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Horticulture : Principles and Practices,9780130331250
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Horticulture : Principles and Practices

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780130331250

ISBN10:
0130331252
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
PRENTICE HALL
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Summary

Written from the point of view of the horticulturalist, this comprehensive introduction to horticulture as a science, art, and business explores the four general areas of horticulture—ornamental horticulture, fruit culture, vegetable culture, and landscape architecture—and covers all the essential principles and practices of horticulture pertaining to indoor and outdoor production. The emphasis throughout is on the underlying science—including current technology—and how it is applied in practical horticulture. This resource details the underlying science of horticulture, protecting horticultural plants, propagating horticultural plants, growing plants indoors and growing plants outdoors including ornamentals vegetables, fruits and nuts. For horticulture professionals and hobbyists.

Table of Contents

Preface xxv
PART 1 The Underlying Science 1(236)
What Is Horticulture?
3(20)
Purpose
3(1)
Expected Outcomes
3(1)
Key Terms
3(1)
Overview
3(1)
What Is Horticulture?
4(1)
A Brief History
4(4)
Divisions of Horticulture
8(1)
Allied Horticulture Industries
9(1)
Horticulture and Society
9(5)
Horticulture Therapy
14(1)
Computers in Horticulture
14(6)
GIS in Horticulture
20(3)
Summary
21(1)
References and Suggested Reading
21(1)
Practical Experience
21(1)
Outcomes Assessment
22(1)
Classifying and Naming Horticultural Plants
23(24)
Purpose
23(1)
Expected Outcomes
23(1)
Key Terms
23(1)
Overview
23(1)
Scientific and Botanical Systems of Classification
24(1)
Taxonomic Groups
24(4)
Other Classification Systems (Operational)
28(10)
Classification of Ornamental Plants
38(3)
Flowers in Classification
41(1)
Some Families of Horticultural Importance
42(5)
Summary
44(1)
References and Suggested Reading
45(1)
Practical Experience
45(1)
Outcomes Assessment
45(2)
Plant Anatomy
47(34)
Purpose
47(1)
Expected Outcomes
47(1)
Key Terms
47(1)
Overview
48(1)
Cell
48(5)
Types of Plant Cells and Tissues
53(5)
Stem
58(4)
Leaf
62(6)
Roots
68(3)
Structure of Wood
71(2)
Bark
73(1)
Flowers
73(3)
Seed
76(1)
Fruits
77(4)
Summary
77(1)
References and Suggested Reading
78(1)
Practical Experience
78(1)
Outcomes Assessment
79(2)
Plant Growth Environment
81(60)
Purpose
81(1)
Expected Outcomes
81(1)
Key Terms
81(1)
Overview
82(1)
Climate, Weather, and Horticulture
82(1)
Above-Ground Environment
83(14)
Below-Ground (Soil) Environment
97(10)
Fertilizers
107(10)
Soil Organisms
117(1)
Soil Air
118(1)
Soil Temperature
118(1)
Soil Water
119(9)
Field Growing Media
128(3)
Potting Media
131(5)
Soil Sterilization
136(2)
Liquid Media
138(3)
Summary
138(1)
References and Suggested Reading
139(1)
Practical Experience
139(1)
Outcomes Assessment
139(2)
Plant Physiology
141(36)
Purpose
141(1)
Expected Outcomes
141(1)
Key Terms
141(1)
Overview
142(1)
Growth and Development
142(3)
Organic Compounds of Plant Cells
145(4)
Plant Growth Processes
149(13)
Developmental Stages of Growth
162(2)
Phases in the Plant Life Cycle
164(5)
Plant Hormones
