9780471002383

Hazardous Wastes : Sources, Pathways, Receptors

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780471002383

  • ISBN10:

    0471002380

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2/1/1998
  • Publisher: Wiley
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Summary

A fundamental approach to the scientific principles of hazardous waste management and engineering, with the study of both currently-generated hazardous wastes and the assessment and characterization of contaminated sites.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1(46)
1.1 Preregulatory Disposal of Hazardous Wastes
2(11)
1.1.1 Past Disposal Practices
2(6)
1.1.2 Case Histories
8(1)
1.1.3 The Magnitude of the Problem
9(4)
1.2 Hazardous Waste Legislation
13(17)
1.2.1 The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments
13(10)
1.2.2 Underground Storage Tank Legislation
23(1)
1.2.3 The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act
24(3)
1.2.4 The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act
27(1)
1.2.5 The Clean Water Act
28(1)
1.2.6 The Toxic Substances Control Act
28(1)
1.2.7 The Safe Drinking Water Act
28(1)
1.2.8 The Clean Air Act
29(1)
1.2.9 The Federal Pollution Prevention Act of 1990
29(1)
1.2.10 State and Local Legislation
30(1)
1.2.11 Hazardous Wastes, Hazardous Materials, Hazardous Substances
30(1)
1.3 Current Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
30(4)
1.4 The Nature of Hazardous Waste Management, Assessment, and Control
34(4)
1.5 Source-Pathway-Receptor Analysis
38(3)
1.6 Summary of Important Points and Concepts
41(6)
PART ONE: SOURCES 47(206)
CHAPTER 2: COMMON HAZARDOUS WASTES: NOMENCLATURE, INDUSTRIAL USES, DISPOSAL HISTORIES
48(107)
2.1 Introduction to Organic Chemistry
48(29)
2.1.1 Carbon Bonding
49(3)
2.1.2 Nomenclature of Organic Compounds
52(25)
2.2 Petroleum
77(4)
2.3 Nonhalogenated Solvents
81(4)
2.3.1 Hydrocarbons
81(1)
2.3.2 Ketones
82(2)
2.3.3 Alcohols and Esters
84(1)
2.4 Halogenated Solvents
85(5)
2.4.1 Nomenclature of Aliphatic Halocarbons
87(1)
2.4.2 Uses and Disposal of Common Halogenated Solvents
88(2)
2.5 Pesticides
90(14)
2.5.1 Insecticides
91(6)
2.5.2 Herbicides
97(5)
2.5.3 Fungicides
102(2)
2.5.4 Soil Fumigants
104(1)
2.6 Explosives
104(5)
2.6.1 Aliphatic Nitrate Esters
107(1)
2.6.2 Nitramines
107(2)
2.6.3 Primary Explosives
109(1)
2.7 Industrial Intermediates
109(5)
2.8 Polychlorinated Biphenyls
114(2)
2.9 Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins and Dibenzofurans
116(3)
2.10 Metals and Inorganic Nonmetals
119(8)
2.10.1 Arsenic (As)
120(2)
2.10.2 Cadmium (Cd)
122(1)
2.10.3 Chromium (Cr)
122(1)
2.10.4 Lead (Pb)
123(1)
2.10.5 Nickel (Ni)
124(1)
2.10.6 Mercury (Hg)
124(1)
2.10.7 Cyanides
125(1)
2.10.8 Asbestos
126(1)
2.11 Nuclear Wastes
127(12)
2.12 Information Sources on Contaminant Nomenclature, Structure, and Properties
139(2)
2.13 Summary of Important Points and Concepts
141(14)
CHAPTER 3: COMMON HAZARDOUS WASTES: PROPERTIES AND CLASSIFICATION
155(57)
3.1 Common Concentration Units
155(5)
3.2 Water Solubility
160(7)
3.3 Density and Specific Gravity
167(3)
3.4 Light and Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids
170(7)
3.5 Flammability Limits
177(5)
3.6 Flash Point and Ignition Temperature
182(2)
3.7 Chemical Incompatibility
184(7)
3.8 Labels and Placards
191(7)
3.9 Chemical Abstract Service Registry Numbers
198(4)
3.10 Priority Pollutants
202(1)
3.11 Supplemental Data on Contaminant Properties
202(2)
3.12 Summary of Important Points and Concepts
204(8)
CHAPTER 4: SOURCE ANALYSIS
212(41)
4.1 Materials Balances and Waste Audits
212(4)
4.2 Hazardous Waste Site Assessments
216(2)
4.3 Estimation of Source Concentrations for Hazardous Material Spills
218(1)
4.4 Source Sampling
219(10)
4.5 Source Sampling Procedures and Strategies
229(3)
