Preface | p. xiii |

Classification of Heat Exchangers | p. 1 |

Introduction | p. 1 |

Recuperation and Regeneration | p. 1 |

Transfer Processes | p. 6 |

Geometry of Construction | p. 8 |

Tubular Heat Exchangers | p. 8 |

Double-Pipe Heat Exchangers | p. 8 |

Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers | p. 9 |

Spiral-Tube-Type Heat Exchangers | p. 12 |

Plate Heat Exchangers | p. 12 |

Gasketed Plate Heat Exchangers | p. 12 |

Spiral Plate Heat Exchangers | p. 14 |

Lamella Heat Exchangers | p. 15 |

Extended Surface Heat Exchangers | p. 17 |

Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger | p. 17 |

Tubular-Fin Heat Exchangers | p. 18 |

Heat Transfer Mechanisms | p. 23 |

Flow Arrangements | p. 24 |

Applications | p. 25 |

Selection of Heat Exchangers | p. 26 |

References | p. 30 |

Basic Design Methods of Heat Exchangers | p. 33 |

Introduction | p. 33 |

Arrangement of Flow Paths in Heat Exchangers | p. 33 |

Basic Equations in Design | p. 35 |

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient | p. 37 |

LMTD Method for Heat Exchanger Analysis | p. 43 |

Parallel- and Counterflow Heat Exchangers | p. 43 |

Multipass and Crossflow Heat Exchangers | p. 47 |

The ¿NTU Method for Heat Exchanger Analysis | p. 56 |

Heat Exchanger Design Calculation | p. 66 |

Variable Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient | p. 67 |

Heat Exchanger Design Methodology | p. 70 |

Nomenclature | p. 73 |

References | p. 78 |

Forced Convection Correlations for the Single-Phase Side of Heat Exchangers | p. 81 |

Introduction | p. 81 |

Laminar Forced Convection | p. 84 |

Hydrodynamically Developed and Thermally Developing Laminar Flow in Smooth Circular Ducts | p. 84 |

Simultaneously Developing Laminar Flow in Smooth Ducts | p. 85 |

Laminar Flow through Concentric Annular Smooth Ducts | p. 86 |

Effect of Variable Physical Properties | p. 88 |

Laminar Flow of Liquids | p. 90 |

Laminar Flow of Gases | p. 92 |

Turbulent Forced Convection | p. 93 |

Turbulent Flow in Smooth Straight Noncircular Ducts | p. 99 |

Effect of Variable Physical Properties in Turbulent Forced Convection | p. 103 |

Turbulent Liquid Flow in Ducts | p. 103 |

Turbulent Gas Flow in Ducts | p. 104 |

Summary of Forced Convection in Straight Ducts | p. 107 |

Heat Transfer from Smooth-Tube Bundles | p. 111 |

Heat Transfer in Helical Coils and Spirals | p. 114 |

Nusselt Numbers of Helical Coils— Laminar Flow | p. 116 |

Nusselt Numbers for Spiral Coils— Laminar Flow | p. 117 |

Nusselt Numbers for Helical Coils— Turbulent Flow | p. 117 |

Heat Transfer in Bends | p. 118 |

Heat Transfer in 90° Bends | p. 118 |

Heat Transfer in 180° Bends | p. 119 |

Nomenclature | p. 120 |

References | p. 125 |

Heat Exchanger Pressure Drop and Pumping Power | p. 129 |

Introduction | p. 129 |

Tube-Side Pressure Drop | p. 129 |

Circular Cross-Sectional Tubes | p. 129 |

Noncircular Cross-Sectional Ducts | p. 132 |

Pressure Drop in Tube Bundles in Crossflow | p. 135 |

Pressure Drop in Helical and Spiral Coils | p. 137 |

Helical Coils— Laminar Flow | p. 138 |

Spiral Coils— Laminar Flow | p. 138 |

Helical Coils— Turbulent Flow | p. 139 |

Spiral Coils— Turbulent Flow | p. 139 |

Pressure Drop in Bends and Fittings | p. 140 |

Pressure Drop in Bends | p. 140 |

Pressure Drop in Fittings | p. 142 |

Pressure Drop for Abrupt Contraction, Expansion, and Momentum Change | p. 147 |

Heat Transfer and Pumping Power Relationship | p. 148 |

Nomenclature | p. 150 |

References | p. 155 |

Micro/Nano Heat Transfer | p. 157 |

Part A— Heat Transfer for Gaseous and Liquid Flow in Microchannels | p. 157 |

Introduction of Heat Transfer in Microchannels | p. 157 |

Fundamentals of Gaseous Flow in Microchannels | p. 158 |

Knudsen Number | p. 158 |

Velocity Slip | p. 160 |

Temperature Jump | p. 160 |

Brinkman Number | p. 161 |

Engineering Applications for Gas Flow | p. 163 |

Heat Transfer in Gas Flow | p. 165 |

Friction Factor | p. 169 |

Laminar to Turbulent Transition Regime | p. 173 |

Engineering Applications of Single-Phase Liquid Flow in Microchannels | p. 177 |

Nusselt Number and Friction Factor Correlations for Single-Phase Liquid Flow | p. 179 |