169(3)
Nonpathogenic (Physiological) Plant Disorders
172(5)
Summary
174(1)
References and Suggested Reading
175(1)
Practical Experience
175(1)
Outcomes Assessment
175(2)
Plant Genetics and Improvement
177(48)
Purpose
177(1)
Expected Outcomes
177(1)
Key Terms
177(1)
Overview
178(1)
Review of Selected Principles and Concepts of Genetics
178(1)
Genes and Their Action
178(7)
Cellular and Subcellular Bases of Heredity
185(7)
Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
192(1)
Extrachromosomal Inheritance
193(1)
Application of Genetics: Conventional Breeding
193(1)
Underlying Principles and Concepts
193(9)
How Breeding Is Done
202(2)
Breeding Methods
204(7)
Mutation Breeding
211(1)
Polyploidy
212(1)
Wide Crossing
213(1)
Duration of a Breeding Program
214(1)
Limitations of Conventional Breeding Program
214(1)
Parthenocarpy
215(1)
Application of Genetics: Molecular Biotechnology
215(1)
Underlying Principles
215(2)
Genetic Engineering of Plants
217(3)
Molecular Markers
220(2)
Tissue Culture
222(3)
Summary
222(1)
References and Suggested Reading
223(1)
Practical Experience
223(1)
Outcomes Assessment
223(2)
Postharvest Handling and Marketing of Horticultural Products
225(12)
Purpose
225(1)
Expected Outcomes
225(1)
Key Terms
225(1)
Overview
225(1)
Harvesting
226(1)
Postharvest Changes in Products
227(1)
Handling
228(1)
Storing Unprocessed Products
228(3)
Fumigation
231(1)
Processing of Horticultural Products
231(1)
Marketing
232(2)
The Role of Middlemen in Marketing
234(1)
Elements of Marketing
234(3)
Summary
235(1)
References and Suggested Reading
235(1)
Outcomes Assessment
236(1)
PART 2 Protecting Horticultural Plants 237(72)
Biological Enemies of Horticultural Plants
239(25)
Purpose
239(1)
Expected Outcomes
239(1)
Key Terms
239(1)
Overview
239(1)
Plants as Pests
240(1)
Weeds
240(2)
Parasitic Plants
242(1)
Selected Common Weeds
243(2)
Summary
244(1)
Outcomes Assessment
244(1)
Animal Pests of Plants
245(1)
Insects
245(8)
Diseases
253(3)
Other Pests of Horticultural Plants
256(2)
How Disease Occurs
258(6)
Summary
262(1)
References and Suggested Reading
263(1)
Outcomes Assessment
263(1)
Principles and Methods of Disease and Pest Control
264(45)
Purpose
264(1)
Expected Outcomes
264(1)
Key Terms
264(1)
Overview
264(1)
Principles of Pest Control
265(1)
Control Strategies
265(4)
Classification of Pesticides
269(1)
Growth Regulators in Pest Control
270(1)
Choosing a Pesticide
270(6)
Integrated Pest Management
276(3)
Summary
278(1)
Practical Experience
278(1)
Outcomes Assessment
278(1)
Biological, Cultural, Legislative, Physical, and Mechanical Control of Plant Pests
279(1)
Rationale of Biological Control
279(1)
Strategies of Biological Control
280(3)
Cultural Control
283(1)
Legislative Control
284(1)
Mechanical and Physical Control
284(3)
Summary
286(1)
Outcomes Assessment
286(1)
Chemical Control of Plant Pests: Insecticides
287(1)
Insecticides and Their Use
287(9)
Summary
295(1)
Outcomes Assessment
295(1)
Chemical Control of Plant Pests: Herbicides
296(1)
Classification of Herbicides
296(2)
Formulations
298(1)
Methods of Application
298(1)
Factors Influencing Herbicide Effectiveness
299(1)
Indoor Weed Control
299(1)
Suggested Herbicides for the Landscape
300(1)
Suggested Herbicides for the Home Garden
300(2)
Summary
300(1)
Practical Experience
301(1)
Outcomes Assessment
301(1)
Greenhouse Pest Control
