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Human Behavior and the Social Environment : Theory and Practice,9780205420193
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Human Behavior and the Social Environment : Theory and Practice

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780205420193

ISBN10:
0205420192
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2011
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $90.33
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Summary

This comprehensive text integrates multiple dimensions of the human experience in a reader-friendly style and provides the interface between developmental theory and practice. Human Behavior and the Social Environment, 1/e,introduces and incorporates current research on the biological, psychological, socio-cultural, and spiritual dimensions of human behavior throughout the life-cycle. The authors provide an appropriate focus on contemporary perspectives that are central to the practice of social work, such as trauma, neurobiological underpinnings of behavior, chronic illness and disability. They pay particular attention to models of racial, ethnic, class, gender and gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender identity development; to the influences of gender, sexual orientation, social class, race and culture on family structure and function, and to issues pertinent to a variety of "post-modern" family forms. The text explores macro influences of groups, communities and organizations in individual chapters. It also contains a chapter on social welfare policy that examines the impact of specific policies at each stage of the life-cycle and paves the way for new directions in research and future directions in policy and practice. Any market interested ina comprehensive text that integrates the multiple dimensions of the human experience in a reader-friendly style and provides the interface between developmental theory and practice.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
About the Authors xxiii
PART I Conceptual Issues
An Integrating Framework for Human Behavior Theory and Social Work Practice
1(23)
Introduction
2(1)
Human Behavior Theory and Social Work Practice: A Historical Approach
2(6)
The Roots of Modern Social Work Practice: A Person-in-Environment Focus
2(3)
The Emergence of the Medical Model
5(1)
Empowerment Perspectives: Integrating Group Work and Emphasizing Racial Justice and Social Change
5(1)
The Diagnostic School and the Family Therapy Movement
6(1)
Historical Division by Professional Fields and Methods of Practice
7(1)
Reform Approaches
7(1)
An Integrating Framework for Human Behavior Theory: The Foundation for Multi-Level Practice
8(8)
The Social Systems Model
8(1)
The Ecological Perspective
9(1)
An Ecosystems Approach
10(6)
Practice Example 1.1: A Hospital in Crisis
16(5)
Analysis of Practice Example 1.1 from an Ecosystems Perspective
19(2)
The Integrating Framework: Contemporary Perspectives
21(2)
Developmental Contexualism: Assessing Risk and Protective Factors in the Context of Human Development
21(1)
Community-Based Practice
22(1)
Summary
23(1)
Neurobiological Underpinnings of Human Development
24(21)
Introduction
25(1)
The Neuroanatomy of the Brain
25(4)
Functions of the Limbic System
26(1)
Functions of the Parts of the Brain
27(1)
How Neurons Communicate with Each Other
27(2)
Experiences and Gene Expression
29(1)
Neurobehavioral Disorders
29(3)
Autism
31(1)
Practice Example 2.1: Jenny
32(3)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
32(3)
Practice Example 2.2: Joseph
35(1)
Asperger's Disorder
35(1)
Practice Example 2.3: Susan
36(2)
Dyslexia
36(1)
Mental Retardation:
