional Polymers

Grafting Onto, Grafting Through and Grafting From

Grafting on Polymeric and Inorganic Surfaces

Polymer Coupling Reactions

2. Graft Copolymers

Commercial Polymer Grafting

Polyolefins

Modern Grafting Techniques onto Polymers

Functionalization and Grafting from Surfaces.

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 11 Polymer Additives
Rudolf Pfaendner

1. Introduction

2. Antioxidants

2.1. Primary Antioxidants

2.2. Secondary Antioxidants

2.3. Other Antioxidative Stabilizers

2.4. Testing of Antioxidants

2.5. Selected Examples

3. PVC Heat Stabilizers

3.1. Mixed Metal Salts

3.2. Organo Tin Heat Stabilizers

3.3. Metal Free Heat Stabilizers

3.4. Costabilizers

3.5. Testing of PVC Heat Stabilizers

3.6. Selected Examples of PVC Heat Stabilisation

4. Light Stabilizers

4.1. UV Absorbers

4.2. Hindered Amine Light Stabilizers

4.3. Testing of Light Stabilizers

4.4 Selected Examples of Light Stabilization

5. Flame Retardants

5.1. Halogenated Flame Retardants

5.2. Inorganic Flame Retardants

5.3. Phosphorus and Nitrogen Containing Flame Retardants

5.4. Testing of Flame Retardancy

5.5. Selected Examples of Flame Retardancy

6. Plasticizers

7. Scavenging Agents

7.1. Acid Scavengers

7.2. Aldehyde Scavenger

7.3. Odor Reduction

8.  Additives to Enhance Processing

9. Additives to Modify Plastic Surface Properties

9.1. Slip and Antiblocking Agents

9.2. Antifogging Agents

9.3. Antistatic Agents

10. Additives to Modify Polymer Chain Structures

10.1. Chain Extenders

10.2. Controlled Degradation

10.3. Prodegradants

10.4. Cross-linking Agents

11. Additives to Influence Morphology and Crystallinity of Polymers

11.1. Nucleating Agents / Clarifiers

11.2. Coupling Agents / Compatibilizers

12. Antimicrobials

13. Additives to Enhance Thermal Conductivity

14. Active Protection Additives (Smart Additives)

14.1. Content Protection

14.2. Productivity Enhancer

14.3. Heat Control

15. Odor Masking

16. Animal Repellents

17. Markers

18. Blowing Agents

19. Summary and Trends in Polymer Additives

20. Selected Literature

References

Part 3 Polymerization Processes and Engineering

Chapter 12 Polymer Reaction Engineering
Alexander Penlidis, Eduardo Vivaldo-Lima, Julio C. Hernández-Ortiz, Enrique Saldívar-Guerra

1. Introduction

2. Mathematical modeling of polymerization processes

2.1 Chemical Reactor Modeling Background

2.2 The Method of Moments

2.3 Bivariate Distributions

2.4 Pseudo-homopolymer Approach or Pseudo-kinetic Rate Constants Method (PKRCM)

3. Useful Tips on Polymer Reaction Engineering (PRE) and Modeling

4. Examples of Several Free-radical (co)Polymerization Schemes and the Resulting Kinetic and Molecular Weight Development Equations

4.1 Modeling Linear and Nonlinear Homo- and Copolymerizations Assuming Monofunctional Polymer Molecules and Using the PKRCM

4.2 Modeling Linear and Nonlinear Homo- and Copolymerizations Assuming Multifunctional Polymer Molecules and Using the PKRCM

5. References

Chapter 13 Bulk and Solution Processes
Marco A. Villalobos, Jon Debling

1. Definition

2. History

3. Processes for Bulk and Solution Polymerization

3.1 Reactor Types

3.1.1 Batch/Semi-batch Reactor

3.1.2 Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR)

3.1.3 Autoclave Reactor

3.1.4 Tubular Reactor

3.1.5 Loop Reactor

3.1.6 Casts and Molds

3.2 Processes for Free Radical Polymerization

3.2.1 Polystyrene

3.2.2 Styrene Acrylonitrile (SAN) Copolymers

3.2.3 High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS)

3.2.4 Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS)

