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History of Art

by ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780130197313

ISBN10:
0130197319
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
12/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 6th edition with a publication date of 12/1/2000.
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  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any CDs, lab manuals, study guides, etc.

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Summary

This classic book uses an exceptional art program, featuring impeccable accurate five-color illustrations, to introduce readers to the vast world of painting, sculpture, architecture, photography, and the minor arts. With its effectively written, balanced, and interesting narrative, this book presents art as a succession of styles--from Prehistory through the 20th century--and enlarges the readers' capacity to appreciate works of art individually. Written more than 40 years ago, this text has been constantly reworked to respond to the needs of this ever-changing field. A reference work suitable for those employed in all art media, including painters, sculptors, photographers, and architects.

Table of Contents

Prefaces and Acknowledgments 12(16)
Introduction 16(10)
PART ONE The Ancient World 26(178)
Map
30(2)
Prehistoric Art
32(10)
The Old Stone Age
32(4)
The New Stone Age
36(6)
Egyptian Art
42(20)
The Old Kingdom
42(10)
The Middle Kingdom
52(2)
The New Kingdom
54(1)
Eighteenth Dynasty
54(8)
Ancient Near Eastern Art
62(20)
Sumerian Art
62(11)
Assyrian Art
73(2)
Persian Art
75(7)
Aegean Art
82(12)
Cycladic Art
82(1)
Minoan Art
83(6)
Mycenaean Art
89(5)
Greek Art
94(56)
The Geometric Style
95(1)
The Orientalizing Style
96(1)
The Greek Gods and Goddesses
97(1)
Archaic Vase Painting
98(3)
The Hero in Greek Legend
101(1)
Theater in Ancient Greece
102(1)
Archaic Sculpture
103(8)
Architecture
111(12)
Classical Sculpture
123(2)
Music in Ancient Greece
125(10)
Classical Painting
135(3)
Fourth-Century Sculpture
138(4)
Hellenistic Sculpture
142(6)
Coins
148(2)
Etruscan Art
150(8)
Roman Art
158(46)
Architecture
159(11)
Sculpture
170(14)
Painting
184(5)
Theater and Music in Ancient Rome
189(15)
Primary Sources for Part One
192(8)
Timeline One
200(4)
PART TWO The Middle Ages 204(178)
Map
208(2)
Early Christian and Byzantine Art
210(42)
Early Christian Art
213(1)
The Liturgy of Mass
214(8)
Versions of the Bible
222(1)
Biblical, Church, and Celestial Beings
223(5)
The Life of Jesus
228(1)
Byzantine Art
229(19)
Covenants Old and New
248(4)
Early Medieval Art
252(22)
Carolingian Art
257(1)
Guilds: Masters and Apprentices
258(6)
Ottonian Art
264(10)
Romanesque Art
274(28)
Architecture
275(4)
Monasticism and Christian Monastic Orders
279(7)
Sculpture
286(9)
Painting and Metalwork
295(3)
Hildegard of Bingen
298(4)
Gothic Art
302(80)
Architecture
302(6)
Medieval Music and Theater
308(18)
Sculpture
326(14)
Painting
340(42)
Primary Sources for Part Two
364(12)
Timeline Two
376(6)
PART THREE The Renaissance Through The Rococo 382(250)
Map
386(2)
The Early Renaissance in Italy
388(42)
Florence: 1400-1450
389(9)
Scientific Perspective
398(14)
Central and Northern Italy: 1450-1500
412(10)
Early Italian Renaissance Theater and Music
422(8)
The High Renaissance in Italy
430(32)
Theater and Music During the High Renaissance
442(20)
Mannerism and Other Trends
462(22)
Painting
463(3)
Music and Theater in the Age of Mannerism
466(10)
Sculpture
476(2)
Architecture
478(6)
``Late Gothic'' Painting, Sculpture, and the Graphic Arts
484(20)
Renaissance Versus ``Late Gothic'' Painting
484(12)
Music in Fifteenth-Century Flanders
496(3)
``Late Gothic'' Sculpture
499(2)
The Graphic Arts
501(1)
Printmaking
502(2)
The Renaissance in the North
504(24)
Germany
504(12)
Music and Theater in the Northern Renaissance
516(1)
The Netherlands
517(5)
France
522(4)
England
526(2)
The Baroque in Italy and Spain
528(26)
Painting in Italy
529(9)
Baroque Music in Italy
538(2)
Architecture in Italy
540(5)
Sculpture in Italy
545(4)
Painting in Spain
549(1)
Baroque Theater in Italy and Spain
549(5)
The Baroque in Flanders and Holland
554(20)
Flanders
554(6)
Holland
560(8)
Music and Theater in Holland and Germany
568(6)
The Baroque in France and England
574(18)
France: The Age of Versailles
574(6)
Baroque Theater and Music in France
580(7)
England
587(1)
Baroque Theater and Music in England
588(4)
The Rococo
592(40)
France
592(6)
England
598(4)
Germany and Austria
602(2)
Rococo Music
604(2)
Modern Harmony
606(1)
Italy
607(3)
Rococo Theater
610(22)
Primary Sources for Part Three
612(14)
Timeline Three
626(6)
PART FOUR The Modern World 632(318)
Map
638(2)
Neoclassicism and Romanticism
640(66)
Neoclassicism
640(1)
Painting
641(7)
Sculpture
648(2)
Architecture
650(1)
Neoclassical Theater
651(5)
Neoclassical Music
656(2)
The Romantic Movement
658(1)
Painting
658(1)
New Printmaking Techniques
659(23)
The Romantic Movement in Literature and the Theater
682(4)
Sculpture
686(4)
Romanticism in Music
690(4)
Architecture
694(7)
Decorative Arts
701(1)
Photography
702(4)
Realism and Impressionism
706(30)
Painting
706(14)
Nationalism in Mid-Nineteenth-Century Music
720(5)
Sculpture
725(4)
Architecture
729(3)
Realism in Mid-Nineteenth-Century Theater
732(2)
Decorative Arts
734(2)
Post-Impressionism, Symbolism, and Art Nouveau
736(34)
Painting
736(10)
Music in the Post-Impressionist Era
746(9)
Sculpture
755(1)
Theater in the Post-Impressionist Era
756(1)
Architecture
757(7)
Materials of Modern Architecture
764(1)
Photography
764(6)
Twentieth-Century Painting
770(66)
Painting Before World War I
770(1)
Expressionism
770(8)
Abstraction
778(2)
Music Before World War I
780(4)
Theater Before World War I
784(2)
Fantasy
786(3)
Realism
789(1)
Painting Between the Wars
789(13)
Theater Between the Wars
802(6)
Music Between the Wars
808(4)
Painting Since World War II
812(6)
Theater Since World War II
818(6)
Music Since World War II
824(7)
Late Modernism
831(5)
Twentieth-Century Sculpture
836(26)
Sculpture Before World War I
836(3)
Sculpture Between the Wars
839(8)
Sculpture Since 1945
847(15)
Twentieth-Century Architecture
862(26)
Architecture Before World War I
862(4)
Architecture Between the Wars
866(9)
Architecture Since 1945
875(13)
Twentieth-Century Photography
888(20)
The First Half-Century
888(14)
Photography Since 1945
902(1)
Documentary Photography
902(6)
Postmodernism
908(42)
Postmodern Art
910(1)
Architecture
910(6)
Architecture After Postmodernism: What's Next
916(2)
Sculpture
918(3)
Painting
921(1)
Photography
922(1)
Postmodernism in Music and Theater
923(1)
Postscript: Postmodern Theory
923(27)
Primary Sources for Part Four
926(18)
Timeline Four
944(6)
Books for Further Reading 950(9)
Discography 959(1)
Glossary 960(7)
Art and Architecture Websites 967(5)
Index 972(24)
Credits 996

