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Human Motor Development : A Lifespan Approach



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McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
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How does a child learn to walk? Can people become more physically fit in their 60s than they were in their 20s? Do physical abilities inevitably decline with age? Human Motor Development: A Lifespan Approach offers a broad perspective on the movement changes that occur throughout our lives. The text explores both the physical factors that play a role in the way we move and the social and cognitive factors that contribute to and affect motor development. The seventh edition has been rigorously updated to include the most current research findings in the field.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xxi
About the Authorsp. xxiv
An Overview of Development
Introduction to Motor Developmentp. 1
Human Motor Developmentp. 2
The Importance of Motor Developmentp. 3
The Domains of Human Developmentp. 4
Development, Maturation, and Growthp. 6
Developmentp. 6
Maturation and Growthp. 8
General Motor Development Termsp. 8
Developmental Directionp. 8
Differentiation and Integrationp. 9
Gross Movement and Fine Movementp. 10
The Process-Product Controversyp. 11
Terms for Age Periods Throughout the Lifespanp. 12
Stages of Developmentp. 14
The History of the Field of Motor Developmentp. 14
An Interdisciplinary Approach to Motor Developmentp. 17
Designing Research in Motor Development: Cross-Sectional, Longitudinal, or...?p. 18
Summaryp. 20
Key Termsp. 21
Questions for Reflectionp. 21
Internet Resourcesp. 22
Online Learning Centerp. 22
Referencesp. 22
Cognitive and Motor Developmentp. 24
Psychomotor or Motor?p. 25
Jean Piaget and Cognitive Developmentp. 25
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Developmentp. 26
Infancy: The Sensorimotor Stage and Motor Developmentp. 28
Childhood: Preoperations and Motor Developmentp. 32
Later Childhood and Adolescence: Cognitive and Motor Developmentp. 34
Concrete Operational Stagep. 34
Formal Operational Stagep. 35
Adulthood: Postformal Operationsp. 36
Adulthood: General Theories of Intellectual Developmentp. 37
The Notion of Total Intellectual Declinep. 37
Partial Intellectual Declinesp. 37
Knowledge Development and Sport Performancep. 40
Summaryp. 42
Key Termsp. 43
Questions for Reflectionp. 43
Online Learning Centerp. 43
Referencesp. 43
Social and Motor Developmentp. 45
Socializationp. 46
Self-Esteem Development and Physical Activityp. 47
Social Influences During Infancyp. 50
Social Influences During Childhoodp. 51
Playp. 52
Familyp. 55
Social Influences During Older Childhood and Adolescencep. 57
Team Playp. 58
Gender Role Identification and Movement Activityp. 60
Social Factors of Adulthoodp. 61
Social Learning and Ageismp. 63
Other Social Situations Likely to Affect Motor Developmentp. 65
The Exercise-Aging Cyclep. 67
Avoiding the Exercise-Aging Cyclep. 68
Summaryp. 71
Key Termsp. 72
Questions for Reflectionp. 72
Internet Resourcesp. 72
Online Learning Centerp. 73
Referencesp. 73
Factors That Affect Development
Prenatal Development Concernsp. 75
Prenatal Developmentp. 76
The First 2 Weeks: Germinal Periodp. 76
Weeks 3 to 8: Embryonic Periodp. 77
Weeks 9 to Birth: Fetal Periodp. 77
Drugs and Medicationsp. 79
Recreational Drugsp. 79
Prescriptive Drugsp. 82
Nonprescriptive Drugsp. 82
Obstetrical Medicationsp. 83
Maternal Diseasesp. 84
Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndromep. 84
Human Immunodeficiency Virusp. 84
Toxoplasmosisp. 85
Rh Incompatibility and Erythroblastosis Fetalisp. 86
Diabetes Mellitusp. 86
Genetic Factorsp. 87
Chromosomal Disordersp. 87
Gene-Based Disordersp. 88
Prenatal Diagnostic Proceduresp. 91
Ultrasoundp. 91
Amniocentesisp. 91
Chorionic Villus Samplingp. 93
Alpha-Fetoprotein Testp. 93
Triple Marker Screeningp. 93
Maternal Nutritionp. 95
Birth Weightp. 96
Exercise During Pregnancyp. 98
Maternal Response to Exercisep. 99
Fetal Responses to Maternal Exercisep. 100
Summaryp. 101
Key Termsp. 102
Questions for Reflectionp. 103
Internet Resourcesp. 103
Online Learning Centerp. 103
