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Human Motivation (with InfoTrac 1-Semester Printed Access Card)

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780495090816

ISBN10:
0495090816
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
5/22/2006
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $248.99

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Summary

This Sixth Edition provides a thorough introduction to the basic facts and major theories of human motivation. Throughout the book, the author addresses the types of questions that often arise, such as "Why are some people more organized than others?" and "Why do people dream?" In his exploration of day-to-day human motivation, Franken provides a topical organization that shows students how biology, learning, and cognition interact with individual differences to produce human behavior.

Table of Contents

Part One Issues and Organizing Principles in Motivation
Themes in the Study of Motivation
1(25)
Practical Application 1-1 A Hot/Cool Theory of Delay of Gratification
3(1)
Plan of This Chapter
4(1)
What Causes Behavior?
4(1)
Approach and Avoidant Causes
4(1)
Basic Themes of Contemporary Motivation Theories
5(4)
Behavior Represents an Attempt to Adapt
5(1)
The Importance of Determining What Arouses and Energizes Behavior
6(1)
Understanding What Governs the Direction of Behavior
6(1)
Understanding Persistence
7(1)
Understanding the Role of Emotions
7(1)
Accounting for Individual Differences
8(1)
The Self-Regulation of Behavior
8(1)
Motivation and Positive Psychology
8(1)
Do Humans Have a Will?
9(1)
Theories of Motivation: A Historical Survey
9(4)
Instinct Theories
9(4)
Summary and Comment
13(4)
Need Theories
14(3)
Summary
17(3)
Learning Theories
17(3)
Summary and Comment
20(2)
Growth and Mastery Motivation Theories
20(2)
Humanistic Theories
22(1)
Summary and Comment
22(2)
Cognitive Theories
23(1)
Summary
24(1)
Biological, Learned, and Cognitive Forces
24(1)
Learning to Make Use of the Internet
25(1)
Main Points
25(1)
Components of Motivation
26(30)
The Biological Component
27(8)
Origins of Human Brain Design
27(1)
The Example of Temperament
28(1)
Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins
29(1)
Brain Design and Motivation
30(1)
Some Important Brain Circuits in Motivation
30(1)
The Disposition to Experience Pleasure and Punishment
31(2)
The Role of Neurotransmitters in Information Processing
33(2)
Summary
35(2)
Practical Application 2-1 Becoming Aware of Your Biological Processes
36(1)
The Learned Component
37(5)
Attention and Learning
37(2)
Classical Conditioning
39(1)
Instrumental Learning
40(1)
Social Incentive Theory
41(1)
Practical Application 2-2 The Need for Intention and Planning When Changing Unwanted Habits---Taking Charge Through Self-Regulation
42(1)
Summary
42(1)
The Cognitive Component
43(6)
Cognitive Theories
43(1)
The Nature of Cognitions
44(1)
Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values
45(1)
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
46(1)
Implicit Theories
47(1)
Habits, Automatic Behavior, and Cognition
47(1)
An Example: What Causes Happiness?
48(1)
Practical Application 2-3 Becoming Mindful of Your Cognitive Processes
49(2)
Individual Differences
49(2)
Summary
51(3)
An Example of a Components Approach
52(2)
Summary
54(1)
Main Points
54(1)
InfoTrac® College Edition
55(1)
Part Two Analyzing Some Basic Motivational Systems
Hunger and Eating
56(27)
How Do Humans Avoid Toxins?
