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From formal reports and manuals to everyday e-mails, The Handbook of Technical Writing uses smart, accessible language to spotlight and clarify technical writing today. Hundreds of topic entries, 90+ sample documents, at-a-glance checklists, and dynamic videos break down the best-practices, models, and real-world skills that successful writers use to clearly and persuasively communicate technical information and data.Developed by a legendary author team with decades of combined academic and professional experience, the book’s intuitive, alphabetical organization makes it easy to navigate its extensive coverage of grammar, usage, and style. Plus, updated, in-depth treatment of pressing issues like the job search, the writing process, documenting sources, and social media resonates both in class and on the job.With a refreshed, integrated focus on the ways technologies shape writing, the Eleventh Edition of the Handbook is the indispensable reference tool for writing to workplace success.
Gerald J. Alred is Professor Emeritus of English at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, where he teaches courses in the Professional Writing Program. He is the author of numerous scholarly articles and several standard bibliographies on business and technical communication, and is a founding member of the editorial board of the Journal of Business and Technical Communication. He is co-author of The Business Writer's Handbook and Handbook of Technical Writing. He is a recipient of the prestigious Jay R. Gould Award for "profound scholarly and textbook contributions to the teaching of business and technical writing."
Walter E. Oliu served as chief of the Publishing Services Branch at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, where he managed the agency’s printing, graphics, editing, and publishing programs. He also developed the public-access standards for and managed daily operations of the agency’s public Web site. He has taught at Miami University of Ohio, Slippery Rock State University, and as an adjunct faculty member at Montgomery College and George Mason University. His books include Writing That Works, Tenth Edition (reprinted chapters appear in Kevin J. Harty’s Strategies for Business and Technical Writing, Fifth Edition, , and Brenda D. Smith and Laura C. Headley’s The Lifelong Reader, Second Edition); The Handbook of Technical Writing, Ninth Edition; The Business Writer’s Handbook, Ninth eEdition (Fortune and Book-of-the-Month Club selections); The Business Writer’s Companion, Sixth Edition; The Technical Writer’s Companion, Third Edition; Writing from A-Z, Fifth Edition; and The Professional Writer.
Charles T. Brusaw was a faculty member at NCR Corporation's Management College, where he developed and taught courses in professional writing, editing, and presentation skills for the corporation worldwide. Previously, he worked in advertising, technical writing, public relations, and curriculum development. He has been a communications consultant, an invited speaker at academic conferences, and a teacher of business writing at Sinclair Community College.
Table of Contents
*New Aa/an a lot abbreviations Using Abbreviations Writer's Checklist: Using Abbreviations Forming Abbreviations Names of Organizations Measurements Personal Names and Titles Common Scholarly Abbreviations above absolutely abstract/concrete words Abstracts Types of Abstracts Figure A-1. Informative Abstract (from a Report) Writing Strategies accept/except acceptance/refusal letters (for employment) Figure A-2. Acceptance Letter (for Employment) Figure A-3. Refusal Letter (for Employment) Professionalism Note accuracy/precisionacknowledgment letters Figure A-4. Acknowledgement acronyms and initialismsactivate/actuate active voice (see voice) ad hoc adapt/adept/adopt adapting to new technologies Technology You Need to Know *Writer’s Checklist: Strategies for Learning a New Technology Strategies for Learning a New Technology Digital Tip: Assessing Hardware and Software adjectives Limiting Adjectives Articles Demonstrative Adjectives Possessive Adjectives Numeral Adjectives Indefinite Adjectives Comparison of AdjectivesESL Tip for Using Adjectives Placement of Adjectives Use of Adjectives adjustment letters Figure A-5. Adjustment Letter (Company Takes Responsibility) Figure A-6. Partial Adjustment (Accompanying a Product) Full Adjustment*Professionalism Note Partial Adjustment Adverbs Types of Adverbs Comparison Adverbs Placement of Adverbs affect/effect affectation Ethics Note affinity agreement Subject-Verb Agreement Compound Subjects Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement Gender Number Compound Antecedents all ready/already all right all together/altogether allude/elude/refer allusion/illusion allusions almost/most also ambiguity amount/number ampersands and/or antonyms apostrophes Showing Possession Indicating Omission Forming Plurals appendixes application cover letters *Figure A-7. Partial Job Ad (Description and Requirements)*Figure A-8. Application Cover Letter (Graduate Applying for a Graphic Design Job) Figure A-9. Application Cover Letter Sent as E-mail (College Student Applying for an Internship) Figure A-10. Application Cover Letter (Applicant with Years of Experience) *Writer’s Checklist: Tailoring a Cover Letter to a Job AdOpening Body Closing*Proofreading and Follow-up appositives articles ESL Tip for Using Articles as/because/since as much as/more than as such as well as audience Analyzing Your Audience's Needs Writing for Varied and Multiple Audiences augment/supplement average/median/mean awhile/a while awkwardness Writer's Checklist: Eliminating Awkwardness Bbad/badly be sure to beside/besides between/among between you and me bi-/semi- biannual/biennial biased language Professionalism Note Sexist Language Other Types if Biased Language bibliographies blogs and forums Organizational Uses Writing Style *Figure B-1. Corporate Blog Ethics Note *Web Link: Developing Blogs and Forums both…and brackets brainstorming Figure B-2. Cluster Map from a Brainstorming Session brochures Types of Brochures Designing the Brochure Cover Panel Figure B-3. Brochure (Cover Panel) First Inside Panel Subsequent Panels Figure B-4. Brochure (Inside Panels) Design Style and Unity Writer's Checklist: Designing a Brochure bulleted lists (see lists) buzzwords Ccan/may cannot capital/capitol capitalization Proper Nouns Common Nouns First Words Specific Groups Specific Places Specific Institutions, Events, Concepts Titles of Works Professional and Personal Titles Abbreviations and Letters Miscellaneous Capitalizations case Figure C-1. Pronoun Case Chart Subjective Case Objective Case Possessive Case Appositives Determining the Case of Pronouns cause-and-effect method of development Evaluating Evidence Linking Causes to Effects center on chronological method of development Figure C-2. Chronological Method of Development cite/sight/site clarity clauses clichés coherence collaborative writing Tasks of the Collaborative Writing Team Planning Professionalism Note Research Writing Reviewing Revising Professionalism Note Writer's Checklist: Writing CollaborativelyDigital Tip: Using Collaborative Software colons Colons in Sentences Colons with Salutations, Titles, Citations, and Numbers Punctuation and Capitalization with Colons Unnecessary Colons comma splice commas Linking Independent Clauses Enclosing Elements Introducing Elements Clauses and Phrases Words and Quotations Separating Items in a Series Clarifying and Contrasting Showing Omissions Using with Numbers and Names Using with Other Punctuation Avoiding Unnecessary Commas compare/contrast comparison comparison method of development Figure C-3. Whole-by-Whole Method of Comparison Figure C-4. Part-by-Part Method of Comparison Figure C-5. Comparison Using a Table to Illustrate Key Differences complaint letters Figure C-6. Complaint Letter complement/compliment complements compose/constitute/comprise compound words conciseness Causes of Wordiness Writer's Checklist: Achieving Conciseness conclusions Figure C-7. Conclusion conjunctions connotation/denotation consensuscontent management Writing for Content Management Content Management Systemscontext Assessing Context Signaling Context continual/continuous contractions copyrights, patents, and trademarks Ethics Note Permissions Exceptions Ethics NotePatentsTrademarksFigure C-8. Sample Trademarks correspondence Audience and Writing Style Openings and Closings Goodwill and the "You" Viewpoint Writer's Checklist: Using Tone to Build Goodwill Direct and Indirect Patterns Direct Pattern Figure C-9. A Good-News