Excerpts


Chapter One

Prehistoric Art

THE OLD STONE AGE

When did human beings start creating works of art? What prompted them to do so? What did these earliest works of art look like? Every history of art must begin with these questions--and with the admission that we cannot answer them. Our earliest-known ancestors began to walk on two feet about four million years ago, but how they were using their hands remains unknown to us. Not until more than two million years later do we meet the earliest evidence of toolmaking. Humans must have been using tools all along, however. After all, apes will pick up a stick to knock down a banana or a stone to throw at an enemy. The making of tools is a more complex matter. It demands first of all the ability to think of sticks or stones as "fruit knockers" or "bone crackers," not only when they are needed for such purposes but at other times as well.

Once humans were able to do this, they gradually discovered that some sticks or stones had a handier shape than others, and they put them aside for future use. They selected and "appointed" certain sticks or stones as tools because they had begun to connect form and function. The sticks, of course, have not survived, but a few of the stones have. They are large pebbles or chunks of rock that show the marks of repeated use for the same operation, whatever that may have been. The next step was to try chipping away at these tools-by-appointment in order to improve their shape. This is the first craft of which we have evidence, and with it we enter a phase of human development known as the Paleolithic, or Old Stone Age, which lasted from about 40,000 to 10,000 B.C.

Cave Art

CHAUVET. The most striking works of Paleolithic art are the images of animals incised, painted, or sculptured on the rock surfaces of caves. In the recently discovered Chauvet cave in southeastern France, we meet the earliest paintings known to us, dating from more than 30,000 years ago. Ferocious lions, panthers, rhinoceroses, bears, reindeer, and mammoths are depicted with extraordinary vividness, along with bulls, horses, birds, and occasionally humans. These paintings already show an assurance and refinement far removed from any humble beginnings. What a vivid, lifelike image is the depiction of horses seen in figure 28! We are amazed not only by the keen observation and the assured, vigorous outlines, but even more perhaps by the power and expressiveness of these creatures. Unless we are to believe that images such as this came into being in a single, sudden burst, we must assume that they were preceded by thousands of years of development about which we know nothing at all.