37(1)
Practice Example 2.4: Jaimie
38(1)
The Mood Disorders
38(5)
Depression
38(3)
Bipolar Disorder
41(1)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
42(1)
Summary
43(2)
PART II The Individual
Theories of Development
45(31)
Introduction
46(1)
Multicultural Theory
46(1)
Psychodynamic Theory
47(13)
Drive Theory
48(3)
Brief Intensive Psychotherapy (BIP)
51(1)
Ego Psychology
52(6)
Object Relations Theory
58(1)
Self Psychology
59(1)
Cognitive Theory
60(5)
Cognitive Specificity Hypothesis
61(1)
Schemata
61(1)
Cognitive Distortions
62(1)
Treatment Agenda
62(3)
Rating Scales
65(1)
Behavioral Theory
65(1)
Reinforcement
65(1)
Social Skills Training
66(1)
Assertiveness Training
66(1)
Imagery-Based Techniques
66(1)
Constructivism
66(1)
Cognitive Behavioral Constructivist Theory
67(1)
Narrative Therapy
68(1)
Feminist Theory
69(1)
Cultural Relational Theory
70(1)
Mutual Empathy
70(1)
Relationship Authenticity
70(1)
Relationship Differentiation
71(1)
Self-Empathy
71(1)
Theories of Play Therapy
71(4)
Relational Play Therapy
72(1)
Cognitive Behavioral Play Therapy
72(1)
Developmental Play Therapy
73(2)
Summary
75(1)
Identity Development
76(27)
Introduction
77(1)
Racial Identity Development
78(2)
Practice Example 4.1: Cross-Racial Counseling Session
80(4)
Black Identity Development
80(1)
Biracial Identity Development
81(3)
Ethnic Identity Development
84(1)
White Identity Development
85(2)
Gender Identity Development
87(2)
Cognitive Development Theorists
88(1)
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Identity Development
89(7)
Homosexual Identity Development
91(1)
Lesbian and Gay Identity Development
92(3)
Bisexual and Transgender Identity Development
95(1)
Social Class Identity
96(5)
Summary
101(2)
PART III The Sociocultural Context of Human Development
The Family in Society
103(30)
Introduction: The Family as a Societal Subsystem
104(11)
The Contemporary Family
104(1)
The Family Defined
104(2)
The Inner Life of the Family System
106(1)
The Family as a Social System
106(1)
Family Structure
107(3)
Interactional Processes in Families
110(4)
Patterns of Communication in Families
114(1)
Practice Example 5.1: Mrs. A
115(17)
The Family System over Time: Family Development, Stress, and Adaptation
116(3)
Families in Context: Effects of Socioeconomic and Sociocultural Variables
119(6)
Contextual Variations in Family Form
125(7)
Summary
132(1)
Group-Work Practice
133(29)
Introduction
134(1)
Definition of a Group
135(5)
Group Norms and Group Roles
136(1)
Leadership
137(1)
Power and Authority
138(1)
Role of the Group Leader
138(1)
Co-Leadership
139(1)
Pregroup Planning: Group Structure and Stages of Group Development
140(4)
Group Structure
140(1)
Social Context
140(1)
Agency Context and Sponsorship
141(1)
Need
142(1)
Purpose
142(1)
Composition
143(1)
Practice Example 6.1: Treatment Group Contract
144(2)
Structure
144(1)
Content
145(1)
Stages of Group Development and the Role of the Group Leader
146(3)
Types of Groups
149(5)
Task Groups
150(4)
Practice Example 6.2: Interview Guide for Focus Groups
154(6)
Treatment Groups
155(3)
Self-Help Groups
158(1)
Woman's Groups
159(1)
Persons with Disabilities in Groups
159(1)
Technology-Mediated Groups
160(1)
Summary
160(2)
Communities and Organizations
162(26)
Introduction
163(1)
Key Socio-Structural Concepts
163(2)
Social Structure
163(1)
Power, Oppression, and Patterns of Social Interaction
164(1)
The Community Defined
165(1)
Community Functions
166(1)
Production-Distribution-Consumption
166(1)
Socialization
166(1)
Social Control
167(1)
Social Participation
167(1)
Mutual Support
167(1)
Community Competence
167(1)
Community Structure
168(3)
Community Subsystems: Formal and Informal Structures
