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Human Communication : The Basic Course

by
Edition:
11th
ISBN13:

9780205428496

ISBN10:
0205428495
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $105.60

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Summary

Human Communication: The Basic Course provides an in-depth look at the concepts and principles that comprise all forms of human communication. With an emphasis on public speaking, interpersonal communication, and small group communication, the text also explores key issues and topics in organizational communication and the mass media. Designed to allow flexibility in teaching approaches, Human Communication: The Basic Course offers instructors a wide range of topics to discuss and apply to real-world experiences. New and Enduring Features bull; Designed to combine theory, research, and skills, ";Ask the Researcher"; features nationally and internationally known theorists and researchers who respond to a typical question that a student would ask about the practical applications of human communication. ";Public Speaking Sample Assistant"; presents sample speeches and outlines with suggestions for critical analysis. This feature offers both well-constructed and poorly constructed examples of informative and persuasive speeches and outlines to show students specific examples of what to do and what to avoid. A separate pamphlet, ";Interviewing and Human Communication"; (available packaged with the text for no additional charge), covers the principles and skills of informative and employment interviews. The photo captions, called ";ViewPoints,"; offer detailed information providing an opportunity for instructors and students to extend the discussion of communication principles. In keeping with the dual focus of the text, approximately half of the ";ViewPoints"; are concerned with research and theory and half with skill acquisition. Cultural and gender issues are covered in depth in two ways: an entire unit (Unit 3) explains the ways culture and gender influence communication, and integrated coverage throughout the text relate cultural and gender issues to all aspects of human communication. Four additional units -Emotional Communication, Criticism in the Public Speaking Classroom, Developing Special Occasion Speeches, and Mass Media-are available on an accompanying CD-ROM (available packaged with the text for no additional charge), enabling instructors to cover topics that are not always offered in other texts. Praise for Human Communication: The Basic Course ";DeVito incorporates classic, established theory and contemporary research with practical applications and social issues in communication study, making it an excellent text-both for students who are beginning in the discipline, and for students for whom this course will be their only academic exposure to the field."; Jill Tyler, University of South Dakota";It is the only text I have ever used where students have said how much they like the materials (without me asking). There is no specific special item they all love-each has something different that appeals to them."; Cynthia Graham, University of Wisconsin";Joe DeVito's books are always well conceived and written. His explanations of topics are clear, he uses applicable examples, and in general seems to consider the student readers. This book is no exception."; Alan Zaremba, Northeastern University

