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Instruction : A Models Approach,9780205288618
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Instruction : A Models Approach

by ; ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780205288618

ISBN10:
0205288618
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $80.00
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Summary

The third edition of Instruction continues its research-based discussion of the models of teaching using a user-friendly, step-by-step format. Classroom examples and end-of-book case studies illustrate key points and are drawn from a variety of grade levels and classroom experiences. Unlike other texts that focus on models, Instruction provides an easy-to-follow format explaining over one dozen models for classroom teaching. The models are placed in a classroom setting to further enhance students' understanding of the concepts behind each model.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Part One Planning for Instruction 1(58)
Chapter 1 Describing Educational Goals: The Learner, Society, and the Subject Matter
3(21)
Setting Goals
3(7)
The Needs of Learners
3(6)
Societal Needs
9(1)
Subject Matter Content
10(1)
National, State, and Local Standards
10(6)
Developing a Rationale
16(6)
Examples of Course Rationales
16(4)
Matching Rationales to Learning Environments
20(2)
Summary
22(1)
Web Resources
22(1)
Notes
22(2)
Chapter 2 Determining Learning Outcomes and Evaluation Strategies: Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Objectives
24(18)
Defining Objectives
24(2)
Drafting Objectives
26(1)
Types of Objectives
27(8)
Cognitive Objectives
27(5)
Affective Objectives
32(1)
Psychomotor Objectives
33(2)
Determining Evaluation Strategies
35(5)
Evaluating Cognitive Objectives
36(1)
Evaluating Affective Objectives
37(1)
Evaluating Psychomotor Objectives
38(2)
Summary
40(1)
Web Resources
40(1)
Notes
40(2)
Chapter 3 Organizing Content: Course, Unit, and Lesson Design
42(15)
Analyzing Content
43(1)
Facts
43(1)
Concepts
43(1)
Generalizations
43(1)
Ordering Content
44(1)
Principle One
44(1)
Principle Two
45(1)
Unit Design
45(5)
Scope
46(1)
Focus
47(1)
Sequence
48(2)
Developing Lesson Plans
50(5)
Deductive and Inductive Organization
51(1)
Advance Organizers
51(3)
Objectives for Lessons
54(1)
Sample Outline for Lesson Planning
55(1)
Summary
56(1)
Web Resources
56(1)
Notes
56(1)
Summary of Part One
57(2)
Part Two Matching Objectives to Instruction: A Models Approach 59(258)
Chapter 4 The Direct Instruction Model: Teaching Basic Skills, Facts, and Knowledge
65(20)
Steps in the Direct Instruction Model
66(10)
Step 1--Review Previously Learned Material
66(1)
Step 2--State Objectives for the Lesson
67(1)
Step 3--Present New Material
67(4)
Step 4--Guide Practice with Corrective Feedback
71(3)
Step 5--Assign Independent Practice with Corrective Feedback
74(1)
Step 6--Review Periodically with Corrective Feedback If Necessary
75(1)
Summary of Steps in the Direct Instruction Model
76(1)
Basis for the Direct Instruction Model
77(4)
Concepts of Training Behavior
78(2)
Basic Principles of Conditioning Behavior
80(1)
Scenario
81(2)
Summary
83(1)
Notes
83(2)
Chapter 5 The Concept Attainment Model: Defining Concepts Inductively
85(16)
Steps in the Concept Attainment Model
86(6)
Step 1--Select and Define a Concept
87(1)
Step 2--Select the Attributes
88(1)
Step 3--Develop Positive and Negative Examples
88(1)
Step 4--Introduce the Process to the Students
88(1)
Step 5--Present the Examples and List the Attributes
89(2)
Step 6--Develop a Concept Definition
91(1)
Step 7--Give Additional Examples
91(1)
Step 8--Discuss the Process with the Class
92(1)
Step 9--Evaluate
92(1)
Summary of Steps in the Concept Attainment Model
92(1)
Variations on the Concept Attainment Model
93(2)
Basis for the Concept Attainment Model
95(2)
Scenario
97(3)
Summary
100(1)
Notes
100(1)
Chapter 6 The Concept Development Model: Analyzing the Relationships between Parts of a Concept
101(21)
Understanding Concepts
101(3)
What Is Concept Development?