MessageIndirect Pattern Figure C-10. A Courteous Bad-News Message Clarity and Emphasis Lists Headings Subject Lines Writer's Checklist: Correspondence and Accuracy cover letters (or transmittals) Figure C-11. Cover Message credible/creditable criteria/criterion critiqueDdangling modifiers dashes data dates defective/deficient defining terms definite/definitive definition method of development Extended Definition Definition by Analogy Definition by Cause Definition by Components Definition by Exploration of Origin Negative Definition description Figure D-1. Simple Description Figure D-2. Complex Description design (see layout and design) despite/in spite of diagnosis/prognosisdictionaries Abridged Dictionaries Unabridged Dictionaries ESL Dictionaries Subject and Specialized Dictionaries differ from/differ with different from/different than direct address discreet/discrete disinterested/uninterested division-and-classification method of development Division Classification Figure D-3. Classification (Tools Placed into Categories) *document management *Document Management Systems *Document Naming Conventions*Writer’s Checklist: Naming Filesdocumenting sources APA Documentation APA In-Text Citations APA Documentation Models APA Sample Pages Figure D-4. APA Sample Page Figure D-5. APA Sample List of References IEEE Documentation IEEE In-Text Citations IEEE Documentation Models IEEE Sample Pages Figure D-6. IEEE Sample Page from Report Figure D-7. IEEE Sample Bibliography MLA Documentation MLA In-Text Citations MLA Documentation Models MLA Sample Pages Figure D-8. MLA Sample Page Figure D-9. MLA Sample List of Works Cited Ethics Note double negatives drawings Figure D-10. Conventional Line Drawing Illustrating Instructions Figure D-11. Exploded-View Drawing Figure D-12. Cutaway Drawing Figure D-13. Schematic Diagram Figure D-14. Specialty Clip-Art Images Ethics Note Writer's Checklist: Creating and Using Drawings due to/because ofEeach economic/economical editing (see both revision and proofreading) e.g./i.e. ellipses e-mail Review and Confidentiality Professionalism Note *Writer's Checklist: Maintaining Professionalism *Digital Tip: Sharing Electronic Files Writing and Design Figure E-1. E-mail Signature Block Writer's Checklist: Managing Your E-mail and Reducing Overload*Ethics Note emphasis Achieving Emphasis Position Climactic Order Sentence Length Sentence Type Active Voice Repetition Intensifiers Direct Statements Long Dashes Typographical Devices English as a second language Count and Mass Nouns Articles and Modifiers Gerunds and Infinitives Adjective Clauses Present Perfect Verb Tense Present Progressive Verb Tense ESL Entries English, varieties of Colloquial English Dialectal English Localisms Slang environmental impact statements Background and Scope Audiences Writing Guidelines Ethics Note Collaborative Guidelines *Resources and Examplesequal/unique/perfect etc. ethics in writing Ethics Note Writer's Checklist: Writing Ethicallyeuphemisms Ethics Note everybody/everyone*everyday/every dayexclamation marks executive summaries Writer's Checklist: Writing Executive Summaries expletives explicit/implicit exposition Ffact FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) Ethics Note Questions to Include Organization Placement Writer's Checklist: Developing an FAQ feasibility reports Figure F-1. Feasibility Report Report Sections Introduction Body Conclusion Recommendation *female/malefew/a few fewer/less figuratively/literally figures of speech Types of Figures of Speech fine first/firstlyflammable/inflammable/nonflammable flowcharts Figure F-2. Flowchart Using Labeled Blocks Figure F-3. Flowchart Using Pictorial Symbols Figure F-4. Common ISO Flowchart Symbols (with Annotations) Writer's Checklist: Creating Flowcharts footnotes (see documenting sources) forceful/forcible foreign words in English foreword/forward formal reports *Digital Tip: Digitally Enhancing Formal Reports Front Matter Title Page Abstract Table of Contents List of Figures List of Tables Foreword Preface List of Abbreviations and Symbols Body Executive Summary Introduction Text Conclusions Recommendations Explanatory Notes References (or Works Cited) Ethics Note Back Matter Appendixes Bibliography Glossary Index*Digital Tip: Creating an IndexSample Formal Report Figure F-5. Formal Report*Digital