301(1)
Common Greenhouse Insect Pests
302(1)
Common Greenhouse Diseases
303(1)
Control Methods
304(1)
Control Strategies
304(1)
Preventing Greenhouse Diseases
305(4)
Summary
306(1)
References and Suggested Reading
306(1)
Outcomes Assessment
307(2)
PART 3 Propagating Horticultural Plants 309(56)
Sexual Propagation
311(21)
Purpose
311(1)
Expected Outcomes
311(1)
Key Terms
311(1)
Overview
311(1)
Seed Formation
312(1)
Seed Production and Certification Process
313(1)
Seed Quality Analysis
314(2)
Seed Viability and Longevity
316(1)
Purchasing Seed
317(1)
Seed Dormancy
317(1)
Improving Germination Capacity of Seeds
317(2)
Seed Treatment
319(1)
Environmental Conditions for Seed Germination
319(2)
Seed Germination and Emergence
321(1)
Methods of Seeding
322(2)
Seed Nursery Activities
324(4)
Transplanting
328(4)
Summary
330(1)
References and Suggested Reading
330(1)
Practical Experience
330(1)
Outcomes Assessment
331(1)
Asexual Propagation
332(33)
Purpose
332(1)
Expected Outcomes
332(1)
Key Terms
332(1)
Overview
333(1)
Advantages
333(1)
Disadvantages
334(1)
Adventitious Rooting in Asexual Propagation
334(1)
Apomixis
334(1)
Cuttings
335(1)
Types of Cuttings
335(3)
Factors Affecting Rooting of Cuttings
338(2)
Transplanting
340(1)
Summary
340(1)
Outcomes Assessment
341(1)
Grafting
341(1)
Nature of Grafting
341(2)
When To Use Grafting
343(1)
General Conditions for Success
344(1)
Methods of Grafting
345(4)
Summary
348(1)
Outcomes Assessment
349(1)
Budding
349(1)
Types of Budding
349(3)
Summary
351(1)
Outcomes Assessment
351(1)
Layering
352(1)
Types of Layering
352(5)
Summary
356(1)
Outcomes Assessment
357(1)
Specialized Underground Structures
357(1)
Types of Specialized Underground Structures
357(4)
Summary
361(1)
Outcomes Assessment
361(1)
Micropropagation (Tissue Culture)
361(1)
The Technique
361(2)
Applications
363(2)
References and Suggested Reading
364(1)
PART 4 Growing Plants Indoors 365(136)
Growing Houseplants
367(37)
Purpose
367(1)
Expected Outcomes
367(1)
Key Terms
367(1)
Overview
367(1)
Factors That Influence the Choice of Houseplants
368(1)
Using Plants in the Home
369(7)
Caring for Houseplants
376(10)
Potting Media
386(1)
Potting Plants
387(1)
Repotting
388(4)
Providing Support
392(1)
Diseases and Pests of Houseplants
392(1)
Common Symptoms of Ill Health in Houseplants
393(2)
Common Houseplants
395(9)
Summary
395(7)
References and Suggested Reading
402(1)
Practical Experience
402(1)
Outcomes Assessment
402(2)
Terrarium Culture
404(8)
Purpose
404(1)
Expected Outcomes
404(1)
Key Term
404(1)
Overview
404(1)
Types of Terrariums
405(1)
Designing a Terrarium or Bottle Garden
405(2)
Tools
407(1)
The Planting Medium
408(1)
Planting
408(1)
Care and Maintenance
409(1)
Troubleshooting
410(2)
Summary
410(1)
References and Suggested Reading
410(1)
Outcomes Assessment
410(2)
Bonsai: The Art of Miniature Plant Culture
412(12)
Purpose
412(1)
Expected Outcomes
412(1)
Key Term
412(1)
Overview
412(1)
Principles
413(3)
Creating the Bonsai
416(1)
Training Bonsai
417(3)
Repotting Bonsai
420(1)
Postestablishment Care
421(3)
Summary
422(1)
References and Suggested Reading
422(1)
Outcomes Assessment
422(2)
Controlled-Environment Horticulture
424(65)
Purpose
424(1)
Expected Outcomes
424(1)
Key Terms
424(1)
Controlled-Environment Facilities and Their Operation
425(1)
Overview
425(1)
What Is a Greenhouse?