101(1)
What Is a Concept?
102(1)
Concept Development Mirrors Our Natural Thought Processes
103(1)
Steps in the Concept Development Model
104(7)
Step 1--List as Many Items as Possible That Are Associated with the Subject
105(2)
Step 2--Group the Items Because They Are Alike in Some Way
107(1)
Step 3--Label the Groups by Defining the Reasons for Grouping
107(1)
Step 4--Regroup or Subsume Individual Items or Whole Groups under Other Groups
108(2)
Step 5--Synthesize the Information by Summarizing the Data and Forming Generalizations
110(1)
Step 6--Evaluate Students' Progress by Assessing Their Ability to Generate a Wide Variety of Items and to Group Those Items Flexibly
110(1)
Summary of Steps in the Concept Development Model
111(1)
Basis for the Concept Development Model
112(4)
Conceptual Thinking Is Learned
113(1)
Concepts Are Creative Ways of Structuring Reality
114(1)
Concepts Are the Building Blocks of Patterns
115(1)
Scenario
116(2)
Step 1
116(1)
Step 2 and 3
117(1)
Step 4
117(1)
Step 5
117(1)
Step 6
118(1)
Benefits of Using the Concept Development Model
118(3)
Summary
121(1)
Notes
121(1)
Chapter 7 The Suchman Inquiry Model: Teaching Problem Solving through Discovery and Questioning
122(16)
Steps in the Suchman Inquiry Model
123(4)
Step 1--Select a Problem and Conduct Research
123(2)
Step 2--Introduce the Process and Present the Problem
125(1)
Step 3--Gather Data
125(1)
Step 4--Develop a Theory and Verify
126(1)
Step 5--State the Rules and Explain the Theory
127(1)
Step 6--Analyze the Process
127(1)
Step 7--Evaluate
127(1)
Summary of Steps in the Suchman Inquiry Model
127(2)
Basis for the Suchman Inquiry Model
129(2)
Scenario
131(5)
Summary
136(1)
Notes
136(2)
Chapter 8 Synectics: Developing Creative Thinking and Problem Solving
138(23)
Version One: Making the Familiar Strange
140(1)
Steps in Synectics: Making the Familiar Strange
140(4)
Step 1--Describe the Topic
140(1)
Step 2--Create Direct Analogies
141(1)
Step 3--Describe Personal Analogies
141(1)
Step 4--Identify Compressed Conflicts
142(1)
Step 5--Create a New Direct Analogy
142(1)
Step 6--Reexamine the Original Topic
143(1)
Step 7--Evaluate
143(1)
Summary of Steps in Making the Familiar Strange
144(1)
Version Two: Making the Strange Familiar
145(1)
Steps in Synectics: Making the Strange Familiar
145(2)
Step 1--Provide Information
146(1)
Step 2--Present the Analogy
146(1)
Step 3--Use Personal Analogy to Create Compressed Conflicts
146(1)
Step 4--Compare the Compressed Conflict with the Subject
146(1)
Step 5--Identify Differences
146(1)
Step 6--Reexamine the Original Subject
147(1)
Step 7--Create New Direct Analogies
147(1)
Step 8--Evaluate
147(1)
Summary of Steps in Making the Strange Familiar
147(1)
Version Three: The Synectics Excursion
148(1)
Steps in the Synectics Excursion
148(3)
Step 1--Present the Problem
149(1)
Step 2--Provide Expert Information
149(1)
Step 3--Question Obvious Solutions and Purge
149(1)
Step 4--Generate Individual Problem Statements
149(1)
Step 5--Choose One Problem Statement for Focus
149(1)
Step 6--Question through the Use of Analogies
150(1)
Step 7--Force Analogies to Fit the Problem
150(1)
Step 8--Determine a Solution from a New Viewpoint
151(1)
Step 9--Evaluate
151(1)
Summary of Steps in the Synectics Excursion
151(1)
Basis for Synectics
152(2)
Scenario for Making the Familiar Strange
154(5)
Step 1--Describe the Topic
154(1)
Step 2--Create Direct Analogies
155(1)
Step 3--Describe Personal Analogies
155(1)
Step 4--Identify Compressed Conflicts
156(1)
Step 5--Create a New Direct Analogy
156(1)
