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A state-of-the-art overview of high-k dielectric materials for advanced field-effect transistors, from both a fundamental and a technological viewpoint, summarizing the latest research results and development solutions. As such, the book clearly discusses the advantages of these materials over conventional materials and also addresses the issues that accompany their integration into existing production technologies. Topics covered include downscaling limits of current transistor designs, deposition techniques for high-k dielectric materials, electrical characterization of the resulting devices, and an outlook towards future transistor stacking technology. Aimed at academia and industry alike, this monograph combines introductory parts for newcomers to the field as well as advanced sections with directly applicable solutions for experienced researchers and developers in materials science, physics and electrical engineering.
Gang He is Professor at the School of Physics and Materials Science of the Anhui University, China. He obtained his academic degrees from the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. His research interests and efforts cover the areas of the preparation, characterization, fundamental understanding and associated applications of high-k gate dielectric thin films. Due to his outstanding performance in research work, he won a scholarship award from the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2005 and a grant of the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science in 2006.
Zhaoqi Sun is the President of the School of Physics and Materials Science at the Anhui University. He graduated from Sichuan University and obtained his academic degrees from the University of Science and Technology of China. His research is focused on functional thin film materials for applications in microelectronics. Zhaoqi Sun has authored more than 140 scientific publications and has received numerous scientific awards, including the Science and Technology Award of the Anhui Province and an Outstanding Teacher Award.
Table of Contents
Scaling and Limitations of Si-based CMOS Oxide Reliability Issues Development and Limitations of Silicon Oxynitride Gate Dielectrics High-k Gate Dielectrics: Why Do We Need Them? Materials Issues for High-k Gate Dielectrics Selection and Integration High-k Gate Dielectrics Deposition Technology Atomic-scale Characterization Methods in High-k/Si Gate Stacks Electronic Structure and Band Offsets of Alternative High-k Gate Dielectrics Issues of Dipole Layers Formed in High-k/Si Interfaces Physicochemical Properties of Selected 4d, 5d and Rare Earth Metals in Silicon Integration and Challenges of Hf-based High-k Gate Dielectrics Integration and Challenges of La-based High-k Gate Dielectrics Integration and Challenges of Perovskite-structured Oxide Gate Dielectrics Issues in Metal Gate Electrode Selection for Bulk CMOS Devices Advances and Challenges in Gate Electrodes High-k Gate Dielectric Materials Integrated Circuit Device Design Issues Future Gate stack Technology for the 22nm Node and Beyond