Roughness Effect on Friction Factor | p. 185 |

Part B— Single-Phase Convective Heat Transfer with Nanofluids | p. 186 |

Introduction of Convective Heat Transfer with Nanofluids | p. 186 |

Particle Materials and Base Fluids | p. 187 |

Particle Size and Shape | p. 187 |

Nanofluid Preparation Methods | p. 188 |

Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids | p. 188 |

Classical Models | p. 189 |

Brownian Motion of Nanoparticles | p. 191 |

Clustering of Nanoparticles | p. 193 |

Liquid Layering around Nanoparticles | p. 196 |

Thermal Conductivity Experimental Studies of Nanofluids | p. 203 |

Convective Heat Trasfer of Nanofluids | p. 207 |

Analysis of Convective Heat Transfer of Nanofluids | p. 212 |

Constant Wall Heat Flux Boundary Condition | p. 212 |

Constant Wall Temperature Boundary Condition | p. 214 |

Experimental Correlations of Convective Heat Transfer of Nanofluids | p. 216 |

Nomenclature | p. 224 |

References | p. 228 |

Fouling of Heat Exchangers | p. 237 |

Introduction | p. 237 |

Basic Considerations | p. 237 |

Effects of Fouling | p. 239 |

Effect of Fouling on Heat Transfer | p. 240 |

Effect of Fouling on Pressure Drop | p. 241 |

Cost of Fouling | p. 243 |

Aspects of Fouling | p. 244 |

Categories of Fouling | p. 244 |

Particulate Fouling | p. 244 |

Crystallization Fouling | p. 245 |

Corrosion Fouling | p. 245 |

Biofouling | p. 245 |

Chemical Reaction Fouling | p. 246 |

Fundamental Processes of Fouling | p. 246 |

Initiation | p. 246 |

Transport | p. 246 |

Attachment | p. 247 |

Removal | p. 247 |

Aging | p. 248 |

Prediction of Fouling | p. 248 |

Design of Heat Exchangers Subject to Fouling | p. 250 |

Fouling Resistance | p. 250 |

Cleanliness Factor | p. 256 |

Percent over Surface | p. 257 |

Cleanliness Factor | p. 260 |

Percent over Surface | p. 260 |

Operations of Heat Exchangers Subject to Fouling | p. 262 |

Techniques to Control Fouling | p. 264 |

Surface Cleaning Techniques | p. 264 |

Continuous Cleaning | p. 264 |

Periodic Cleaning | p. 264 |

Additives | p. 265 |

Crystallization Fouling | p. 265 |

Particulate Fouling | p. 266 |

Biological Fouling | p. 266 |

Corrosion Fouling | p. 266 |

Nomenclature | p. 266 |

References | p. 270 |

Double-Pipe Heat Exchangers | p. 273 |

Introduction | p. 273 |

Thermal and Hydraulic Design of Inner Tube | p. 276 |

Thermal and Hydraulic Analysis of Annulus | p. 278 |

Hairpin Heat Exchanger with Bare Inner Tube | p. 278 |

Hairpin Heat Exchangers with Multitube Finned Inner Tubes | p. 283 |

Parallel-Series Arrangements of Hairpins | p. 291 |

Total Pressure Drop | p. 294 |

Design and Operational Features | p. 295 |

Nomenclature | p. 297 |

References | p. 304 |

Design Correlations for Condensers and Evaporators | p. 307 |

Introduction | p. 307 |

Condensation | p. 307 |

Film Condensation on a Single Horizontal Tube | p. 308 |

Laminar Film Condensation | p. 308 |

Forced Convection | p. 309 |

Film Condensation in Tube Bundles | p. 312 |

Effect of Condensate Inundation | p. 313 |

Effect of Vapor Shear | p. 317 |

Combined Effects of Inundation and Vapor Shear | p. 317 |

Condensation inside Tubes | p. 322 |

Condensation inside Horizontal Tubes | p. 322 |

Condensation inside Vertical Tubes | p. 327 |

Flow Boiling | p. 329 |

Subcooled Boiling | p. 329 |

Flow Pattern | p. 331 |

Flow Boiling Correlations | p. 334 |

Nomenclature | p. 353 |

References | p. 356 |

Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers | p. 361 |

Introduction | p. 361 |

Basic Components | p. 361 |

Shell Types | p. 361 |

Tube Bundle Types | p. 364 |