3.2.5 Acrylics

3.2.6 Water Soluble Polymers

3.3 Processes for Step Growth Polymerization

3.3.1 Polyesters

3.3.2 Polyamides

3.3.3 Polycarbonates

3.3.4 Polysulfones

3.4 Processes for Ionic/Anionic Polymerization

3.4.1 Anionic Polystyrene (PS), Styrene-Butadiene (SB) and Styrene-Isoprene (SI) Copolymers

3.5 Processes for Homogenous Catalyzed Polymerization

3.5.1 Polyethylene

4. Energy Considerations

4.1 Heat of Polymerization

4.2 Adiabatic Temperature Rise

4.3 Self Accelerating Temperature

4.4 Reactor Energy Balance

4.4.1 CSTR

4.4.2 Cascade of CSTR?s

4.4.3 Tubular Reactors

5. Mass Considerations

5.1 Reactor Size

5.2 Process Residence Time, Conversion, Transients and Steady State

5.3 Reactor Pressure

5.4 Viscosity

5.5 Mixing

5.6 Polymer Purification

6. References

Chapter 14 Dispersed Phase Polymerization Processes
Jorge Herrera-Ordóñez, Enrique Saldívar-Guerra, Eduardo Vivaldo-Lima

1. Introduction

2. Emulsion Polymerization.

2.1 Historical Developments

2.2 Principles of Colloid Science

2.3 Surfactants in Aqueous Solution

2.4. Emulsions.

2.5 Monomer Partitioning and Swelling in Polymer Colloids.

2.6 Formulation Components in Emulsion Polymerization

2.7 Overall Description of Emulsion Polymerization

2.8 Batch, Semi-batch and Continuous Processes

2.9 Control of Number and Size Distribution of Particles

2.10 Particle Morphology

2.11 Latex Characterization

3. Microemulsion Polymerization

4. Miniemulsion Polymerization

5. Applications of Polymer Latexes

6. Dispersion and Precipitation Polymerizations

7. Suspension Polymerization

7.1 Generalities

7.2 Some Issues about the Modeling of PSD in Suspension Polymerization

8. Controlled Radical Polymerization (CRP) in Aqueous Dispersions

8.1 NMRP in Aqueous Dispersions

8.2 ATRP in Aqueous Dispersions

8.3 RAFT in Aqueous Dispersions

8.4 Controlled Radical Suspension Polymerization

Chapter 15 New Polymerization Processes
Eduardo Vivaldo-Lima, Carlos Guerrero-Sánchez, Christian Hornung, Iraís A. Quintero-Ortega, Gabriel Luna-Bárcenas

1. Introduction

2. Polymerization in Benign or Green Solvents   

2.1 Polymerization in Compressed and Supercritical Fluids (SCF)

2.2 Polymerization in Ionic Liquids

3. Alternative Energy Sources for Polymerization Processes

3.1 Microwave Activated Polymerization

3.2 Polymerization Under Irradiation of Other Wavelengths

4. Polymerization in Microreactors

5. References

Part 4 Polymer Characterization

Chapter 16 Polymer Spectroscopy and Compositional Analysis
Gladys de los Santos Villarreal, Luis Ernesto Elizalde Herrera

Introduction

Elemental Analysis

General Principles

Infrared Spectroscopy

General Principles

3.2 Instrumentation

Qualitative Analysis of Polymers

Quantitative Analysis of Polymers

Sampling Methods

Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR)

Diffuse Reflection IR Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFT)

FT-IR Microscopy

Real Time ? IR Spectroscopy

Discussion of IR Spectra for Poly(ethylene)

Conclusions

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Polymers in Solution

Chemical Shift

Spin-spin Coupling

Instrumentation

Sample Preparation

Qualitative Analysis of Polymers

Two Dimensional NMR Analysis

Quantitative and Compositional Analysis

Mass Spectrometry

General Principles

Electron Ionization

Sample Introduction

Other Ionization Processes

References

Chapter 17 Polymer Molecular Weight Measurement
M. G. Neira-Velázquez, M. T. Rodríguez-Hernández, E. Hernández-Hernández, A. R. Y. Ruiz-Martínez

1 Introduction

2 Historical Background

3 Principles of GPC

3.1 Principle of Separation

3.2 Average Molecular Weight of Polymers

3.3 GPC Systems

4. Measurement of Intrinsic Viscosity

4.1 Introduction

4.2 The Ubbelohde Capillary Viscometer

References

Chapter 18 Light Scattering and its Applications to Polymer Characterization
Roberto Alexander-Katz