Step 6--Reexamine the Original Topic
157(1)
Step 7--Evaluate
158(1)
Summary
159(1)
Notes
160(1)
Chapter 9 The Cause and Effect Model: Influencing Events by Analyzing Causality
161(18)
Steps in the Cause and Effect Model
162(1)
The Steps in More Detail
163(6)
Step 1--Choose the Data or Topic to Be Analyzed
165(1)
Step 2--Ask for Causes and Support for Those Causes
166(1)
Step 3--Ask for Effects and Support
166(1)
Step 4--Ask for Prior Causes and Support
166(1)
Step 5--Ask for Subsequent Effects and Support
166(1)
Step 6--Ask for Conclusions
167(1)
Step 7--Ask for Generalizations
168(1)
Step 8--Evaluate Students' Performances
168(1)
Summary of Steps in the Cause and Effect Model
169(1)
Comments on Conducting the Model
169(4)
Variations of the Cause and Effect Model
173(1)
Basis for the Cause and Effect Model
174(1)
Scenario
175(2)
Summary
177(1)
Notes
178(1)
Chapter 10 The Classroom Discussion Model: Conducting Classroom Discussions Based on the Preparation of Factual, Interpretive, and Evaluative Questions
179(28)
Steps in the Classroom Discussion Model
180(15)
Step 1--Read the Material and Prepare the Questions
181(5)
Step 2--Plan and Cluster the Questions
186(4)
Step 3--Introduce the Model to the Students
190(1)
Step 4--Conduct the Discussion
191(1)
Step 5--Review the Process and Summarize the Students' Observations
192(1)
Step 6--(Optional) Evaluate the Discussion
193(2)
Summary of Steps in the Classroom Discussion Model
195(1)
Basis for the Classroom Discussion Model
195(3)
Scenario
198(7)
Summary
205(1)
Notes
205(2)
Chapter 11 The Vocabulary Acquisition Model: Learning the Spellings and Meanings of Words
207(21)
Steps in the Vocabulary Acquisition Model
210(7)
Step 1--Pretest Knowledge of Words Critical to Content
210(1)
Step 2--Elaborate upon and Discuss Invented Spellings and Hypothesized Meanings
210(3)
Step 3--Explore Patterns of Meaning
213(2)
Step 4--Read and Study
215(1)
Step 5--Evaluate and Posttest
216(1)
Summary of Steps in the Vocabulary Acquisition Model
217(1)
Basis for the Vocabulary Acquisition Model
217(4)
Instructional Resources and Tools for Vocabulary Acquisition
221(4)
A Basic Dictionary
222(1)
Etymological Reference Sources
222(2)
Phrases, Sayings, and Expressions
224(1)
In General
224(1)
Scenario
225(2)
Summary
227(1)
Note
227(1)
Chapter 12 The Resolution of Conflict Model: Reaching Solutions through Shared Perspectives
228(17)
Choosing a Conflict
228(1)
Steps in the Conflict Resolution Model
229(1)
The Steps in More Detail
230(3)
Step 1--List All Facts Pertinent to the Conflict
231(1)
Step 2--Identify the Reasons for the Actions, the Feelings of the Participants, and the Reasons for Those Feelings
231(1)
Step 3--Propose Alternative Solutions and Review Their Possible Effects
231(1)
Step 4--Decide on the Best Resolution and Hypothesize What the Consequences Would Be
232(1)
Step 5--Discuss Similar Situations
232(1)
Step 6--Evaluate the Decision and Look for Alternative Solutions
232(1)
Step 7--Arrive at Generalizations
233(1)
Step 8--Evaluate
233(1)
Summary of Steps in the Resolution of Conflict Model
233(2)
Basis of the Resolution of Conflict Model
235(2)
High School Scenario
237(4)
Elementary School Scenario
241(2)
Summary
243(1)
Notes
244(1)
Chapter 13 The Values Development Model: Mining the Curriculum for Ethical and Social Values
245(18)
Steps in the Values Development Model
248(7)
Step 1--Identify the Theme of What Is to Be Taught
248(1)
Step 2--Specify the "Big Question" in What Is to Be Taught
249(1)
Step 3--Select Supplemental Resources on the Topic of Study