Table of Contents

Specialized Contents ix
Welcome to Human Communication: The Basic Course xii
PART 1 Foundations of Human Communication
1(158)
Preliminaries to Human Communication
1(20)
Elements of Human Communication
2(10)
Communication Context
4(1)
Sources-Receivers
5(1)
Messages
6(3)
Channels
9(1)
Noise
9(1)
Communication Effects
10(1)
Ethics
10(1)
The Elements in Transaction
11(1)
Purposes of Human Communication
12(2)
To Discover
12(1)
To Relate
12(1)
To Help
13(1)
To Persuade
13(1)
To Play
14(1)
Types of Human Communication
14(7)
Principles of Communication
21(15)
Communication Is a Package of Signals
22(1)
Communication Is a Process of Adjustment
23(2)
Communication Accommodation
24(1)
Communication Involves Content and Relationship Dimensions
25(2)
Ignoring Relationship Dimensions
26(1)
Recognizing Relationship Dimensions
26(1)
Communication Is Ambiguous
27(1)
Communication Sequences Are Punctuated
28(1)
Communication Involves Symmetrical and Complementary Transactions
29(1)
Communication Is Inevitable, Irreversible, and Unrepeatable
30(6)
Inevitability
30(2)
Irreversibility
32(1)
Unrepeatability
33(3)
Culture and Communication
36(21)
What Is Culture?
37(5)
The Relationship between Culture and Communication
39(1)
The Aim of a Cultural Perspective
40(2)
How Cultures Differ
42(5)
Individual and Collective Orientation
43(1)
High- and Low-Context Cultures
44(1)
Power Distances
45(1)
Masculine and Feminine Cultures
46(1)
Improving Intercultural Communication
47(10)
Recognize and Reduce Ethnocentrism
47(2)
Confront Your Stereotypes
49(1)
Be Mindful
50(1)
Face Fears
50(1)
Recognize Differences
50(1)
Avoid Overattribution
51(1)
Recognize Differences in Meaning
51(1)
Avoid Violating Cultural Rules and Customs
52(1)
Avoid Evaluating Differences Negatively
52(1)
Recognize That Culture Shock Is Normal
52(5)
Perception
57(20)
The Process of Perception
58(3)
Stage 1: Stimulation
58(1)
Stage 2: Organization
58(2)
Stage 3: Interpretation--Evaluation
60(1)
Stage 4: Memory
60(1)
Stage 5: Recall
60(1)
Reflections on the Model of Perception
61(1)
Influences on Perception
61(10)
Implicit Personality Theory
62(1)
The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
63(1)
Perceptual Accentuation
63(2)
Primacy--Recency
65(1)
Consistency
66(1)
Attribution
67(4)
Accuracy in Perception
71(6)
Analyze Your Perceptions
71(1)
Check Your Perceptions
72(1)
Reduce Your Uncertainty
73(1)
Increase Your Cultural Awareness
74(3)
Listening
77(18)
The Importance and Benefits of Listening
78(1)
The Process of Listening
78(5)
Receiving
79(1)
Understanding
80(1)
Remembering
80(2)
Evaluating
82(1)
Responding
83(1)
Listening, Culture, and Gender
83(4)
Listening and Culture
84(2)
Listening and Gender
86(1)
Styles of Effective Listening
87(8)
Empathic and Objective Listening
88(1)
Nonjudgmental and Critical Listening
89(1)
Surface and Depth Listening
89(1)
Active and Inactive Listening
90(5)
The Self in Human Communication
95(17)
Self-Concept
96(1)
Others' Images of You
96(1)
Comparisons with Others
96(1)
Cultural Teachings
96(1)
Your Own Interpretations and Evaluations
97(1)
Self-Awareness
97(3)
The Four Selves
98(1)
Growing in Self-Awareness
98(2)
Self-Esteem
100(2)
Attack Self-Destructive Beliefs
101(1)
Seek Out Nurturing People
101(1)
Secure Affirmation
101(1)
Work on Projects That Will Result in Success
102(1)
Self-Disclosure
102(10)
Factors Influencing Self-Disclosure
104(2)
Deciding about Self-Disclosure
106(6)
Verbal Messages
112(21)
Principles of Verbal Messages
113(5)
Meanings Are in People
113(1)
Meanings Depend on Context
114(1)
Messages Are Culturally Influenced
115(2)
Language Is Both Denotative and Connotative
117(1)
Language Varies in Directness
117(1)
Disconfirmation and Confirmation
118(8)
Sexism
120(1)
Heterosexism
121(1)
Racism
121(1)
Ageism
122(1)
Sexist, Heterosexist, Racist, and Ageist Listening
123(1)
Cultural Identifiers
124(2)
Using Verbal Messages Effectively
126(7)
Language Symbolizes Reality (Partially)
126(1)
Language Expresses Both Facts and Inferences
127(2)
Language Is Relatively Static
129(1)
Language Can Obscure Distinctions
129(4)
Nonverbal Messages
133(26)
The Functions of Nonverbal Communication
134(2)
Integrating Nonverbal and Verbal Messages
134(1)
Researching Nonverbal Communication Functions
135(1)
The Channels of Nonverbal Communication
136(16)
The Body
136(1)
Facial Communication