1 Introduction

2 Principles of Static and Dynamic Light Scattering

3 Static Light Scattering by Dilute Polymer Solutions

3.1 Scattering at Small Angles (q?«????Determination of Molecular Weights and Thermodynamic Properties.

3.2 Application of SLS to the Determination of Structure When?q ??≥ 1.

4 Dynamic Light Scattering

4.1 General Concepts. Determination of Particle Sizes in Dilute Solutions

4.2 Dynamic Light Scattering by a Dilute Solution of Thin Rods

4.3 Dynamic Light Scattering by Flexible Polymers

References

Chapter 19 Small Angle X-Ray Scattering of Polymer Systems
Carlos A. Avila-Orta, and Francisco J. Medellín-Rodríguez

Introduction

Polymer Morphology

Single Crystals, Spherulites, and Shish-Kebabs

Lamellae

Unit Cells

Small-Angle X-ray Scattering

Interaction of X-rays with Matter

Electron Density Function

Scattering Vector

Scattering Intensity

Analysis in Reciprocal Space

Scattering Intensity when q ? 0

Scattering Intensity at Intermediate Angles

Scattering Intensity when q ? ?

Analysis in Real Space

Correlation Function, ?(r)

Interface Distribution Function, g(r)

Appendix 19.1 Procedure to Obtain Morphological Data from 1D-SAXS Profiles

A1.1 Data analysis

References

Chapter 20 Microscopy
Mariamné Dehonor-Gómez, Carlos López-Barrón, Christopher W. Macosko

Introduction

Transmission Electron Microscopy

Conventional Transmission Electron Microscopy

Transmission Electron Microscopy Allied Techniques

Three-dimensional Microscopy

Introduction

3.2 Methods to Obtain 3D Micrographs

3.3 3-D Image Analysis

3.4  Summary

References

Chapter 21 Structure and Mechanical Properties of Polymers
Manuel Aguilar-Vega

1.Structure of Polymer Chains

2.Polymer Mechanical Properties

2.1Molecular Structure and Mechanical Properties

2.2 Viscoelastic Properties and Temperature

3 Mechanical Properties of Polymer Composites

References

Part 5 Polymer Processing

Chapter 22 Polymer Rheology
Estanislao Ortíz-Rodríguez

1. Introduction to Polymer Rheology Fundamentals

1.1 Deformation Response of Polymeric Solids

1.2 Rheology of Polymeric Liquids

1.3 Mathematical Relationships for Polymer Rheology

2. Linear Viscoelasticity

3. Viscometric Techniques for Polymer Melts

3.1 The Capillary Rheometer

3.2 Rotational Rheometers

3.3 Temperature and Pressure Effects on Viscosity

3.4 Other Viscometric Determinations

4. Overview of Constitutive Equations

4.1 The Generalized Newtonian fluid (GNF)

4. 2 Differential Equations

4.3 Integral Constitutive Equations

5. Brief Overview on Other Relevant Polymer Rheology Aspects

5.1 Rheology of Filled Polymeric Melts

5.2 Molecular Dynamic Simulations in Polymer Rheology

5.3 A CFD Perspective on Polymer Rheology

6. References

Chapter 23 Principles of Polymer Processing
Luis Francisco Ramos de Valle

Table of Contents

1 General

2 Compounding

3 Extrusion

4 Bottle Blowing

5 Injection Molding

5.1 Limitations

5.2 Defects

5.3 Rotational Molding

5.4 Compression Molding

6 Thermoforming

7 Further Reading

References

Chapter 24 Blown Films and Ribbons Extrusion
J.R. Robledo-Ortíz, D.E. Ramírez-Arreola, D. Rodrigue and Rubén González-Núñez

1. Introduction

2. Extrusion Processes for Blown Films and Ribbons

3. Equations

3.1 Blown Film Equations

3.2 Ribbon Extrusion Equations

4. Ribbon and Film Dimensions

5. Cooling Process and Stretching Force

6. Morphology and Mechanical Properties

7. References

Chapter Chapter 25 Polymer Solutions and Processing
Dámaso Navarro Rodríguez

Introduction

Polymer Solution Thermodynamics and Conformation of Polymer Chains.

Basic Concepts

2.1 Change in Enthalpy, Entropy and Gibbs Free Energy of Mixing

2.2 Conformation of Polymer Chains

2.3 Flory-Huggins Lattice Theory and Related Theories

2.4 The Solubility Parameter

2.5 Phase Equilibria in Polymer Solutions

2.6 Characterization of Polymers Using Thermodynamic-Based Techniques Semidilute Polymer Solutions

3.1 The Blob Model

3.2 Scaling Theory

Processing of Polymer Solutions

4.1 Film Forming Processes Via Polymer Solution

4.2 Fiber Forming Processes from Solution

References

Chapter 26 Wood and Natural Fiber-Based Composites (NFC)
J.R. Robledo-Ortíz, F.J. Fuentes-Talavera, R. González-Núñez, J.A. Silva-Guzmán