57(2)
The Biological Component
57(1)
The Learned Component
58(1)
The Cognitive Component
59(1)
Summary
59(1)
Food Selection
59(6)
Food and Energy: Fats, Carbohydrates, and Proteins
60(1)
Food and Nutrients
61(1)
Humans Evolved as Meat Eaters
62(1)
The Biological Component
62(1)
The Learned Component
63(1)
The Cognitive Component
64(1)
Summary
65(1)
Distinguishing Between Hunger and Eating
65(1)
Eating as a Sensory Experience
65(1)
The Question of Overweight and Obesity
66(4)
The Biological Component
67(1)
Set-Point Theory
68(1)
Positive-Incentive Theory
68(1)
The Learned Component
69(1)
The Cognitive Component
70(1)
Summary
70(1)
Theories of Overweight and Obesity
71(5)
The Internal--External Theory of Hunger and Eating
71(2)
The Boundary Theory of Hunger, Eating, and Obesity
73(3)
Summary
76(1)
Difficulties Confronting Dieters
76(2)
The Biological Component
76(1)
The Learned Component
77(1)
The Cognitive Component
77(1)
Practical Application 3-1 Some Rules for Dieting
78(1)
Health Implications of Weight Loss and Obesity
78(1)
Summary
79(1)
Food Sharing and Eating as a Social Event
80(1)
The Biological Component
80(1)
The Learned Component
80(1)
The Cognitive Component
81(1)
Summary
81(1)
Main Points
82(1)
InfoTrac® College Edition
82(1)
Passion, Love, and Sexual Behavior
83(30)
Human Sexual Arousal (Passion)
84(6)
The Biological Component
84(1)
The Learned Component
85(5)
The Cognitive Component
90(1)
Summary
90(1)
Attraction, Passion, Love, and Reproduction
91(6)
The Biological Component
91(3)
The Learned Component
94(1)
The Cognitive Component
95(2)
Practical Application 4-1 Striving to Attain Consummate Love
97(1)
Summary
97(1)
Biological Differences Between Men and Women
98(3)
Sex Hormones
98(3)
Summary
101(4)
Sexual Dimorphism in the Brain
102(2)
The Politics of Biological Difference
104(1)
Summary
105(1)
Sexual Orientation
105(6)
The Biological Component
105(2)
The Learned Component
107(2)
The Cognitive Component
109(2)
Summary
111(1)
Main Points
111(1)
InfoTrac® College Edition
112(1)
Arousal, Attention, and Peak Performance
113(33)
Definition of Arousal
114(1)
Cortical Arousal
114(3)
The Reticular Activating System (RAS)
114(1)
Measuring Cortical Activity
115(1)
Prefrontal Cortex and Attention
116(1)
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
117(1)
Evolutionary Consideration
117(1)
The Autonomic Nervous System
117(1)
Arousal, Affect, and Performance
118(5)
Arousal and Affect
118(1)
Arousal and Performance
118(5)
Arousal and Attention
123(1)
Arousal and Selective Attention
123(1)
Arousal and the Reorganization of Attention
123(1)
Two Activation Systems
124(1)
Conclusion
124(1)
Summary
124(1)
Challenges for Performance Theory
125(2)
Unexplained Arousal
125(1)
Systems Involved in Peak Performance
125(2)
Trait Arousal (Anxiety)
127(4)
The Biological Component
127(2)
The Learned Social Component
129(1)
The Cognitive Component
130(1)
High Trait Arousal and Performance
131(1)
Summary
131(1)
State Arousal: Sensory Overload
132(3)
Sources of Arousal
132(1)
The Biological Component
133(1)
The Learned Component
133(1)
The Cognitive Component
134(1)
Dealing with Sensory Overload at the Cognitive Level
134(1)
Sensory Overload and Performance
134(1)
Summary
135(1)
State Arousal: Cognitive Dissonance
135(1)
The Biological Component
135(1)
The Learned Component
136(1)
The Cognitive Component
136(1)
Cognitive Dissonance and Performance
136(1)
Summary
136(1)
State Arousal: Evaluation Arousal
137(1)
Test Anxiety
137(1)
Test Anxiety and Performance
138(1)
Summary
138(5)
Competition Arousal
138(5)
Evolutionary Considerations
143(1)
Coping with Evaluation Arousal
143(1)
Summary
143(2)
State Arousal and Performance: Some Concluding Comments
143(2)
Main Points
145(1)
InfoTrac® College Edition
145(1)
Wakefulness, Alertness, Sleep, and Dreams
146(29)
Origins of Sleep: Evolutionary Considerations
147(1)
Wakefulness, Sleep, and EEG Activity
148(8)
Correlates of Sleep and Wakefulness
148(1)
Hobson's Model of Sleep and Dreams
149(1)
Origins of REM and NREM