425(1)
Greenhouse Design and Construction
426(14)
Internal Environmental Control
440(18)
Greenhouse Pests
458(4)
Summary
459(1)
References and Suggested Reading
460(1)
Practical Experience
460(1)
Outcomes Assessment
460(1)
Greenhouse Production
461(1)
Overview
461(1)
Production Costs
462(1)
Production Regions of the United States
462(2)
Production and Marketing Strategies
464(1)
Growing Plants for Festive Occasions
464(1)
The Role of Imports
464(1)
Importance of Greenhouses in Plant Production
464(1)
The Concept and Application of DIF
465(4)
Growing Potted Plants: Poinsettia
466(3)
Poinsettia Culture
469(6)
Summary
471(1)
References and Suggested Reading
471(1)
Outcomes Assessment
472(1)
Growing Bedding Plants
472(3)
Bedding Plant Culture
475(2)
Outcomes Assessment
477(1)
Growing Cut Flowers: Roses
477(1)
Cut Flower Industry
477(6)
Summary
482(1)
References and Suggested Reading
482(1)
Outcomes Assessment
482(1)
Hydroponic Production
483(1)
Basic Principles
483(1)
Types of Soilless Plant Culture
483(6)
Summary
487(1)
References and Suggested Reading
487(1)
Outcomes Assessment
487(2)
Growing Succulents
489(12)
Purpose
489(1)
Expected Outcomes
489(1)
Key Terms
489(1)
Succulents in General and Bromeliads
489(1)
Overview
489(1)
Propagation
490(1)
Growth Requirements
491(1)
Bromeliads
491(3)
Cacti
494(1)
Overview
494(1)
Propagation
494(2)
Care
496(1)
Miniature Rock Garden
497(1)
Grafted Cacti
497(4)
Summary
497(1)
References and Suggested Reading
498(1)
Practical Experience
499(1)
Outcomes Assessment
499(2)
PART 5 Growing Plants Outdoors: Ornamentals 501(160)
Principles of Landscaping
503(23)
Purpose
503(1)
Expected Outcomes
503(1)
Key Terms
503(1)
Overview
503(1)
What Is Landscaping?
504(1)
Categories of Landscaping
505(1)
Landscape Designing
506(7)
Planning a Residential Landscape
513(4)
Planning a Nonresidential Landscape
517(1)
Plants in the Landscape
518(3)
Other Functional Uses of Plants in the Landscape
521(2)
Xeriscaping
523(3)
Summary
524(1)
References and Suggested Reading
524(1)
Outcomes Assessment
524(2)
Nursery Production and Installation of the Landscape
526(42)
Purpose
526(1)
Expected Outcomes
526(1)
Key Terms
526(1)
Overview
526(1)
Landscape Construction
527(1)
Nursery Production
528(1)
The Role of the Nursery Worker
528(1)
Location of the Nursery
529(2)
Site Preparation
531(1)
Nursery Structures
531(1)
Economic Considerations
531(1)
Types of Nursery Production
532(4)
Summary
535(1)
References and Suggested Reading
535(1)
Outcomes Assessment
535(1)
Bedding Plants
536(1)
Overview
536(1)
Role of Annual Bedding Plants
536(1)
Designing a Flower Garden
537(3)
Making a Garden Plan
540(2)
Hanging Baskets
542(1)
Common Perennial Bedding Plants
542(2)
Summary
542(1)
References and Suggested Reading
543(1)
Outcomes Assessment
543(1)
Ground Covers and Ornamental Grasses
544(1)
Overview
544(1)
Choosing a Ground Cover
544(3)
Ornamental Grasses
547(2)
Bamboos
549(1)
Sedges
549(1)
Rushes
550(1)
Summary
550(1)
References and Suggested Reading
550(1)
Outcomes Assessment
550(1)
Trees and Shrubs
551(1)
Choosing Trees
551(1)
Purchasing Trees for Planting
552(2)
Preplanting Storage