1. Introduction

2. Background     

3. Raw Materials

3.1 Natural Fibers

3.2 Types of Polymers Used in Wood Plastic Composites Manufacturing

3.3 Additives

3.4 Polymer-Natural Fiber Interface

3.5 Wood/Polymer Ratio, Particle Size and Moisture Content

4. Manufacturing Process

5. Properties of Composite Materials

5.1 Water Absorption in Natural Fiber Plastic Composites

5.2 Mechanical properties

6 Durability

6.1 Decay

7 Factors that Affect Decay of Wood Plastic Composites

7.1 Moisture

7.2 Wood Particle Size and Wood/Plastic Ratios

7.3 Wood/Polymer Interface

8 Uses of Wood Plastic Composites

References

Chapter 27 Polymer Blends
Saul Sanchez Valdés, Luis Francisco Ramos de Valle, Octavio Manero

1 Introduction

2 Miscibility in Polymer Blends

3 Compatibility in Polymer Blends

4 Techniques for Studying Blend Microstructure

5 Preparation of Polymer Blends

6 Factors Influencing the Morphology of a Polymer Blend

7 Properties of Polymer Blends

8 Applications of Polymer Blends

References

Chapter 28 Thermosetting Polymers
J.-P. Pascault, R.J.J. Williams

1. Introduction

2. Chemistries of Network Formation

3. Structural Transformations During Network Formation

3.1 Gelation

3.2 Vitrification

3.3 Conversion-Temperature Transformation (CTT) Diagram

4. Processing

4.1 Formulations

4.2 Rules for Processing Thermosetting Polymers

4.3 Thermosetting Polymers for Adhesives, Coatings and Paintings

4.4 Reaction Injection Molding (RIM)

4.5 Thermosetting Polymers for Composite Materials

5. Conclusions

6. References

Part 6 Polymers for Advanced Technologies

Chapter 29 Conducting Polymers
M. Judith Percino, Víctor M. Chapela

Table of Contents

1 Introduction

2 Historical Background

3 The Structures of Conducting Polymers

4 Charge Storage

5 Doping

5.1 Redox Doping

5.2 Chemical and Electrochemical p-Doping

5.3 Chemical and Electrochemical n-Doping

5.4 Doping Involving no Dopant Ions

5.5 Non-Redox Doping

6 Polyanilines

6.1 Allowed Oxidation States

6.2 Doping

7 Charge transport

8 Syntheses

9 Conducting Polymers

9.1 Polyacetylene trans or cis

9.2 Polyaniline

9.3 Polythiophene

9.4 Polypyrrole

9.5 Poly(paraphenylene)

9.6 Poly(p-phenylenevinylene)

10 Characterization Techniques

11 Present and Future Potential

11.1 Applications

Chapter 30 Dendritic Polymers
Jason Dockendorff, Mario Gauthier

1 Introduction

2 Dendrimers

2.1 Synthetic Strategies and Properties

2.2 General Characteristics

2.3 Common Structures

2.4 Applications and Recent Trends

3 Hyperbranched Polymers

3.1 General Features

3.2 Synthetic Strategies and Common Structures

3.3 Applications and Recent Trends

4 Dendrigraft Polymers

4.1 General Characteristics

4.2 Synthetic Strategies, Common Structures, and Properties

4.3 Applications and Recent Trends

5 Concluding Remarks

6 References

Chapter 31 Polymer Nanocomposites
Octavio Manero, Antonio Sanchez-Solis

1  Introduction

2  Polyester-clay Nanocomposites

2.1 PET-Clay

2.2 PET-PEN / Clay

2.3 Polyester Resin / Clay

3  Polyolefin/clay Nanocomposites

3.1  Polyethylene / Clay

3.2  Polypropylene / Clay

4  Polystyrene/clay Nanocomposites

4.1  HIPS / Clay

4.2  HIPS-PET / Clay

5  Polymer-Carbon Black Nanocomposites

5.1  PET-PMMA / Carbon Black

5.2  PET-HDPE / Carbon Black

6  Nanoparticles of Barium Sulfate

7  Polymer / Graphene Nanocomposites

7.1 Synthesis and Structural Features of Graphene

7.2 Surface Modification of Grapheme

7.3 Polymer/Graphene Nanocomposites

7.4 Preparation Methods of Polymer/Graphene Nanocomposites

8  Conclusions

9  Acknowledgements

10 References



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