Tubes and Tube Passes | p. 366 |

Tube Layout | p. 368 |

Baffle Type and Geometry | p. 371 |

Allocation of Streams | p. 376 |

Basic Design Procedure of a Heat Exchanger | p. 378 |

Preliminary Estimation of Unit Size | p. 380 |

Rating of the Preliminary Design | p. 386 |

Shell-Side Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop | p. 387 |

Shell-Side Heat Transfer Coefficient | p. 387 |

Shell-Side Pressure Drop | p. 389 |

Tube-Side Pressure Drop | p. 390 |

Bell-Delaware Method | p. 395 |

Shell-Side Heat Transfer Coefficient | p. 396 |

Shell-Side Pressure Drop | p. 407 |

Nomenclature | p. 419 |

References | p. 425 |

Compact Heat Exchangers | p. 427 |

Introduction | p. 427 |

Heat Transfer Enhancement | p. 427 |

Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers | p. 431 |

Tube-Fin Heat Exchangers | p. 431 |

Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop | p. 433 |

Heat Transfer | p. 433 |

Pressure Drop for Finned-Tube Exchangers | p. 441 |

Pressure Drop for Plate-Fin Exchangers | p. 441 |

Nomenclature | p. 446 |

References | p. 449 |

Gasketed-Plate Heat Exchangers | p. 451 |

Introduction | p. 451 |

Mechanical Features | p. 451 |

Plate Pack and the Frame | p. 453 |

Plate Types | p. 455 |

Operational Characteristics | p. 457 |

Main Advantages | p. 457 |

Performance Limits | p. 459 |

Passes and Flow Arrangements | p. 460 |

Applications | p. 461 |

Corrosion | p. 462 |

Maintenance | p. 465 |

Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Calculations | p. 466 |

Heat Transfer Area | p. 466 |

Mean Flow Channel Gap | p. 467 |

Channel Hydraulic Diameter | p. 468 |

Heat Transfer Coefficient | p. 468 |

Channel Pressure Drop | p. 474 |

Port Pressure Drop | p. 474 |

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient | p. 475 |

Heat Transfer Surface Area | p. 475 |

Performance Analysis | p. 476 |

Thermal Performance | p. 481 |

Nomenclature | p. 484 |

References | p. 488 |

Condensers and Evaporators | p. 491 |

Introduction | p. 491 |

Shell and Tube Condensers | p. 492 |

Horizontal Shell-Side Condensers | p. 492 |

Vertical Shell-Side Condensers | p. 495 |

Vertical Tube-Side Condensers | p. 495 |

Horizontal in-Tube Condensers | p. 497 |

Steam Turbine Exhaust Condensers | p. 500 |

Plate Condensers | p. 501 |

Air-Cooled Condensers | p. 502 |

Direct Contact Condensers | p. 503 |

Thermal Design of Shell-and-Tube Condensers | p. 504 |

Design and Operational Considerations | p. 515 |

Condensers for Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning | p. 516 |

Water-Cooled Condensers | p. 518 |

Air-Cooled Condensers | p. 519 |

Evaporative Condensers | p. 519 |

Evaporators for Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning | p. 522 |

Water-Cooling Evaporators (Chillers) | p. 522 |

Air-Cooling Evaporators (Air Coolers) | p. 523 |

Thermal Analysis | p. 525 |

Shah Correlation | p. 526 |

Kandlikar Correlation | p. 528 |

Güngör and Winterton Correlation | p. 529 |

Standards for Evaporators and Condensers | p. 531 |

Nomenclature | p. 536 |

References | p. 540 |

Polymer Heat Exchangers | p. 543 |

Introduction | p. 543 |

Polymer Matrix Composite Materials (PMC) | p. 547 |

Nanocomposites | p. 551 |

Application of Polymers in Heat Exchangers | p. 552 |

Polymer Compact Heat Exchangers | p. 563 |

Potential Applications for Polymer Film Compact Heat Exchangers | p. 567 |

Thermal Design of Polymer Heat Exchangers | p. 570 |

References | p. 573 |

| p. 577 |

| p. 583 |

Index | p. 607 |

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