554(1)
Planting Trees
554(2)
Postplanting Immediate Care
556(2)
Selected Trees for the Landscape
558(2)
Using Trees in the Landscape
560(1)
Installation of Shrubs
560(1)
Using Shrubs in the Landscape
560(3)
Summary
561(1)
References and Suggested Reading
561(1)
Outcomes Assessment
562(1)
Bulbs, Corms, Tubers, and Rhizomes
562(1)
Role in the Landscape
563(1)
Establishment
563(2)
Growing Bulbs Hydroponically
565(1)
Treatment After Dormancy Begins
565(1)
Diseases and Insect Pests
566(1)
Growing Bulbs Indoors
566(1)
Tubers
566(2)
Summary
566(1)
References and Suggested Reading
566(1)
Outcomes Assessment
567(1)
Turf Production and Use
568(23)
Purpose
568(1)
Expected Outcomes
568(1)
Key Terms
568(1)
Overview
568(1)
Purpose of Lawns
569(1)
Establishing a Lawn
570(4)
Planting Turfgrass
574(4)
Planting Grass by Vegetative Methods
578(2)
Turf Management
580(7)
Turf for Athletic Purposes
587(4)
Summary
589(1)
References and Suggested Reading
589(1)
Practical Experience
590(1)
Outcomes Assessment
590(1)
Pruning
591(37)
Purpose
591(1)
Expected Outcomes
591(1)
Key Terms
591(1)
Overview
591(1)
General Principles of Pruning and Training
592(1)
Objectives of Pruning
593(1)
Plant Response to Pruning
594(1)
Pruning Tools
595(3)
Pruning Techniques
598(5)
Strategies for Pruning Above-Ground Plant Parts
603(1)
Pruning Roots
604(1)
Training Plants
605(1)
Training and Pruning Ornamental Trees
605(3)
Maintenance of Established Trees
608(1)
Renovating Established Trees
609(1)
Special Training and Pruning Techniques
610(2)
Training and Pruning Fruit Trees
612(5)
Common Tree Problems
617(1)
Training and Pruning Small Fruit Trees
618(1)
Pruning Ornamental Plants
619(2)
Pruning Hedges
621(2)
Ornamental Stems
623(1)
Training and Pruning Climbing Plants
624(4)
Summary
626(1)
References and Suggested Reading
626(1)
Outcomes Assessment
626(2)
Maintenance of the Landscape and Garden
628(18)
Purpose
628(1)
Expected Outcomes
628(1)
Key Terms
628(1)
Overview
628(1)
Regular Maintenance
629(4)
Selecting an Irrigation System for the Landscape
633(6)
Seasonal Maintenance
639(1)
Tools for the Landscape
640(4)
Maintenance of Garden Tools
644(2)
Summary
644(1)
References and Suggested Reading
645(1)
Outcomes Assessment
645(1)
Cut and Dried Flowers: Production and Arranging
646(15)
Purpose
646(1)
Expected Outcomes
646(1)
Key Terms
646(1)
Overview
646(1)
Cut Flowers Species
647(2)
Culture
649(3)
Flower Arranging
652(3)
Dried Flowers
655(6)
Summary
657(1)
References and Suggested Reading
658(1)
Practical Experience
658(1)
Outcomes Assessment
658(3)
PART 6 Growing Plants Outdoors: Vegetables, Fruits, and Nuts 661(96)
Growing Vegetables
663(36)
Purpose
663(1)
Expected Outcomes
663(1)
Key Terms
663(1)
Overview
663(1)
Overview of Commercial Vegetable Production in the United States
664(3)
General Principles of Vegetable Gardening
667(1)
Characteristics of a Home Garden
667(1)
Benefits of a Home Garden
667(1)
Choosing a Site
667(1)
Designing a Vegetable Garden
668(2)
Garden Tools
670(1)
Growing Popular Garden Crops
671(1)
Garden Insect and Disease Control
671(1)
Use of Herbicides in the Garden
671(1)
Garden Planning Guide
672(1)