Tip: Creating Styles and Templates format former/latter forms Figure F-6. Form (for a Medical Claim) Ethics Note *Choosing Paper or Digital Designing a Form Entry Lines and Fields*Sequencing Entries *Writing Questions *forums (see blogs and forums)fragments (see sentence fragments) functional shift Ggarbled sentences gender ESL Tip for Assigning Gender general and specific methods of development Figure G-1. General-to-Specific Method of Development Figure G-2. Specific to General Method of Development General to Specific Specific to General global communication Writer's Checklist: Communicating Globally global graphics Figure G-3. Graphics for U.S. and Global Audiences Figure G-4. ISO Symbols Writer's Checklist: Using Appropriate Global Graphics glossaries gobbledygook good/well grammar grant proposals Cover Letter Title Page Application Form Introduction Literature Review Project Narrative Project Description Project Outcomes Budget Narrative Task Schedule Organization Description Conclusion Attachments (appendixes) Writer's Checklist: Writing Grant Proposals graphs Line Graphs Figure G-5. Double-Line Graph (with Shading) Ethics Note Figure G-6. Distorted and Distortion-Free Expressions of Data Bar Graphs Figure G-7. Bar Graph Figure G-8. Bar (Column) Graph Figure G-9. Gantt Chart Pie Graphs Figure G-10. Pie Graph (Showing Percentages of the Whole) Picture Graphs Figure G-11. Picture Graph Writer's Checklist: Creating Graphs Hhe/she headers and footers Figure H-1. Header and Footer headings Figure H-2. Headings Used in a Document General Heading Style Decimal Numbering System Writer's Checklist: Using Headings hyphens Hyphens with Compound Words Hyphens with Modifiers Hyphens with Prefixes and Suffixes Hyphens and Clarity Other Uses of the Hyphen Writer's Checklist: Using Hyphens to Divide Words Iidioms illegal/illicit illustrations (see visuals) imply/infer in/into in order to in terms of *incident reports *Figure I-1. Incident Report *Ethics Noteindexing Figure I-2. Index Entry (with Main Entry, Subentries, and Sub-subentries) Compiling an Index Wording Index Entries Digital Tip: Creating an Index Cross-Referencing Writer's Checklist: Indexing indiscreet/indiscrete *infographics *Figure I-3. Infographic Describing a Process *Writer’s Checklist: Creating Infographics inquiries and responses Figure I-4. Inquiry Figure I-5. Response to an Inquiry *Writer’s Checklist: Writing Inquiries and Responding inside/inside ofinsoluble/insolvable instant messaging Figure I-6. Instant Messaging Exchange Ethics Note Writer's Checklist: Instant Messaging Privacy and Security instructions Writing Instructions Illustrating Instructions Figure I-7. Illustrated Instructions Warning Readers Figure I-8. Warning in a Set of Instructions Testing Instructions Writer's Checklist: Writing Instructions insure/ensure/assure intensifiers interface interjections international correspondence Cultural Differences in Correspondence Cross-Cultural Examples Figures I-9. Inappropriate International Correspondence (Draft Marked for Revision) Figure I-10. Appropriate International Correspondence Writer's Checklist: Writing International Correspondence interviewing for information Determining the Proper Person to Interview Preparing for the Interview *Professionalism Note Conducting the Interview Professionalism Note Expanding Your Notes Soon After the Interview Interviewing by Phone or E-mail Writer's Checklist: Interviewing Successfully interviewing for a job Before the Interview Professionalism Note During the Interview *Professionalism Note Behavior Responses *Ethics Note Salary Conclusion After the Interview Figure I-11. Follow-up Correspondence introductions Routine Openings Opening Strategies Objective Problem Statement Scope Background Summary Interesting Detail Definition Anecdote Quotation Forecast Persuasive Hook Full-Scale Introductions Manuals and Specifications investigative reports Figure I-12. Investigative Report italics Foreign Words and Phrases Titles Proper Names Words, Letters, and Figures Subheads *Exceptionsits/it'sJjargon job descriptions Figure J-1. Job Description Writer's Checklist: Writing Job Descriptions job search *Professionalism Note Networking and Informational Interviews Campus Career Services *Strategic Web Searches Social Media Professionalism Note Job Advertisements