Referencesp. 104
Effects of Early Stimulation and Deprivationp. 107
Effects of Early Stimulationp. 108
Programs to Enhance Early Motor Developmentp. 109
Gymboreep. 110
Swim Programs for Infants and Preschoolersp. 111
Suzuki Method of Playing the Violinp. 114
Head Start Programsp. 115
Infant Walkersp. 117
Johnny and Jimmyp. 118
Effects of Early Deprivationp. 120
Hopi Cradleboards and Infant Developmentp. 121
Deprivation Dwarfismp. 121
Anna: A Case of Extreme Isolationp. 122
The "Young Savage of Abeyron"p. 123
Concepts Concerning Stimulation and Deprivationp. 124
Critical Periodsp. 124
Readinessp. 126
Catch-Upp. 127
Summaryp. 129
Key Termsp. 130
Questions for Reflectionp. 130
Internet Resourcesp. 130
Online Learning Centerp. 131
Referencesp. 131
Physical Changes Across the Lifespan
Growth and Maturationp. 133
Measuring Growth in Length and Staturep. 134
Growth in Length and Staturep. 135
Measuring Body Weightp. 137
Growth in Body Weightp. 138
Combining Body Weight and Height: Body Mass Indexp. 143
Stature and Weight: Interrelationship with Motor Development and Performancep. 145
Adolescent Awkwardnessp. 146
Measuring Changes in Body Proportionsp. 148
Changes in Body Proportionsp. 153
Changes in the Ratio of Head Length to Total Body Lengthp. 153
Changes in Head Circumferencep. 154
Changes in Sitting Heightp. 154
Growth in Shoulder and Hip Widthp. 154
Physiquep. 155
Body Proportions: Interrelationship with Motor Performancep. 157
Measuring Skeletal Healthp. 158
Skeletal Developmentp. 158
Exercise, Skeletal Development, and Healthp. 159
Maturation and Developmental Agep. 162
Skeletal Maturityp. 162
Dental Maturityp. 162
Age of Menarchep. 164
Genitalia Maturityp. 165
Maturation: Interrelationship with Motor Performancep. 165
Summaryp. 167
Key Termsp. 167
Questions for Reflectionp. 167
Internet Resourcesp. 168
Online Learning Centerp. 168
Referencesp. 168
Physiciological Changes: Health-Related Physical Fitnessp. 171
Cardiovascular Fitnessp. 172
Heart Ratep. 172
Stroke Volumep. 173
Cardiac Outputp. 174
Maximal Oxygen Consumptionp. 174
Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Fitness in Childhoodp. 175
Cardiovascular Endurance Field-Test Data on Children and Adolescentsp. 176
Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Fitness in Adulthoodp. 177
Muscular Strengthp. 179
Defining and Measuring Muscular Strengthp. 180
Age-Related Changes in Muscular Strength: Laboratory Testsp. 180
Age-Related Changes in Muscular Strength/Endurance: Field Testsp. 181
Muscular Strength Trainingp. 182
Mechanisms of Increasing Muscular Strengthp. 188
Flexibilityp. 189
Flexibility: Performance Trendsp. 191
Declining Flexibility and Aging: Causes and Therapyp. 191
Body Compositionp. 192
Defining Overweight and Obesep. 192
General Growth Trends of Adipose Tissuep. 193
Prevalence of Overweight and Obesityp. 193
Association Between Childhood and Adulthood Obesityp. 196
Laboratory-Test Measures of Body Compositionp. 197
Field-Test Measures of Body Compositionp. 198
Relationship of Obesity to Motor Development and Performancep. 202
Treatment of Overweight and Obesityp. 202
Gender Differences in Health-Related Physical Fitnessp. 204
Factors Associated with Physiological Fitnessp. 204
Points of Controversy and Concernp. 204
Summaryp. 205
Key Termsp. 206
Questions for Reflectionp. 206
Internet Resourcesp. 207
Online Learning Centerp. 207
Referencesp. 207
Movement and the Changing Sensesp. 212
Understanding the Mechanics of Visionp. 213
Physical Development of the Eyep. 213
Development of Selected Visual Traits and Skilled Motor Performancep. 214
Visual Acuityp. 214
Binocular Vision and Depth Perceptionp. 218
Field of Visionp. 222
Effects of Aging on Depth Perception and Field of Visionp. 223
Eye Dominancep. 223
Tracking and Object Interceptionp. 224
Motor Development of Children with Visual Impairmentsp. 225
Head and Trunk Controlp. 226
Independent Sittingp. 226
Creepingp. 226
Independent Walkingp. 226
Prehensionp. 226
Play Behavior of Children with Visual Impairmentsp. 227
The Nonvisual Sensesp. 228
The Proprioceptive Systemp. 228
The Auditory Systemp. 229
The Cutaneous Systemp. 230
Summaryp. 231
Key Termsp. 232
Questions for Reflectionp. 232