137(2)
Eye Communication
139(2)
Space Communication
141(1)
Territoriality
142(2)
Artifactual Communication
144(2)
Touch Communication
146(2)
Paralanguage: The Vocal Channel
148(1)
Silence
149(1)
Time Communication
150(1)
Smell Communication
151(1)
Culture and Nonverbal Communication
152(7)
Culture and Facial Expression
153(1)
Culture and Colors
153(1)
Culture and Touch
154(1)
Culture and Silence
154(1)
Culture and Time
154(5)
PART 2 Interpersonal and Small Group Communication
159(107)
Interpersonal Communication: Conversation
159(23)
The Conversation Process
160(6)
The Conversation Process in Five Stages
163(3)
Maintaining Conversations
166(6)
Conversational Turns
167(1)
Reflections on the Model of Conversation
168(1)
Preventing Conversational Problems: The Disclaimer
169(2)
Repairing Conversational Problems: The Excuse
171(1)
Conversational Skills
172(10)
Metaskills
172(4)
Specific Skills
176(6)
Interpersonal Relationships
182(26)
Relationship Processes
185(7)
Relationship Development
185(1)
Relationship Maintenance
186(2)
Relationship Deterioration
188(2)
Relationship Repair
190(2)
Relationship Types
192(6)
Types of Friendships
192(1)
Types of Lovers
193(2)
Types of Primary Relationships
195(3)
Relationship Theories
198(4)
Attraction Theory
198(1)
Relationship Rules Approach
199(1)
Social Penetration Theory
199(1)
Social Exchange Theory
200(1)
Equity Theory
201(1)
Relationships, Culture, and Technology
202(6)
Relationships and Culture
202(1)
Relationships and Technology
203(5)
Small Group Communication
208(20)
Small Groups
209(8)
Basic Types of Groups
209(1)
Small Group Stages
210(2)
Small Group Formats
212(1)
Small Groups Online
212(2)
Small Group Culture
214(1)
Power in the Small Group
215(2)
Idea-Generation Groups
217(1)
Personal Growth Groups
218(1)
Popular Personal Growth Groups
218(1)
Some Rules and Procedures
218(1)
Information-Sharing Groups
219(1)
Educational or Learning Groups
219(1)
Focus Groups
219(1)
Problem-Solving Groups
220(8)
The Problem-Solving Sequence
220(4)
Problem-Solving Groups at Work
224(4)
Members and Leaders
228(17)
Members in Small Group Communication
229(3)
Member Roles
229(1)
Interaction Process Analysis
230(1)
Member Participation
230(2)
Leaders In Small Group Communication
232(8)
Approaches to Leadership
232(5)
Functions of Leadership
237(3)
Membership, Leadership, and Culture
240(5)
Interpersonal and Small Group Conflict
245(21)
Interpersonal and Small Group Conflict
246(4)
Myths about Conflict
246(1)
The Context of Conflict
246(2)
The Negatives and Positives of Conflict
248(2)
Types of Conflict
250(2)
Content and Relationship Conflicts
250(1)
Online and Workplace Conflicts
250(1)
Conflict Styles
251(1)
Conflict Management Skills
252(14)
Win--Lose and Win--Win Strategies
253(2)
Avoidance and Active Fighting
255(1)
Force and Talk
256(1)
Blame and Empathy
257(1)
Gunnysacking and Present Focus
257(1)
Manipulation and Spontaneity
258(1)
Personal Rejection and Acceptance
258(1)
Fighting below and above the Belt
258(1)
Face-Detracting and Face-Enhancing Strategies
258(1)
Nonassertive and Assertive Strategies
259(1)
Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness
260(2)
Before and after the Conflict
262(4)
PART 3 Public Speaking
266
Public Speaking Topics, Audiences, and Research
266(31)
Introducing Public Speaking
267(1)
The Benefits of Public Speaking
267(1)
Beliefs about Public Speaking
267(1)
A Definition of Public Speaking
267(1)
Apprehension in Public Speaking
268(4)
Reducing Your Apprehension
270(2)
Step 1: Select Your Topic and Purpose
272(7)
Your Topic
272(6)
Your Purpose
278(1)
Step 2: Analyze Your Audience
279(5)
Attitudes, Beliefs, and Values
279(1)
Analyzing the Sociology of the Audience
280(1)
Analyzing the Psychology of the Audience
281(2)
Analyzing and Adapting during the Speech
283(1)
Step 3: Research Your Topic
284(13)
General Research Principles
284(1)
Research Notes
285(1)
Sources of Information
285(7)
Evaluating Research
292(1)
Integrating Research into Your Speech
293(1)
Citing Research Sources
293(1)
Plagiarism
294(3)
Supporting and Organizing Your Speech
297(28)
Step 4: Formulate Your Thesis and Main Points
298(3)
Your Thesis
298(2)
Main Points
300(1)
Step 5: Support Your Main Points
301(12)
Examples
301(1)
Narratives
302(1)
Testimony
302(1)
Statistics
302(2)
Presentation Aids
304(9)
Step 6: Organize Your Speech
313(5)