Common Garden Problems
672(1)
Increasing Earliness of Vegetable Crops
673(1)
Extending the Harvest
673(2)
Summary
673(1)
References and Suggested Reading
674(1)
Outcomes Assessment
674(1)
Growing Crops with Underground Edible Parts
675(1)
Carrot
675(1)
Sweet Potato
676(1)
Radish
677(1)
Onion
678(2)
Summary
679(1)
Outcomes Assessment
679(1)
Growing Cucurbits
680(1)
Cucumber
680(2)
Watermelon
682(1)
Muskmelon
682(1)
Squash
683(3)
Summary
685(1)
Outcomes Assessment
685(1)
Growing Legumes
685(1)
Snap or Green Bean
686(1)
Lima Bean
687(1)
Pea
687(2)
Summary
688(1)
Outcomes Assessment
688(1)
Growing Cole Crops
689(1)
Cabbage
689(1)
Broccoli
690(1)
Cauliflower
691(2)
Summary
692(1)
Outcomes Assessment
692(1)
Growing Solanaceous Crops
693(1)
Eggplant
693(1)
Pepper
694(1)
Tomato
695(2)
Summary
696(1)
Outcomes Assessment
696(1)
Growing Miscellaneous Garden Crops
697(1)
Sweet Corn
697(2)
Herb Gardening
699(6)
Purpose
699(1)
Expected Outcomes
699(1)
Overview
699(1)
Uses
699(1)
Cultivation
700(5)
Summary
703(1)
References and Suggested Reading
703(1)
Outcomes Assessment
703(2)
Organic Farming
705(17)
Purpose
705(1)
Expected Outcomes
705(1)
Key Terms
705(1)
Overview
705(1)
Principles of Organic Farming
706(6)
Composting
712(10)
Summary
720(1)
References and Suggested Reading
720(1)
Practical Experience
720(1)
Outcomes Assessment
721(1)
Management of Selected Fruit Trees, Nuts, and Small Fruits
722(35)
Production of Fruit and Nut Trees
722(1)
Purpose
722(1)
Expected Outcomes
722(1)
Key Terms
722(1)
Overview
722(1)
Importance of Fruit and Nut Trees
723(2)
Locating a Fruit Orchard
725(1)
Propagation
726(1)
The Annual Cycle of a Fruit Tree
727(1)
Spacing Fruit Trees
728(1)
Fruit Tree Planting Styles
728(1)
Growing Pecan
728(1)
Soil
729(1)
Planting Material
729(1)
Planting
730(1)
Training and Pruning
730(1)
Fertilizing
731(1)
Irrigation
731(1)
Pest Control
731(1)
Harvesting and Storage
731(1)
Growing Apple
732(1)
Site and Soil Preparation
732(1)
Selecting Planting Materials
733(1)
Planting
733(1)
Pruning and Training
734(1)
Fertilizing and Watering
734(1)
Fruit Thinning
734(1)
Pest Control
735(1)
Harvesting and Storage
735(2)
Summary
735(1)
Reference and Suggested Reading
735(1)
Outcomes Assessment
735(1)
Production of Small Fruits
736(1)
Purpose
736(1)
Expected Outcomes
736(1)
Key Terms
736(1)
Overview
737(1)
Small-Scale Production
737(1)
General Production Principles
737(1)
Growing Strawberry
738(1)
Botany
738(1)
Uses
739(1)
Production
739(6)
Summary
744(1)
Outcomes Assessment
745(1)
Growing Grapes
745(1)
Botany
745(1)
Uses
746(1)
Production
747(2)
Management
749(3)
Summary
751(1)
Outcomes Assessment
751(1)
Growing Blueberry
752(1)
Botany
752(1)
Uses
752(1)
Production
752(5)
Summary
755(1)
Outcomes Assessment
755(2)
Appendix A: Temperature: Converting between Celsius and Fahrenheit Scales 757(2)
Appendix B: Metric Conversion Chart 759(1)
Appendix C: English Units Conversion Chart 760(1)
Appendix D: Common and Scientific Names of Selected Plants 761(3)
Appendix E: Selected Botanical Gardens and Arboreta 764(1)
Glossary 765(10)
Index 775


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