Trade and Professional Journal Listings Employment Agencies (Private, Temporary, Government) Internships Direct InquiriesJob or Internship Applications Figure J-2. Sections from a Job Application Form *Ethics Note *Writer's Checklist: Completing Job Applications: In Print and Online *Ethics Note *journal articles (see trade journal articles) Kkind of/sort of know-howLlaboratory reports Figure L-1. Laboratory Reportlay/lie layout and design *Design Principles *Grouping *Contrast *Repetition Typography Figure L-2. Primary Components of Letter Characters Type Face and Type Size Figure L-3. Type Sizes (6- to 14-Point Type) Type Style and Emphasis. Page-Design Elements Justification Headings Headers and Footers Lists Columns White Space Color Visuals Icons Captions Rules Page Layout and Thumbnails lend/loan letters Letter Format Figure L-4. Full-Block-Style Letter (with Letterhead) Heading Inside Address Salutation Subject Line Body Complimentary Closing Writer's Signature Block End Notations Continuing Pages Figure L-5. Alternative Headers for the Second Page of a Letter like/as listening Fallacies about Listening Active Listening Step 1: Make a Conscious Decision Step 2: Define Your Purpose Step 3: Take Specific Actions Step 4: Adapt to the Situation lists Figure L-6. Bulleted List in a Paragraph Writer's Checklist: Using Listsliterature reviews Figure L-7. Literature Review logic errors Ethics Note Lack of Reason Sweeping Generalizations Non Sequiturs False Cause Biased or Suppressed Evidence Fact Versus Opinion Loaded Arguments loose/loseMmalapropismsmanuals Types of Manuals User Manuals Tutorials Training Manuals Operators' Manuals Service Manuals Special-Purpose Manuals Designing and Writing Effective Manuals Identify and Write for Your Audience Provide an Overview Create Major Sections Use Headings to Indicate the Goals of Actions Use the Imperative Verb Form to Indicate Actions Use Simple and Direct Verbs Indicate the Response of Actions Checking for Usability Writer's Checklist: Preparing Manuals maps Figure M-1. Map Writer's Checklist: Creating and Using Maps mathematical equations Formatting Equations Positioning Displayed Equations maybe/may be media/medium meetings Planning a Meeting Determine the Purpose of the Meeting Decide Who Should Attend Choose the Meeting Time *Digital Tip: Scheduling Meetings Online Choose the Meeting Location *Digital Tip: Conducting Online Meetings Establish the Agenda. Figure M-2. Meeting Agenda Figure M-3. E-mail Announcing a Meeting with Attached Agenda Assign the Minute-Taking Conducting the Meeting Deal with Conflict Close the Meeting Writer's Checklist: Planning and Conducting Meetings memos Memo Format Figure M-4. Typical Memo Format *Professionalism Note Additional Pages Figure M-5. Alternate Headers for the Second Page of Memos methods of development minutes of meetings Figure M-6. Minutes of a Meeting Writer's Checklist: Items to Include in Minutes of Meetings mixed constructions modifiers Stacked (Jammed) Modifiers Misplaced Modifiers Squinting Modifiers mood ESL Tip for Determining Mood Ms./Miss/Mrs. mutual/commonNnarration Figure N-1. Narration from a Financial Newsletter nature needless to say newsletter articles Figure N-2. Newsletter Article Writer's Checklist: Writing Newsletter Articles newsletters Types of Newsletters Figure N-3. Company Newsletter (Front Page) Developing Newsletters Professionalism Note nominalizations none nor/or note-taking Ethics Note Writer's Checklist: Taking Notes nouns Types of Nouns Noun Functions Collective Nouns Plural Nouns number (grammar) numbers Numerals or Words Plurals Measurements Fractions Money ESL Tip for Punctuating Numbers Time Dates Addresses Documents Oobjects OK/okay on/onto/upon one one of those . . . who only order-of-importance method of development Figure O-1. Decreasing Order-of-Importance Method of Development Decreasing Order Increasing Order Figure O-2. Increasing Order-of-Importance Method of Development organization organizational charts Figure O-3. Organizational Chart outlining Advantages of Outlining Types of Outlines Creating an Outline Digital Tip: Creating an Outline outside [of ] over [with]Ppace paragraphs Topic Sentence Paragraph Length Writing Paragraphs Paragraph Unity and Coherence parallel structure Faulty Parallelism paraphrasing Ethics Note parentheses