150(1)
Why We Fall Asleep and Why We Wake Up
150(1)
Practical Application 6-1 Adjusting to Jet Lag
151(1)
Individual Differences in Sleep Cycles
151(1)
Other Sleep Rhythms
151(1)
Effects of Sleep Loss
152(2)
Practical Application 6-2 Shift Work, Sleepiness, and Catnaps
154(2)
Some Paradoxical Effects of Sleep Deprivation
156(1)
Summary
156(1)
The Function of REM Sleep
157(6)
Paralysis During REM
157(1)
REM Deprivation in Humans
157(1)
The REM Rebound Effect
157(1)
REM Deprivation in Animals
158(1)
Motivational Theories of REM
158(1)
Neural Organization Theories of REM
158(3)
Individual Differences in the Need for REM Sleep
161(2)
Summary
163(1)
Dreaming
163(7)
Hobson's Activation/Synthesis Theory
163(2)
The Meaning of Dreams
165(2)
Status of Theories
167(1)
Practical Application 6-3 How to Become a Lucid Dreamer
168(1)
Hartmann's Theory of Sleep
169(1)
Summary
170(1)
Sleep Disorders
170(3)
Insomnia
170(2)
Practical Application 6-4 Some Common Reasons for Insomnia
172(1)
Sleep Apnea
172(1)
Summary
173(1)
Main Points
173(1)
InfoTrac® College Edition
174(1)
Drug Use and Drug Addiction
175(32)
Evolutionary Considerations
176(1)
Some Basic Terms and Concepts
176(4)
Drug Addiction: The World Health Organization Definition
176(1)
Substance Abuse
177(1)
Psychoactive Drugs
177(1)
Dependency
178(1)
Tolerance
178(1)
Solomon's Opponent Process Model of Tolerance
178(1)
Withdrawal
179(1)
Craving
179(1)
Summary
180(1)
Why People Become Addicted
181(1)
Approach and Avoidant Motivation
181(1)
A Motivational Model
181(1)
Practical Application 7-1 Factors That Influence Drug Use
182(1)
The Initial Motivation to Use Drugs
182(4)
The Biological Component
182(3)
The Learned Component
185(1)
The Cognitive Component
185(1)
Summary
186(1)
Why Drugs Are Addictive
186(1)
Heroin and Morphine
187(4)
The Biological Component
187(1)
The Learned Component
188(2)
The Cognitive Component
190(1)
Summary
191(1)
Stimulants: Cocaine and Amphetamines
191(2)
The Biological Component
191(1)
The Learned Component
192(1)
The Cognitive Component
193(1)
Summary
193(1)
The Hallucinogenics: Cannabis and LSD
194(1)
The Biological Component
194(1)
The Learned Component
194(1)
The Cognitive Component
195(1)
Summary
195(1)
Nicotine
196(1)
The Biological Component
196(1)
The Learned Component
196(1)
The Cognitive Component
196(1)
Summary
197(1)
Alcohol
197(6)
The Biological Component
197(2)
The Learned Component
199(1)
The Cognitive Component
200(3)
Summary
203(1)
Practical Application 7-2 How People Quit Addictions
204(1)
Main Points
204(2)
InfoTrac® College Edition
206(1)
Aggression, Coercive Action, and Anger
207(29)
Kinds of Aggression
208(1)
The Traditional Definition of Aggression
209(1)
Research on Aggression
209(1)
Early Laboratory Research
209(1)
Aggression in the Real World
210(1)
New Concepts Regarding Aggression
210(1)
The Need to Control
210(1)
A Working Definition of Aggression
211(1)
Anger and Aggression
211(1)
Summary
211(1)
Measuring Human Aggression
212(1)
The Biological Component of Aggression
212(4)
Genetic Processes
212(1)
Hormones and Aggression
212(2)
Neuromechanisms
214(2)
Summary
216(1)
The Learned Component of Aggression
216(4)
The Concept of Frustration
216(2)
Social Learning Theory
218(2)
Summary
220(1)
The Cognitive Component of Aggression
220(5)
A Model of Coercive Action
220(4)
Interpersonal Violence
224(1)
Summary
225(1)
Youth Violence
225(3)
The Biological Component
226(1)
The Learned Component
226(2)
The Cognitive Component
228(1)
Summary
228(1)
Aggression and Crime
228(6)
An Integrated Theory of Crime
229(2)
Aggression and Self-Esteem
231(1)
Practical Application 8-1 Learning to Manage Anger
232(2)
Self-Regulation and Crime
234(1)
Summary
234(1)
Main Points
235(1)
InfoTrac® College Edition
235(1)
Part Three Emotions and Motivation
Emotions, Stress, and Health
236(34)
Emotions and Motivation
237(2)
The Definition of Emotions
238(1)
The Universal Nature of Emotions
238(1)
The Role of Appraisal in Emotions
239(1)
Summary
239(1)
What Is Stress?