ALTAMIRA AND LASCAUX. On the basis of differences among the tools and other remains found there, scholars have divided up later "cavemen" into several groups, each named after a characteristic site. Of these it is the so-called Aurignacians and Magdalenians who stand out for the gifted artists they produced and for the important role art must have played in their lives. Besides Chauvet, the major sites are at Altamira, in northern Spain (fig. 29), and Lascaux, in the Dordogne region of France (figs. 30 and 31). At Lascaux, as at Chauvet, bison, deer, horses, and cattle race across walls and ceiling in wild profusion. Some of them are simply outlined in black, others filled in with bright earth colors, but all show the same uncanny sense of life. No less important, the style remains essentially the same between the two caves, despite the gap of thousands of years--testimony to the remarkable stability of Paleolithic culture. Gone, however, are the fiercest of beasts.

How did this extraordinary art happen to survive intact over so many thousands of years? The question can be answered easily enough. The pictures never occur near the mouth of a cave, where they would be open to easy view and destruction, but only in the darkest recesses, as far from the entrance as possible (fig. 32). Some can be reached only by crawling on hands and knees, and the path is so intricate that one would soon be lost without an expert guide. In fact, the cave at Lascaux was discovered purely by chance in 1940 by some neighborhood boys whose dog had fallen into a hole that led to the underground chamber.

What purpose did these images serve? Hidden away as they are in the bowels of the earth, to protect them from the casual intruder, they must have been considered far more serious than decoration. There can be little doubt that they were produced as part of a magic ritual. But of what kind? The traditional explanation is that their origin lies in hunting magic. According to this theory, in "killing" the image of an animal, people of the Old Stone Age thought they had killed its vital spirit; this later evolved into fertility magic, practiced deep within the bowels of the earth. But how are we to account for the presence at Chauvet of lions and other dangerous creatures that we know were not hunted? Perhaps initially cavemen assumed the identity of lions and bears to aid in the hunt. Although it cannot be disproved, this proposal is not completely satisfying. In addition to being highly speculative, it fails to explain many curious features of cave art.

There is a growing consensus that cave paintings must incorporate a very early form of religion. If so, the creatures found in them embody a spiritual meaning that makes of them the distant ancestors of the animal divinities and their half-human, half-animal cousins we shall meet throughout the Near East and the Aegean. Indeed, how else are we to account for their existence? Moreover, such a hypothesis accords as well with the belief that nature is filled with spirits. This belief was found the world over in the ethnographic societies that survived intact until recently.

The existence of cave rituals relating to both human and animal fertility would seem to be confirmed by a unique group of Paleolithic drawings found in the 1950s on the walls of the cave of Addaura, near Palermo in Sicily (fig. 33). These images, incised into the rock with quick and sure lines, show human figures in dancelike movements, along with some animals; and, as at Lascaux, we again find several layers of images superimposed on one another. Here, then, we seem to be on the verge of that fusion of human and animal identity that distinguishes the earliest historical religions of Egypt and Mesopotamia.

POSSIBLE ORIGINS. Some of the cave pictures may even provide a clue to the origin of this tradition of fertility magic. In a good many instances, the shape of the animal seems to have been suggested by the natural formation of the rock, so that its body coincides with a bump, or its contour follows a vein or crack as far as possible. We all know how our imagination sometimes makes us see many sorts of images in chance formations such as clouds or blots. Perhaps at first the Stone Age artist merely reinforced the outlines of such images with a charred stick from the fire. It is tempting to think that those who proved particularly good at finding such images were given a special status as artist-magicians so that they could perfect their image-hunting, until finally they learned how to make images with little or no help from chance formations, though they continued to welcome such aid.

Carved and Painted Objects

Apart from large-scale cave art, the people of the Upper Paleolithic also produced small, hand-sized drawings and carvings in bone, horn, or stone, skillfully cut by means of flint tools. The earliest of these found so far are small figures of mammoth ivory from a cave in southwestern Germany, made 30,000 years ago. Even they, however, are already so accomplished that they too must be the fruit of an artistic tradition many thousands of years old. The graceful, harmonious curves of a running horse (fig. 34) could hardly be improved upon by a more recent sculptor. Many years of handling have worn down some details of the tiny animal. (The two converging lines on the shoulder, indicating a dart or wound, were not part of the original design.)

Some of these carvings suggest that the objects may have originated with the recognition and elaboration of some chance resemblance. Earlier Stone Age people were content to collect pebbles in whose natural shape they saw something that apparently rendered them "magic." Echoes of this approach can sometimes be felt in later, more fully worked pieces. The so-called "Venus" of Willendorf (fig. 35), one of many such female figurines, has a bulbous roundness of form that recalls an egg-shaped "sacred pebble." Her navel, the central point of the design, is a natural cavity in the stone. She and like carvings are often considered fertility figures, based on the spiritual beliefs of "preliterate" societies of modern times. Although the idea is tempting, we cannot be certain that such parallels existed in the Old Stone Age. Likewise, the masterful Bison (fig. 36) of reindeer horn owes its compact, expressive outline in part to the contours of the palm-shaped piece of antler from which it was carved. It is a worthy companion to the splendid beasts at Altamira, Lascaux, and Chauvet.

(Continues...)

Copyright 1997 Harry N. Abrams, Inc.. All rights reserved.



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