168(1)
Formal Organizations: Bureaucracy and Scientific Management
168(1)
Organizational Auspices
169(1)
Rational and Nonrational Processes in Organizations
169(1)
Informal Structures in Formal Organizations
170(1)
Structural Linkages in Organizational Communities
170(1)
The Changing Societal Context for Community Life
171(4)
Structural Changes in the Economy
171(1)
Demographic Changes
172(1)
Technological Changes
172(1)
Poverty
173(1)
Changes in the Social Welfare System
173(1)
Formal Organizations: Changing Paradigms
174(1)
The Changing Character of Community Life: The Postmodern Community
175(3)
Production-Distribution-Consumption
176(1)
Socialization
176(1)
Social Control
176(1)
Social Participation
177(1)
Mutuality
177(1)
Contemporary Issues in Community Practice
178(2)
Community-Based Practice: Building a Bridge Between Micro- and Macropractice
178(2)
Practice Example 7.1: Community-Based Practice for Women with Chronic Mental Illness
180(3)
Community Macropractice: Skills and Strategies
180(1)
Community Building: An Integrated Approach
181(2)
Social Justice and Contemporary Communities
183(1)
Practice Example 7.2: Community Building for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transsexual, and Transgender Youth
183(3)
Practice Example 7.3: The Black Family and the Black Church
186(1)
Summary
187(1)
Spiritual Development, by Carolyn Jacobs
188(16)
Introduction
189(1)
Definitions of Spirituality
190(2)
Cultural Diversity and Spirituality
192(2)
Feminist Spirituality
194(1)
Family and Community
195(1)
Spirituality and Life-Cycle Stages
196(2)
Spiritual Assessment
198(5)
Questions for a Religious Community
199(1)
Personal Meanings Attached to Symbols, Rituals, Beliefs, and Divine Figures
199(1)
Relationship to Religious Resources
200(2)
FICA: A Spiritual Assessment
202(1)
Summary
203(1)
PART IV The Human Life Cycle
Infancy
204(20)
Introduction
205(1)
The Inherent Nature of the Infant
205(5)
Sensory-Perceptual Capacities
205(2)
Innate Motivational and Behavioral Systems
207(1)
Temperament
208(2)
Developmental Maturation in Infancy
210(11)
Neurological Maturation
210(2)
Attachment
212(9)
Alternate Pathways for Attachment in Contemporary Life
221(1)
Substitute Child Care
221(1)
Adoption and Assisted Reproduction
221(1)
Summary
222(2)
Early Childhood: The Toddler and Early School Years
224(23)
Introduction
225(1)
Biological-Psychological Development
225(9)
Neurological Development
225(1)
Motor Development
226(1)
Cognitive Development
226(1)
Language Development
227(1)
The Emerging Sense of Self
228(6)
Sociocultural Development: A Transactional View
234(1)
Peer Relationships and Play
235(11)
Temperament
236(2)
Disabilities
238(2)
The Child-Rearing Environment
240(4)
School Readiness and Later School Achievement
244(2)
Summary
246(1)
Middle Childhood
247(47)
Introduction
248(1)
Biological and Physical Development
249(45)
Early Adulthood
294(18)
Introduction
295(1)
Biological and Psychological Development
296(2)
Health and Safety
297(1)
Fertility
297(1)
Cognitive Functioning: Post-Formal Thought
297(1)
Intelligence
298(1)
Socio-Cultural Functioning: Development in Context
298(8)
Changing Relationship with the Family of Origin
299(1)
Forming Intimate Relationships: Marriage, Cohabitation, and Serial Monogamy
299(3)
The Parenting Role
302(1)
Entering the World of Work
303(3)
Contextual Variations
306(5)
Chemical Substance Abuse
306(2)
Gay and Lesbian Young Adults: Coming Out
308(1)
The Impact of Disability in Young Adulthood: Sexual and Reproductive Issues
309(1)
Domestic Violence
310(1)
Summary
311(1)
Middle Adulthood
312(20)
Introduction
313(1)
Physiological Changes
313(2)
Women
313(1)
Men
314(1)