parts of speech party per percent/percentage periods Periods in Quotations Periods with Parentheses Other Uses of Periods Period Faults person persuasion Ethics Note Figure P-1. Persuasive Memo phenomenon/phenomena photographs Figure P-2. Photo (of Aircraft Door) Ethics Note phrases Prepositional Phrases Participial Phrases Dangling Participial Phrases Misplaced Participial Phrases Infinitive Phrases Gerund Phrases Verb Phrases Noun Phrases plagiarism Citing Sources Common Knowledge Ethics Note plain language Writer's Checklist: Using Plain Language point of view Ethics Note ESL Tip for Stating an Opinion positive writing Ethics Note possessive case Singular Nouns Plural Nouns Compound Nouns Coordinate Nouns Possessive Pronouns Indefinite Pronouns prefixes preparation Writer's Checklist: Preparing to Write prepositions Prepositions at the End of a Sentence Prepositions in Titles Preposition Errors presentations Determining Your Purpose Analyzing Your Audience Gathering Information Structuring the Presentation The Introduction The Body Transitions The Closing Using Visuals Ethics Note Flip Charts Whiteboard or Chalkboard Presentation Software Professionalism Note Figure P-3. Presentation Slides*Professionalism Note Writer's Checklist: Using Visuals in a Presentation Delivering a Presentation Practice Delivery Techniques That Work Presentation Anxiety Writer's Checklist: Preparing for and Delivering a Presentation principal/principle process explanation progress and activity reports Figure P-4. Progress Report Figure P-5. Activity Report Progress Reports Activity Reports pronoun reference pronouns Case ESL Tip for Using Possessive Pronouns Gender Number Person proofreading*Professionalism Note Writer's Checklist: Proofreading in Stages Figure P-6. Proofreaders' Marks Digital Tip: Proofreading for Format Consistency proposals Proposal Strategies Audience and Purpose Project Management Proposal Context and Types Writer's Checklist: Writing Persuasive Proposals Internal Proposals Informal Interpersonal Proposals Formal Internal Proposals Figure P-7. Sales Proposal External Proposals Solicted Proposals Unsolicited Proposals Sales Proposals Ethics Note Ethics Note Grant Proposals (see entry grant proposals) Figure P-7. Sales Proposal (Cover Letter)pseudo-/quasi- punctuation purpose Qquestion marks questionnaires Figure Q-1. Questionnaire Selecting the Recipients Preparing the Questions Ethics Note Writer's Checklist: Designing a Questionnaire quid pro quo quotation marks Direct Quotations Ethics Note Words and Phrases Titles of Works Punctuation quotations Ethics Note Direct Quotations Indirect Quotations Deletions or Omissions Inserting Material into Quotations Incorporating Quotations into Text Figure Q-2. Long Quotation (APA Style) Rraise / rise readers really reason is [because] reference letters Figure R-1. Reference Letter Ethics Note refusal letters Figure R-2. Refusal with Low StakesFigure R-3. Refusal with High Stakes regarding / with regard to regardless repetition reports repurposing Repurpose for the Context Repurpose for the Medium Ethics Noterequests for proposals RFP Structure Information About Your Company Project Description Delivery Schedule Proposal Description Vendor Qualifications Proposal-Evaluation Criteria Appendixes Ethics Note research Primary Research Ethics Note Secondary Research Library Research Strategies Digital Tip: Storing Search Results Online Catalogs Online Databases and Indexes Reference Works Web Research Strategies Search Engines Writer's Checklist: Using Search Engines and Keywords Web Subject Directories Evaluating Sources Writer's Checklist: Evaluating Print and Online Sources resignation letters Figure R-4. Resignation Letter (to Accept a Better Position) Figure R-5. Resignation Memo (Under Negative Conditions) respective / respectively restrictive and nonrestrictive elements résumés Ethics Note *Digital Tip: Formatting the Résumé Sample Résumés Figure R-6. Student Résumé (for an Entry-Level Position) Figure R-7. Résumé (Highlighting Professional Credentials) Figure R-8. Recent Graduate Résumé (for Graphic Design Job) Figure R-9. Résumé (Applicant with Management Experience) Figure R-10. Résumé (Experienced Applicant Seeking Career Change) Figure R-11. Electronic Résumé (Combining Functional and Chronological Elements) Analyzing Your