Internet Resourcesp. 233
Online Learning Centerp. 233
Referencesp. 233
Movement Across the Lifespan
Infant Reflexes and Stereotypiesp. 235
Importance of the Infant Reflexesp. 236
Infant Versus Lifespan Reflexesp. 236
Role of the Reflexes in Survivalp. 237
Role of the Reflexes in Developing Future Movementp. 238
The Reflexes as Diagnostic Toolsp. 239
Pinpointing the Number of Infant Reflexesp. 241
Primitive Reflexesp. 241
Palmar Grasp Reflexp. 241
Sucking Reflexp. 242
Search Reflexp. 243
Moro Reflexp. 243
Startle Reflexp. 244
Asymmetric Tonic Neck Reflexp. 244
Symmetric Tonic Neck Reflexp. 245
Plantar Grasp Reflexp. 246
Babinski Reflexp. 246
Palmar Mandibular Reflexp. 246
Palmar Mental Reflexp. 247
Postural Reflexesp. 248
Stepping Reflexp. 248
Crawling Reflexp. 249
Swimming Reflexp. 249
Head- and Body-Righting Reflexesp. 249
Parachuting Reflexesp. 251
Labyrinthine Reflexp. 251
Pull-Up Reflexp. 251
Stereotypiesp. 252
Summaryp. 255
Key Termsp. 255
Questions for Reflectionp. 255
Online Learning Centerp. 255
Referencesp. 256
Voluntary Movements of Infancyp. 257
Categorizing the Voluntary Movements of Infancyp. 258
Head Controlp. 258
Body Controlp. 260
Prone Locomotionp. 263
Upright Locomotionp. 264
Reaching, Grasping, and Releasingp. 267
Anticipation and Object Control in Reaching and Graspingp. 270
Bimanual Controlp. 271
Summaryp. 273
Key Termsp. 273
Questions for Reflectionp. 273
Online Learning Centerp. 274
Referencesp. 274
Fine Motor Developmentp. 275
Assessing Fine Movementp. 276
Categorizing Manipulationp. 276
The Development of Prehensionp. 278
An Alternate View of the Development of Prehensionp. 281
Exploratory Procedures and Haptic Perceptionp. 283
Holding a Writing Implementp. 285
Cross-Cultural Comparison of Development of the Dynamic Tripodp. 288
The Dynamic Tripod from 6 to 14 Yearsp. 289
Drawing and Writing: Movement Productsp. 289
Drawing: The Productp. 289
Handwriting: The Productp. 292
Finger Tappingp. 293
Fine Motor Slowing in Late Adulthoodp. 294
Summaryp. 295
Key Termsp. 296
Questions for Reflectionp. 296
Online Learning Centerp. 297
Referencesp. 297
Fundamental Locomotion Skills of Childhoodp. 299
Walkingp. 300
Dynamic Basep. 301
Foot Anglep. 301
Walking Speedp. 301
Walking with External Loadsp. 303
Walking with and Without Shoesp. 303
Runningp. 304
Selected Improvements in the Running Patternp. 304
Developmental Sequences for Runningp. 305
Developmental Performance Trends for Runningp. 306
Jumpingp. 310
Preparatory Phasep. 310
Takeoff and Flight Phasesp. 311
Landing Phasep. 311
Developmental Sequences for the Standing Long Jumpp. 312
Developmental Sequences for the Vertical Jumpp. 312
Developmental Performance Trends for Vertical Jumpingp. 313
A Variation of Jumping: Hoppingp. 315
Combining Fundamental Movements: The Gallop, Slide, and Skipp. 316
Summaryp. 324
Key Termsp. 325
Questions for Reflectionp. 325
Internet Resourcesp. 325
Online Learning Centerp. 326
Referencesp. 326
Fundamental Object-Control Skills of Childhoodp. 328
Overarm Throwingp. 329
Developmental Stages of Throwingp. 329
Developmental Performance Trends for Overarm Throwingp. 330
Factors That Influence Overarm Throwing Performancep. 334
Accounting for Gender Differences in Overarm Throwingp. 338
Catchingp. 340
Developmental Aspects: Two-Handed Catchingp. 340
Developmental Sequences for Two-Handed Catchingp. 341
Developmental Aspects: One-Handed Catchingp. 344
Factors That Influence Catching Performancep. 345
Strikingp. 348
Developmental Aspects of One- and Two-Handed Strikingp. 349
Stationary Ball Bouncingp. 351
Kickingp. 352
Puntingp. 355
Summaryp. 357
Key Termsp. 358
Questions for Reflectionp. 358
Online Learning Centerp. 358
Referencesp. 358
Youth Sportsp. 362
Where Children Participate in Sportsp. 365
Why Children Participate in Sportsp. 366
Participation: Competence Motivation Theoryp. 367
Why Children Drop Out of Sportsp. 368
Sport Participation: Controversiesp. 369
Medical Issuesp. 369
Psychological Issuesp. 378
Youth Sport Coachingp. 380
Who's Coaching Our Children?p. 381
An Increasing Need for Educating Coachesp. 381
Current Coaching Certification Programsp. 382
Arguments Against Mandatory Coaching Certificationp. 382
Evaluating Coaching Effectivenessp. 383