240(1)
The Definition of Stress
240(1)
Stress as a Sustained Fight-or-Flight Response
240(1)
The Biological Component of Stress
241(5)
The Sympathetic/Adrenal and Pituitary/Adrenal Responses
241(3)
Stress and the Immune System
244(2)
Summary
246(1)
The Learned Component of Stress
246(5)
Unpredictability and Stress
247(2)
Learning How to Respond to Stress
249(1)
Social Factors and Stress: The Workplace Example
249(2)
Summary
251(1)
The Cognitive Component of Stress
251(2)
Problem-Focused and Emotion-Focused Coping
252(1)
Situational Factors and Personal Control
252(1)
Summary
253(1)
Moderators of Stress
253(8)
The Biological Component
253(1)
Practical Application 9-1 Pet Ownership and Health
254(1)
The Learned Component
255(3)
Practical Application 9-2 Becoming a Constructive Thinker
258(2)
The Cognitive Component
260(1)
Summary
261(2)
Practical Application 9-3 Some Rules for Dealing with Stress
262(1)
Stress and Health
263(1)
The Cancer Model
264(4)
The Biological Component
265(1)
The Learned Component
265(1)
The Cognitive Component
266(2)
Religion, Spirituality, and Health
268(1)
Summary
268(1)
Main Points
268(1)
InfoTrac® College Edition
269(1)
Goal-Incongruent (Negative) Emotions
270(33)
Fear and Anxiety
271(9)
The Biological Component
272(1)
Anti-Anxiety Drugs
272(2)
The Learned Component
274(3)
The Cognitive Component
277(3)
Summary
280(1)
Pessimism and Depression
280(14)
Modern Individualism and the Rise of Depression
281(1)
The Biological Component of Depression
282(3)
The Learned Component of Depression
285(3)
Practical Application 10-1 How to Ward Off Depression
288(1)
The Cognitive Component of Depression
288(4)
Practical Application 10-2 Cognitive Therapy and Depression: Learning the Art of Constructive Thinking
292(2)
Summary
294(1)
Guilt and Shame
295(4)
The Biological Component
296(1)
The Learned Component
297(1)
The Cognitive Component
298(1)
Negative Emotions and Goal-Directed Behavior
299(1)
Summary
299(4)
Practical Application 10-3 Managing Excessive Guilt and Shame
300(1)
Main Points
301(1)
InfoTrac® College Edition
302(1)
Goal-Congruent (Positive) Emotions
303(29)
Happiness
304(7)
Three Myths About the Origins of Happiness
304(1)
The Biological Component
305(2)
The Learned and Cognitive Components
307(1)
Practical Application 11-1 Improving Human Happiness
308(2)
Why Did Humans Evolve a Large Prefrontal Cortex in the First Place?