250(2)
Step 4--Explore Interdisciplinary Connections to the Topic
252(2)
Step 5--Teach the Lesson in Ways That Entice Students into Caring about What They Are Learning
254(1)
Summary of Steps in the Values Development Model
255(1)
Basis for the Values Development Model
256(1)
Scenario
257(5)
Summary
262(1)
Web Resources
262(1)
Notes
262(1)
Chapter 14 Cooperative Learning Models: Improving Student Achievement Using Small Groups
263(23)
Model One: The Jigsaw Model
266(1)
Steps in the Jigsaw Model
266(5)
Step 1--Introduce Jigsaw
267(1)
Step 2--Assign Heterogeneously Grouped Students to Study Teams
267(2)
Step 3--Assemble Expert Groups to Study Material
269(1)
Step 4--Experts Teach Their Study Teams
270(1)
Step 5--Evaluate and Provide Team Recognition
270(1)
Summary of Steps in the Jigsaw Model
271(1)
Model Two: The Role Playing Model
271(1)
Steps in the Role Playing Model
272(3)
Step 1--Choose an Interesting Situation
272(1)
Step 2--Select the Teams
273(1)
Step 3--Assign the Problem and Explain the Task
273(1)
Step 4--Teams Prepare the Role Play and Select the Players
273(1)
Step 5--Assign Tasks to the Observers
274(1)
Step 6--Teams Present Their Role Plays
274(1)
Step 7--Teams Return to Their Groups to Discuss the Role Playing Experience
274(1)
Step 8--Class Discussion
274(1)
Step 9--Evaluate
275(1)
Summary of the Steps in the Role Playing Model
275(1)
Additional Models
275(1)
The Team Interview Model
276(1)
Step 1--Assign Students to Teams
276(1)
Step 2--Instruct Team Members
276(1)
Step 3--Conduct Interviews
276(1)
Step 4--Continue Interviews
276(1)
Step 5--Debrief
276(1)
The Graffiti Model
277(2)
Step 1--Prepare Graffiti Questions
277(1)
Step 2--Distribute Materials
277(1)
Step 3--Answer Questions
277(1)
Step 4--Exchange Questions
278(1)
Step 5--Return to Original Question
278(1)
Step 6--Share Information
278(1)
The Think, Pair, Share Model
279(2)
Step 1--Teacher Poses a Question
279(1)
Step 2--Students Think Individually
280(1)
Step 3--Each Student Discusses His or Her Answer with a Fellow Student
280(1)
Step 4--Students Share Their Answers with the Whole Class
280(1)
Pointers for Using Cooperative Learning Teams Effectively
281(1)
Basis for the Models
281(1)
Scenario
282(2)
Summary
284(1)
Notes
284(2)
Chapter 15 Models for Memory: Techniques for Improving the Recall of Information
286(29)
Conditions That Affect Memory
287(1)
Model One: The Link Model
288(1)
Steps in the Link Model
289(2)
Step 1--Select the Items
289(1)
Step 2--Organize the Material
289(1)
Step 3--Prepare the Associations
290(1)
Step 4--Explain the Process and Present the Associations to the Class
290(1)
Step 5--Practice Developing Associations
290(1)
Step 6--Evaluate
290(1)
Variations on the Link Model
291(1)
Summary of Steps in the Link Model
292(1)
Model Two: The Loci Model
293(1)
Steps in the Loci Model
294(2)
Step 1--Select Appropriate Material
294(1)
Step 2--Outline the Material to Be Recalled
294(1)
Step 3--Identify the Location to Serve as a Reference
295(1)
Step 4--Relate the Items to the Places within the Location
295(1)
Step 5--Practice
295(1)
Step 6--Evaluate
295(1)
Summary of Steps in the Loci Model
296(1)
Model Three: The Memory through Motion Model
296(1)
Steps in the Memory through Motion Model
297(3)
Step 1--Select a Passage
297(1)
Step 2--Prepare a Chart
297(1)
Step 3--Select the Key Words and Motions
298(1)
Step 4--Introduce the Material
298(1)
Step 5--Present the Motions to the Class
298(1)
Step 6--Have Groups Complete the Motions for the Remainder of the Material
299(1)
Step 7--Have Groups Present the Motions