Guidelines for Effective Coachingp. 383
Parental Education: An Attempt to Curb Violencep. 383
Rights of Young Athletesp. 384
Youth Sports: Recommendations for the 21st Centuryp. 387
Summaryp. 387
Key Termsp. 387
Questions for Reflectionp. 388
Internet Resourcesp. 388
Online Learning Centerp. 388
Referencesp. 388
Movement in Adulthoodp. 392
The Shift to a Lifespan Approach to Motor Developmentp. 393
Balance and Postural Swayp. 395
Fallsp. 398
Causes of Fallsp. 399
Strategies to Avoid Falls Among the Elderlyp. 401
Walking Patterns of Adulthoodp. 402
Driving and Older Agep. 404
Adult Performance on Selected Motor Activitiesp. 406
Activities of Daily Livingp. 407
Age of Peak Proficiencyp. 408
Adult Performance During High Arousalp. 409
Movement Speed in Adulthoodp. 411
Running Speedp. 411
Reaction and Response Timep. 412
Is a Movement Decline Inevitable with Age?p. 414
Compensation for the Movement Declinep. 414
Effects of Exercise on the Movement Declinep. 415
Effects of Practice on the Movement Declinep. 417
Physical Activity Trends in Adulthoodp. 418
Sports-Related Injuries to Baby Boomers and Older Adultsp. 419
Teaching Movement Skill to the Older Adultp. 420
The World Health Organization Heidelberg Guidelinesp. 422
Summaryp. 424
Key Termsp. 425
Questions for Reflectionp. 426
Internet Resourcesp. 426
Online Learning Centerp. 426
Referencesp. 426
Assessing Motor Development and Implementing a Program
Assessmentp. 429
Guidelines for Assessmentp. 430
Why Assess?p. 430
What Variables to Assessp. 430
Selecting the Best Testp. 430
Preparing Students for Assessmentp. 431
Instructor Preparation and Data Collectionp. 432
Interpreting the Assessment Datap. 432
Formal Versus Informal Assessmentp. 434
Sharing Assessment Resultsp. 434
Types of Assessment Instrumentsp. 434
Norm-Referencedp. 435
Criterion-Referencedp. 435
Product-Oriented Assessmentp. 435
Product- Versus Process-Oriented Assessment: A Comparative Examplep. 435
Product-Oriented Assessmentp. 436
Process-Oriented Assessmentp. 436
Selected Norm-Referenced Instrumentsp. 437
Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development IIIp. 437
Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiencyp. 437
Basic Motor Ability Test-Revisedp. 437
Denver IIp. 438
Selected Process-Oriented Assessment Instrumentsp. 440
Sigmap. 440
Developmental Sequence of Motor Skills Inventoryp. 440
Fundamental Motor Pattern Assessment Instrumentp. 443
Test of Gross Motor Development-2p. 443
Assessing the Disabledp. 443
Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Developmentp. 448
I Canp. 448
Aids in Assessing Motor Skillsp. 449
Assessing Physical Fitnessp. 449
The Fitnessgram/Activitygramp. 449
The Brockport Physical Fitness Testp. 453
The President's Challengep. 453
National Youth Physical Fitness Programp. 456
National Children and Youth Fitness Studies I and IIp. 456
Functional Fitness Assessment for Adults Over 60 Yearsp. 457
The Senior Fitness Testp. 457
Summaryp. 457
Key Termsp. 458
Questions for Reflectionp. 458
Internet Resourcesp. 458
Online Learning Centerp. 459
Referencesp. 459
Planning and Conducting Developmental Movement Programsp. 461
Preprogram Considerationsp. 462
Philosophyp. 462
Facilities and Equipmentp. 462
Personnelp. 467
Administrative Considerationsp. 468
Advertising the Programp. 468
Registrationp. 469
Orientation Meetingp. 469
First-Aid and Emergency Proceduresp. 471
Cancellation Proceduresp. 471
Drop-Off and Pick-Up Proceduresp. 472
Curricular Considerationsp. 472
Preprogram Assessmentsp. 472
Instructional Organizationp. 473
Instructional Delivery Considerationsp. 473
Postprogram Discussionsp. 476
Parents' Workshopp. 476
Summaryp. 477
Key Termsp. 477
Questions for Reflectionp. 477
Internet Resourcesp. 477
Online Learning Centerp. 478
Referencesp. 478
Growth Charts: National Center for Health Statisticsp. A-1
Body Mass Index Tablep. A-12
Summary of the Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Healthp. A-14
Summary of the CDC's Guidelines for School and Community Programs Promoting Lifelong Physical Activityp. A-18
List of Web Sitesp. A-23
Author Indexp. I-1
Subject Indexp. I-7
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