4.5.1 Sampling Devices
229(2)
4.5.2 Sampling Strategies
231(1)
4.6 Sampling away from the Source
232(9)
4.6.1 Sampling and Monitoring of Air and Volatile Emissions
233(2)
4.6.2 Groundwater Sampling
235(6)
4.7 Priority Pollutant and Sample Analyses
241(2)
4.8 Summary of Important Points and Concepts
243(10)
PART TWO: PATHWAYS 253(192)
CHAPTER 5: PARTITIONING, SORPTION, AND EXCHANGE AT SURFACES
254(50)
5.1 Sorption Theory
255(3)
5.2 The Governing Variables: Sorbent Characteristics, Contaminant Hydrophobicity, and the Solvent
258(1)
5.3 Properties of Soils and Other Sorbents
258(9)
5.4 Sorption Isotherms
267(4)
5.5 The Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient
271(1)
5.6 The Soil Adsorption Coefficient and the Soil Distribution Coefficient
272(8)
5.7 The Retardation Factor
280(2)
5.8 Reactions of Metals in Soils and Solids
282(5)
5.9 Synopsis of the Partitioning Behavior of Important Hazardous Metals
287(2)
5.10 Estimation of Partitioning and Potential Mobility of Metals
289(5)
5.11 Summary of Important Points and Concepts
294(10)
CHAPTER 6: VOLATILIZATION
304(29)
6.1 The Governing Variables: Vapor Pressure and Henry's Law
304(2)
6.2 Volatilization from Open Containers
306(10)
6.2.1 Volatilization Fluxes across Liquid Surfaces
311(3)
6.2.2 Saturation Concentration in an Enclosed Area
314(2)
6.3 Volatilization from Soils
316(11)
6.3.1 Environmental and Chemical Properties Affecting Volatilization from Soils
316(3)
6.3.2 Volatilization from Soil Surfaces
319(3)
6.3.3 Volatilization from Deep Soil Contamination
322(5)
6.4 Volatilization of Metals and Inorganic Nonmetals
327(1)
6.5 Summary of Important Points and Concepts
328(5)
CHAPTER 7: ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC TRANSFORMATIONS
333(72)
7.1 The Governing Variables: Chemical Structure, Presence of Reactive Species, and Availability
335(7)
7.1.1 Chemical Structure: The Basis for Reactivity in Abiotic and Biotic Transformations
335(2)
7.1.2 Presence of Transforming Species
337(1)
7.1.3 Sorption and NAPLs: Inaccessibility to Transformation Processes
338(1)
7.1.4 Other Variables Affecting Transformation Processes
339(3)
7.2 Rates of Transformation
342(4)
7.3 Abiotic Transformations
346(20)
7.3.1 Nucleophilic Substitution and Hydrolysis
346(6)
7.3.2 Elimination Reactions
352(1)
7.3.3 Oxidation
352(10)
7.3.4 Reduction
362(4)
7.3.5 Photochemical Reactions
366(1)
7.4 Biotic Transformations
366(20)
7.4.1 Important Organisms in Hazardous Waste Systems
367(3)
7.4.2 Fundamentals of Microbial Growth and Metabolism
370(7)
7.4.3 Biodegradation Reactions and Pathways of Hazardous Contaminants
377(9)
7.5 Common Themes and Perspectives in Abiotic and Biotic Transformations
386(3)
7.6 Measurement of Transformation Rates
389(3)
7.7 Summary of Important Points and Concepts
392(13)
CHAPTER 8: CONTAMINANT RELEASE AND TRANSPORT FROM THE SOURCE
405(41)
8.1 The Controlling Processes in Contaminant Release and Transport: Sorption, Volatilization, Transformation
405(3)
8.2 Mass Transfer of Contaminants in the Atmosphere and the Subsurface
408(5)
8.3 Atmospheric Transport Following Volatilization Releases
413(8)
8.3.1 Development and Use of Fundamental Atmospheric Dispersion Models
414(7)
8.4 Subsurface Transport of Contaminants
421(16)
8.4.1 Development and Use of Groundwater Transport Equations
425(11)
8.4.2 Contaminant Transport in the Vadose Zone
436(1)
8.5 Summary of Important Points and Concepts
437(8)
PART THREE: RECEPTORS 445(100)
CHAPTER 9: CONCEPTS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TOXICOLOGY
446(41)
9.1 Overview of Toxicological Mechanisms
446(1)
9.2 Fundamentals of Mammalian Physiology
447(9)
9.2.1 The Skin
448(1)
9.2.2 The Respiratory System
449(1)
9.2.3 The Digestive System
450(2)
9.2.4 The Circulatory System
452(1)
9.2.5 The Liver
453(2)
9.2.6 The Kidneys