Temporal Pattern
313(1)
Spatial Pattern
314(1)
Topical Pattern
314(1)
Problem--Solution Pattern
314(1)
Cause--Effect/Effect--Cause Pattern
314(1)
The Motivated Sequence
315(1)
Additional Organizational Patterns
316(2)
Step 7: Construct Your Introduction, Conclusion, and Transitions
318(7)
Introduction
318(1)
Conclusion
319(1)
Transitions
320(1)
Mistakes in Introductions, Conclusions, and Transitions
321(4)
Style and Delivery in Public Speaking
325(31)
Step 8: Outline Your Speech
326(8)
Constructing the Outline
326(2)
Sample Outlines
328(6)
Step 9: Word Your Speech
334(9)
Oral Style
334(2)
Choosing Words
336(6)
Phrasing Sentences
342(1)
Step 10: Rehearse and Deliver Your Speech
343(13)
Rehearsal
343(2)
Delivery
345(11)
The Informative Speech
356(21)
Guidelines for Informative Speaking
357(5)
Limit the Amount of Information
358(1)
Adjust the Level of Complexity
358(1)
Stress Relevance and Usefulness
359(1)
Relate New Information to Old
360(1)
Vary the Levels of Abstraction
360(2)
The Speech of Description
362(3)
Strategies for Describing
362(1)
Developing the Speech of Description
362(3)
The Speech of Definition
365(4)
Strategies for Defining
366(2)
Developing the Speech of Definition
368(1)
The Speech of Demonstration
369(8)
Strategies for Demonstrating
369(5)
Developing the Speech of Demonstration
374(3)
The Persuasive Speech
377(28)
Guidelines for Persuasive Speaking
378(16)
Anticipate Selective Exposure
378(1)
Ask for Reasonable Amounts of Change
379(1)
Identify with Your Audience
380(1)
Use Logical Appeals
380(3)
Use Emotional Appeals
383(3)
Use Credibility Appeals
386(6)
Motivate Your Listeners
392(2)
The Speech on Questions of Fact
394(2)
Thesis
395(1)
Main Points
395(1)
Support
395(1)
Developing Speeches on Questions of Fact
395(1)
The Speech on Questions of Value
396(5)
Thesis
395(1)
Main Points
396(1)
Support
396(1)
Developing Speeches on Questions of Value
396(5)
The Speech on Questions of Policy
401(4)
Thesis
401(1)
Main Points
402(1)
Support
402(1)
Developing Speeches on Questions of Policy
402(1)
Organizational Examples
402(3)
The Mass Media
405(11)
The Functional and Dysfunctional Media
406(6)
To Help
407(1)
To Play
408(1)
To Relate, to Create Ties of Union
408(1)
To Inform
408(2)
To Influence
410(2)
Becoming a Critical Consumer of Media
412(4)
Learn How the Media Work
412(1)
Make Use of a Wide Variety of Media
412(1)
Question the Credibility of the Media
412(1)
Exercise Critical Thinking
412(1)
Talk Back to the Media
413(3)
Emotional Communication
416(15)
Emotions and Emotional Messages
417(8)
The Body, Mind, and Culture in Emotions
417(1)
Emotions, Arousal, and Expression
418(4)
Emotions, Culture, and Gender
422(2)
Principles of Emotional Communication
424(1)
Obstacles in Communicating Emotions
425(2)
Societal Rules and Customs
425(1)
Fear
426(1)
Inadequate Interpersonal Skills
427(1)
Guidelines for Communicating Emotions
427(4)
Describe Your Feelings
428(1)
Identify the Reasons for Your Feelings
428(1)
Anchor Your Feelings to the Present
428(1)
Own Your Own Feelings
428(3)
Criticism in the Public Speaking Classroom
431(15)
The Nature and Values of Criticism
432(1)
Cultural Differences in Approaches to Criticism
433(2)
Standards and Principles of Criticism
435(11)
Standards of Criticism
435(2)
Principles of Expressing Criticism
437(9)
Developing Special Occasion Speeches
446
The Speech of Introduction
447(3)
Guidelines for Speeches of Introduction
447(1)
Sample Speeches of Introduction
448(2)
The Speech of Presentation or Acceptance
450(3)
Guidelines for Speeches of Presentation
450(1)
A Sample Speech of Presentation
451(1)
Guidelines for Speeches of Acceptance
451(1)
Sample Speeches of Acceptance
451(2)
The Speech to Secure Goodwill
453(3)
Guidelines for Speeches Aimed at Securing Goodwill
453(1)
Sample Speeches to Secure Goodwill
454(2)
The Speech of Tribute
456(1)
Guidelines for Speeches of Tribute
456(1)
A Sample Speech of Tribute
456(1)
Additional Special Occasion Speeches
457(5)
Dedication Speeches
457(1)
Commencement Speeches
458(1)
Eulogies
458(2)
Farewell Speeches
460(2)
Toasts
462(1)
The Special Occasion Speech in Cultural Perspective
462(1)
A Sample Special Occasion Speech
463
Glossary of Human Communication Concepts 1(12)
Glossary of Human Communication Skills 13
Bibliography 1(1)
Credits 1(1)
Index 1


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