Background Returning Job Seekers Organizing Your Résumé (Sections) Heading Job Objective vs. Tagline Professionalism Note Qualifications Summary Education Employment Experience Related Knowledge, Skills and Abilities Honors and Activities References and Portfolios Professionalism Note Digital Formats and Media E-mail-Attached Résumés *Applicant Tracking System Résumés Plain-Text Résumés Scannable Résumés Web-Posted Résumés *Professionalism Note revision Writer's Checklist: Revising Your Draft Digital Tip: Incorporating Tracked Changes rhetorical questions run-on sentences Ssalary negotiations scope selecting the medium Figure S-1. Choosing the Appropriate Medium E-mail Memos Letters Text and Instant Messages Phone and Voice Messages Faxing Meetings Web and Video Conferencing *Web Networking and Promotion semicolons With Strong Connectives For Clarity in Long Sentences sentence construction Subjects ESL Tip for Understanding the Subject of a Sentence Predicates Sentence Types Structure Intention Stylistic Use Constructing Effective Sentences ESL Tip for Understanding the Requirements of a Sentence sentence faults sentence fragments sentence variety Sentence Length Word Order Loose and Periodic Sentences sequential method of development service set / sit shall / will slashes so / so that / such*social media *Choosing the Appropriate Platform *Figure S-2. Comparison of Social Media Platforms *Writing Style and Privacy Considerations *Writer’s Checklist: Judicious Use of Social Media some / somewhat some time / sometime / sometimes spatial method of development Figure S-3. Spatial Method of Developmentspecifications Industrial Specifications Government Specifications *Writer’s Checklist: Specifications spellingstrata/stratum style Formal Writing Style Informal Writing Style *Professionalism Note Writer's Checklist: Developing an Effective Style subordination suffixes surveys (see questionnaires) synonyms syntax Ttables of contents tables Table Elements Figure T-1. Elements of a Table Table Number Table Title Box Head Stub Body Rules Footnotes Source Line Continuing Tables Informal Tables Figure T-2. Informal Tabletechnical manuals (see manuals)technical writing style Figure T-3. Technical Writing Style telegraphic style *Professionalism Note tenant / tenet tense Past Tense Past Perfect Tense Present Tense Present Perfect Tense Future Tense Future Perfect Tense Shift in Tense ESL Tip for Using the Progressive Formtest reports Figure T-4. Test report text messaging that / which / who there / their / they're thesaurus titles Reports and Long Documents E-mail, Memos, and Online Postings Formatting Titles Capitalization Italics Quotation Marks Special Cases to / too / two tonetrade journal articles Planning the Article Gathering the Data Organizing the Draft Preparing Sections of the Article Abstract Introduction Conclusion Visuals and Tables Headings References Preparing the Manuscript Obtaining Publication Clearance transition Methods of Transition Transition between Sentences Transition between Paragraphs trip reports Figure T-5. Trip Report Sent as E-mail (with Attachment) trouble reports (see incident reports) try toUunity up usability testingusage utilizeVvague words verbals Gerunds Infinitives Participles verbs Types of Verbs Forms of Verbs Finite Verbs Nonfinite Verbs Properties of Verbs ESL Tip for Avoiding Shifts in Voice, Mood, or Tense very via visuals Selecting Visuals Figure V-1. Chart for Choosing Appropriate Visuals Ethics Note Integrating Visuals with Text Ethics Note Writer's Checklist: Creating and Integrating Visuals voice Using the Active Voice Improving Clarity Highlighting Subjects Achieving Conciseness Using the Passive Voice Ethics Note ESL Tip for Choosing Voice Wwait for/wait on Web design (see writing for the Web)when / where / that whether whilewhite papers Using Persuasion Preparing to Write Developing Major Sections Planning Layout and Design *Ethics Notewho / whom who's / whose / of which word choice writing a draft Writer's Checklist: Writing a Rough Draft writing for the Web Crafting Content for Web Pages *Text Content Headings Lists Keywords *Directional Cues Graphics Fonts Making Use of Links Posting an Existing Document Ethics Note Protecting User PrivacyWriting for a Global Audience Digital Tip: Using PDF Files Y"you" viewpoint your / you're