299(1)
Step 8--Practice
299(1)
Step 9--Evaluate
299(1)
Variations on the Memory through Motion Model
300(1)
Summary of Steps in the Memory through Motion Model
300(1)
Model Four: The Names and Faces Memory Model
301(1)
Steps in the Names and Faces Model
301(2)
Step 1--Select Pictures of Interesting Faces
301(1)
Step 2--Assign a Picture to Each Student
302(1)
Step 3--Students Introduce Their Picture Faces
302(1)
Step 4--Students Select Distinctive Features
302(1)
Step 5--Students Associate the Name with the Feature
302(1)
Step 6--Review the Names and Practice
303(1)
Step 7--Evaluate
303(1)
Variations on the Names and Faces Model
303(1)
Summary of Steps in the Names and Faces Model
304(1)
Basis for the Memory Models
305(5)
Conditions for Memories
308(2)
Scenario
310(3)
Summary
313(1)
Web Resources
313(1)
Notes
313(2)
Summary of Part Two
315(2)
Part Three Putting It All Together: Matching Objectives to Instructional Models 317(62)
Chapter 16 A Kindergarten Case Study
319(11)
Miss Abbott's Plan
321(2)
Unit: Lines That Draw Us Together
323(3)
Opening Activity--Drawing in the Students
323(1)
Lesson One: Practicing the "Line-Up"
324(1)
Lesson Two: Defining a Line
324(1)
Lesson Three: Refining the Concept of Line
325(1)
Activity: The Line Game
326(1)
Notes on Lessons One and Two
326(3)
Epilogue
329(1)
Summary
329(1)
Chapter 17 A Middle School Case Study
330(11)
The Mumford Plan
333(2)
Unit: Perspective--It All Depends on Where You Were When
335(5)
Lesson One: Toward a Perspective on Point of View
336(1)
Lesson Two: Perception--It Depends on Where You Are Coming From
337(2)
Lesson Three: Relating Point of View to Perspective
339(1)
Epilogue
340(1)
Summary
340(1)
Note
340(1)
Chapter 18 A High School Case Study
341(12)
Mr. Samuels's Plan
342(5)
Unit: Macbeth--A Study in Ambition Turned to Avarice
347(3)
Sample Lesson Five: Ambition and the Power of Suggestion
347(3)
Epilogue
350(2)
Summary
352(1)
Note
352(1)
Chapter 19 The Wisdom of Practice: Creating a Positive Learning Environment
353(24)
Good Teachers Are in Charge of Their Classrooms
354(2)
Good Teachers Create a Pleasant Physical Environment for Learning
356(2)
Displays
356(1)
Physical Environment
357(1)
Announcements
357(1)
Seating
358(1)
Good Teachers Manage Human Relations Effectively
358(3)
They See Discipline as a Human Relations Problem
359(1)
They Utilize Models for Discipline
360(1)
They Know Their Students
360(1)
Good Teachers Engage Learners in the Process of Their Own Learning
361(2)
Good Teachers Teach Up
363(4)
They Recognize the Pygmalion Effect
363(2)
They Capitalize on What Students Know
365(1)
They Celebrate Differences among Students
366(1)
They Realize That There Is More Than One Right Answer to Important Questions
366(1)
They Recognize Achievement and Minimize the Importance of Error
366(1)
Good Teachers Are Good Learners
367(2)
They Serve as a Model for Learning
367(1)
They Recognize the Importance of Professional Knowledge
368(1)
They Act as Researchers
368(1)
Good Teachers Develop Instructional Objectives with Learners
369(1)
They Vest Students with an Interest in Learning
369(1)
They Develop Guides to Planning Instruction
369(1)
Good Teachers Find Out Why a Plan Is Not Working
370(1)
Good Teachers Strive to Make Their Teaching Interesting
371(1)
Good Teachers Give Learners Access to Information and Opportunity to Practice
371(1)
Good Teachers Teach for Two Kinds of Knowledge
372(1)
Summary
373(1)
Notes
373(4)
Summary of Part Three
377(2)
Index 379


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