455(1)
9.3 Concepts and Mechanisms of Toxicity
456(11)
9.3.1 Routes of Exposure and Absorption
457(2)
9.3.2 Distribution and Storage
459(1)
9.3.3 Bioactivation
460(5)
9.3.4 Structural Affinity and Toxic Effects
465(2)
9.4 Carcinogenicity
467(7)
9.4.1 Mutagenicity
467(2)
9.4.2 Chemical Carcinogens
469(2)
9.4.3 Mechanisms of Carcinogenicity
471(2)
9.4.4 Classes of Chemical Carcinogens
473(1)
9.5 Toxic Responses of Common Hazardous Chemicals
474(7)
9.6 Summary of Important Points and Concepts
481(6)
CHAPTER 10: QUANTITATIVE TOXICOLOGY
487(31)
10.1 Classification of Toxic Responses
487(2)
10.2 Acute Toxicity: The LD(50)
489(5)
10.3 Quantitative Evaluation of Acute Toxicity
494(7)
10.4 Chronic Industrial Exposure: The Threshold Limit Value
501(4)
10.5 Maximum Contaminant Levels
505(3)
10.6 Quantifying the Chronic Toxicity of Noncarcinogens
508(2)
10.7 Dose-Response Relationships for Carcinogens
510(2)
10.8 Sources of Toxicity Information
512(1)
10.9 Summary of Important Points and Concepts
513(5)
CHAPTER 11: HAZARDOUS WASTE RISK ASSESSMENT
518(27)
11.1 Principles, Definitions, and Perspectives of Hazardous Waste Risk Assessments
521(1)
11.2 The Risk Assessment Process
522(9)
11.2.1 Hazard Identification
522(3)
11.2.2 Exposure Assessment
525(4)
11.2.3 Toxicity Assessment and Risk Characterization
529(2)
11.3 Ecological Risk Assessments
531(3)
11.3.1 Hazard Assessment
531(1)
11.3.2 Exposure Assessment
532(1)
11.3.3 Toxicity Assessment and Risk Characterization
532(2)
11.4 Sources of Uncertainties in Risk Assessment
534(2)
11.5 Risk Management and Risk Communication
536(1)
11.6 Summary of Important Points and Concepts
537(8)
PART FOUR: MANAGEMENT AND DESIGN APPLICATIONS 545(91)
CHAPTER 12: APPROACHES TO HAZARDOUS WASTE MINIMIZATION, REMEDIATION, TREATMENT, AND DISPOSAL
546(42)
12.1 Concepts of Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention
547(4)
12.2 Concepts in Hazardous Waste Remediation and Treatment
551(6)
12.3 Reactor Analysis Applied to Hazardous Waste Systems
557(3)
12.4 Classification of Remediation and Treatment Processes
560(18)
12.4.1 Sorption Processes
560(4)
12.4.2 Volatilization Processes
564(3)
12.4.3 Abiotic Transformation Processes
567(5)
12.4.4 Biotic Processes
572(2)
12.4.5 Bioventing
574(1)
12.4.6 Landfarming
575(1)
12.4.7 Thermal Processes--Incineration
575(3)
12.5 Ultimate Disposal--Hazardous Waste Landfills
578(3)
12.6 Summary of Important Points and Concepts
581(7)
CHAPTER 13: DESIGN OF SELECTED PATHWAY APPLICATIONS
588(48)
13.1 Sorption Design Application: Granular Activated Carbon
588(11)
13.1.1 Granular Activated Carbon Design Procedures
591(8)
13.2 Volatilization Design Application: Air Stripping
599(16)
13.3 Abiotic Transformation Design Application: Soil Remediation Using Fenton's Reagent
615(5)
13.4 Biotic Transformation Design Application: Ex Situ Slurry Bioreactor
620(7)
13.5 Summary of Important Points and Concepts
627(9)
APPENDICES 636(95)
Appendix A RCRA Waste Lists 636(23)
Appendix B Water Solubilities of Common Hazardous Compounds 659(10)
Appendix C Specific Gravities of Common Hazardous Compounds 669(9)
Appendix D Supplementary Chemical Incompatibility Data 678(2)
Appendix E Values for Student's t Distribution 680(2)
Appendix F Random Numbers 682(2)
Appendix G Log Kow of Common Hazardous Compounds 684(10)
Appendix H Estimation of Octanol-Water Partition Coefficients 694(7)
Appendix I Measured K(oc) Values of Some Common Hazardous Compounds 701(4)
Appendix J Vapor Pressures and Henry's Law Constants for Common Hazardous Compounds 705(9)
Appendix K Saturation Concentrations in Air and Heats of Vaporization for Some Common Hazardous Compounds 714(4)
Appendix L Oral and Inhalation Slope Factors and RFDs 718(13)
Appendix References 731(10)
Index 741

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