Cognitive Functioning
315(1)
Psychological Development
316(2)
Midlife Crisis
317(1)
Sociohistorical Context
318(1)
Race and Culture
319(1)
Intimate Relationships in Midlife
320(1)
Divorce
320(1)
Widowhood
320(1)
Parenting in Midlife
321(1)
Grandparenting in Midlife
322(2)
Surrogate Grandparenting
323(1)
Middle Life Adults and Aging Parents
324(1)
Gender Differences in Midlife
325(2)
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Midlife Development
327(3)
Philosophical Issues
330(1)
Work in the Middle Years
330(1)
Summary
331(1)
Older Adulthood
332(23)
Ann Roy
Introduction: Trends and Concepts
333(5)
The Biology of Aging
335(1)
Poverty and Ethnicity
336(1)
Health Care and Ethnicity
337(1)
Rural Elders
338(1)
Social-Psychological Perspectives on Late Adulthood Development
338(3)
Stage Theory
338(1)
Disengagement Theory
339(1)
Activity Theory and Its Close Relative Continuity Theory
340(1)
Social Construction Theory
340(1)
Physical and Mental Health in Older Adults
341(3)
Physical Health
341(1)
Mental Health
342(2)
The Frail Elderly
344(1)
Contemporary Contexts
344(9)
End of Life Issues
345(3)
Long-Term Care
348(1)
Elder Abuse
349(2)
Retirement
351(2)
Practice Example 15.1: Saving for Retirement: Advice from the Experts
353(1)
Summary
354(1)
Trauma and Development
355(25)
Introduction
356(1)
Types of Trauma
356(1)
Acute Stress Disorder
356(1)
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
357(1)
Assessment of Trauma
357(1)
Neurobiology of Trauma
357(4)
Traumatic Memories
359(1)
Trauma and Dissociation
360(1)
Treatment of Trauma
361(1)
Safety
362(1)
Practice Example 16.1: Chris
362(1)
Remembrance and Mourning
362(1)
Practice Example 16.2: Chris
363(1)
Reconnection
363(1)
Practice Example 16.3: Chris
363(1)
Trauma and Children
364(8)
Trauma-Related Disturbances in Children
365(1)
Child Maltreatment
365(1)
Play Therapy in the Treatment of Traumatized Children
366(6)
Practice Example 16.4: David
372(1)
Trauma and Aging
372(1)
Practice Example 16.5: Mrs. P
373(1)
Trauma and Culture
374(1)
Practice Example 16.6: Mrs. G
375(2)
Cultural Countertransference
376(1)
Racial Trauma
377(1)
Practice Example 16.7: Mrs. L
377(1)
The Helpers
378(1)
Summary
378(2)
Chronic Illness and Disability
380(26)
Introduction
381(1)
Definition of Disability
381(1)
Types of Disabilities
382(9)
Progressive, Permanent Conditions
383(3)
Constant or Permanent Conditions
386(2)
Relapsing or Episodic Conditions
388(1)
Psychiatric Disabilities
389(2)
Disability Across the Life Cycle
391(4)
Disability Culture
395(1)
Disability and Diversity
396(1)
Family Adjustment to Disability
397(2)
The Family Systems Illness Model
397(2)
Disabilities and Abuse of Woman
399(1)
Sociological Aspects of Chronic Illness and Disability
400(2)
Practice Example 17.1: Illustrative Reading---Chronic Illness and Disability, by Steven Bogatz
402(3)
Summary
405(1)
PART V Policy
Social Policy Through the Life Cycle, by Joyce E. Everett
406(25)
Introduction
407(1)
The Functions of Social Welfare: A System's Perspective
407(2)
The Enduring Debate About Social Welfare
409(7)
Scope of Social Welfare: Problem versus Population Focus
410(6)
Social Welfare Programs Across the Life Cycle
416(13)
Infancy, Early, and Middle Childhood
416(5)
Adolescence
421(2)
Early and Middle Adulthood
423(4)
Older Adulthood
427(2)
Summary
429(2)
Appendix A. Genogram 431(1)
Appendix B. Eco-Map 432(1)
Appendix C. Social Network Map 433(1)
Appendix D. Culturagram 434(1)
Appendix E. Outline for a Group Proposal 435(1)
Appendix F. Standards for Social Work Practice with Groups 436(11)
Glossary 447(20)
References 467(50)
Author Index 517(11)
Subject Index 528


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