310(1)
Happiness and Coping
311(2)
The Biological Component
312(1)
The Learned/Cognitive Component
312(1)
Summary
313(1)
The Question of Uncertainty and Coping
313(5)
Happiness from Confronting Fear and Uncertainty: Developing a Bias for Action
313(1)
The Biological Component
314(1)
The Learned/Cognitive Component
314(1)
Self-Efficacy Theory and the Dual Route to Anxiety Control
315(3)
Summary
318(1)
Optimism and Hope
318(5)
The Biological Component
319(1)
The Learned/Cognitive Component
320(1)
Optimism and Health
321(2)
Summary
323(1)
The Role of Early Experience: The Question of Attachment
323(7)
Practical Application 11-2 How to Become an Optimist: The ABCDE Method
324(2)
The Biological Component
326(2)
The Learned/Cognitive Component
328(2)
Summary
330(1)
Main Points
331(1)
InfoTrac® College Edition
331(1)
Part Four Growth Motivation and Self-Regulation
From Curiosity to Creativity
332(27)
Curiosity and Exploratory Behavior
333(9)
Novelty, Curiosity, and Exploratory Behavior
333(2)
Competence and Exploratory Behavior
335(1)
What Is the Motivation to Explore?
335(1)
The Concept of Challenge and Growth
336(1)
Anxiety and Exploratory Behavior
337(1)
The Biological Component
338(1)
The Learned/Cognitive Component
339(1)
Intrinsic Motivation
340(1)
Self-Determination Theory
340(2)
Summary
342(1)
Sensation Seeking
342(5)
The Biological Component
343(1)
The Learned/Cognitive Component
343(1)
Practical Application 12-1 Are You a High or a Low Sensation Seeker?
344(3)
Summary
347(1)
Creativity
347(9)
The Biological Component
348(1)
The Learned/Cognitive Component
349(3)
The Process of Creativity
352(4)
Practical Application 12-2 Motivating Creativity by Asking ``What If?''
356(1)
Summary
356(2)
Main Points
358(1)
InfoTrac® College Edition
358(1)
The Need for Control and Competence
359(24)
The Need for Predictability and Control
360(3)
Control and Health
361(1)
The Biological Component
361(1)
The Learned Component
362(1)
The Cognitive Component
362(1)
Summary
363(1)
Competence and Achievement Motivation
363(7)
Achievement Motivation
364(1)
The Concept of Competence
364(1)
The Biological Component
365(1)
The Learned Component
365(1)
The Cognitive Component
366(3)
Practical Application 13-1 Determining Your Achievement Orientation
369(1)
Summary
370(1)
Self-Regulation of Competence Development
371(10)
Some Self-Regulatory Processes That Highly Competent People Use
371(1)
The Basic Elements of Self-Regulation
372(1)
Theory and Principles of Goal Setting
373(4)
A Cyclical Model of Self-Regulation
377(4)
Summary
381(1)
Main Points
382(1)
InfoTrac® College Edition
382(1)
The Self-Concept and Self-Esteem
383(25)
The Biological Component
384(1)
The Evolution of Consciousness
384(1)
The Learned and Cognitive Components
385(11)
Two Aspects of the Self
385(1)
Possible Selves
386(2)
Implicit Theories
388(1)
Practical Application 14-1 How to Create Possible Selves
389(6)
The Relationship Between World Theories and Self Theories
395(1)
Growth Goals and Personality Development
395(1)
Summary
396(1)
Self-Esteem and the Self-Conscious Emotions
396(10)
The Definition of Self-Esteem
397(2)
Distinguishing Between Self-Esteem and Self-Worth
399(1)
The Motivation for Developing the Self-System and Self-Esteem
399(1)
Fear of Death: Terror Management Theory
400(1)
The Question of Biology Versus Learning
401(1)
Three Major Sources of Self-Esteem Feelings
401(1)
Gender Differences
402(1)
The Benefits of High Self-Esteem
402(4)
Summary
406(1)
Main Points
407(1)
InfoTrac® College Edition
407(1)
References 408(37)
Author Index 445(8)
Subject Index 453


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