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Interactive Computer Graphics : A Top-Down Approach with OpenGL,9780201385977
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Interactive Computer Graphics : A Top-Down Approach with OpenGL

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780201385977

ISBN10:
020138597X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Pearson College Div
List Price: $75.00
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Summary

This introductory text features a top-down, programming-oriented approach to computer graphics. Capitalizing upon this top-down and hands-on approach, the text quickly gets students writing interesting 3D graphics programs. Angel uses OpenGL, a graphics library supported by most workstations, and the C programming language (which, like OpenGL, is not object-oriented), allowing students to be aware of what is happening at the lowest levels of computer-graphics programming. Each chapter is built around an application, with key principles and techniques explained as needed and in increasing detail, teaching students by example and by practice. While emphasizing applications programming, the book covers all topics required for a fundamental course in computer graphics, such as light-material interactions, shading, modeling, curves and surfaces, antialiasing, texture mapping, and compositing, as well as hardware issues. The top-down approach taken in this book enables students of computer science and engineering to generate complex interactive applications by the end of their first course, and will give them a solid background for future work or study in computer graphics.

Author Biography

Edward Angel is Professor of Computer Science and Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of New Mexico (UNM).

Table of Contents

Preface V
Chapter 1 Graphics Systems and Models
1(34)
1.1 Applications of Computer Graphics
2(3)
1.1.1 Display of Information
2(1)
1.1.2 Design
3(1)
1.1.3 Simulation
3(1)
1.1.4 User Interfaces
4(1)
1.2 A Graphics System
5(4)
1.2.1 Pixels and the Frame Buffer
6(1)
1.2.2 Output Devices
7(1)
1.2.3 Input Devices
8(1)
1.3 Images: Physical and Synthetic
9(6)
1.3.1 Objects and Viewers
9(2)
1.3.2 Light and Images
11(2)
1.3.3 Ray Tracing
13(2)
1.4 The Human Visual System
15(2)
1.5 The Pinhole Camera
17(2)
1.6 The Synthetic-Camera Model
19(2)
1.7 The Programmer's Interface
21(5)
1.7.1 Application Programmer's Interfaces
22(2)
1.7.2 A Sequence of Images
24(1)
1.7.3 The Modeling-Rendering Paradigm
25(1)
1.8 Graphics Architectures
26(5)
1.8.1 Display Processors
27(1)
1.8.2 Pipeline Architectures
27(2)
1.8.3 Transformations
29(1)
1.8.4 Clipping
29(1)
1.8.5 Projection
30(1)
1.8.6 Rasterization
30(1)
1.8.7 Performance Characteristics
30(1)
1.9 Summary
31(1)
1.10 Suggested Readings
32(1)
Exercises
33(2)
Chapter 2 Graphics Programming
35(50)
2.1 The Sierpinski Gasket
36(7)
2.1.1 The Pen-Plotter Model
37(5)
2.1.2 Coordinate Systems
42(1)
2.2 The OpenGL API
43(3)
2.2.1 Graphics Functions
44(1)
2.2.2 The OpenGL Interface
45(1)
2.3 Primitives and Attributes
46(7)
2.3.1 Polygon Basics
47(2)
2.3.2 Polygon Types in OpenGL
49(1)
2.3.3 Text
50(1)
2.3.4 Curved Objects
51(1)
2.3.5 Attributes
52(1)
2.4 Color
53(8)
2.4.1 RGB Color
57(2)
2.4.2 Indexed Color
59(1)
2.4.3 Setting of Color Attributes
60(1)
2.5 Viewing
61(3)
2.5.1 Two-Dimensional Viewing
61(1)
2 5.2 The Orthographic View
62(2)
2.5.3 Matrix Modes
64(1)
2.6 Control Functions
64(6)
2.6.1 Interaction with the Window System
65(2)
2.6.2 Aspect Ratio and Viewports
67(1)
2.6.3 The main, display, and myinit Functions
68(2)
2 6.4 Program Structure
70(1)
2.7 The Gasket Program
70(1)
2.8 Polygons and Recursion
71(3)
2.9 The Three-Dimensional Gasket
74(5)
2.9.1 Use of Three-Dimensional Points
74(2)
2.9.2 Use of Polygons in Three Dimensions
76(1)
2.9.3 Hidden-Surface Removal
77(2)
2.10 Summary
79(1)
2.11 Suggested Readings
80(1)
Exercises
81(4)
Chapter 3 Input and Interaction
85(44)
3.1 Interaction
85(2)
3.2 Input Devices
87(7)
3.2.1 Physical Input Devices
87(3)
3.2.2 Logical Devices
90(1)
3.2.3 Measure and Trigger
91(1)
3.2.4 Input Modes
92(2)
3.3 Clients and Servers
94(1)
3.4 Display Lists
95(8)
3.4.1 Definition and Execution of Display Lists
97(2)
3.4.2 Text and Display Lists
99(3)
3.4.3 Fonts in GLUT
102(1)
3.5 Programming Event-Driven Input
103(6)
3.5.1 Using the Pointing Device
103(3)
3.5.2 Window Events
106(2)
3.5.3 Keyboard Events
108(1)
3.5.4 The Display and Idle Callbacks
108(1)
3.5.5 Window Management
109(1)
3.6 Menus
109(2)
3.7 Picking
111(1)
3.8 A Simple Paint Program
112(6)
3.9 Animating Interactive Programs
118(4)
3.9.1 The Rotating Square
118(2)
3.9.2 Double Buffering
120(1)
3.9.3 Other Buffering Problems
121(1)
3.10 Design of Interactive Programs
122(2)
3.10.1 Toolkits, Widgets, and the Frame Buffer
123(1)
3.11 Summary
124(1)
3.12 Suggested Readings
125(1)
Exercises
126(3)
Chapter 4 Geometric Objects and Transformations
129(64)
4.1 Scalars, Points, and Vectors
130(8)
4.1.1 The Geometric View
130(1)
4.1.2 The Mathematical View: Vector and Affine Spaces
131(1)
4.1.3 The Computer-Science View
132(1)
4.1.4 Geometric ADTs
133(1)
4.1.5 Lines
134(1)
4.1.6 Affine Sums
135(1)
4.1.7 Convexity
135(1)
4.1.8 Dot and Cross Products
136(1)
4.1.9 Planes
137(1)
4.2 Three-Dimensional Primitives
138(1)
4.3 Coordinate Systems and Frames
139(13)
4.3.1 Changes of Coordinate Systems
141(3)
4.3.2 Example of Change of Representation
144(1)
4 3.3 Homogeneous Coordinates
145(3)
4.3.4 Example of Change in Frames
148(1)
4.3.5 Frames and ADTs
149(2)
4.3.6 Frames in OpenGL
151(1)
4.4 Modeling a Colored Cube
152(8)
4.4.1 Modeling of a Cube
153(1)
4.4.2 Inward- and Outward-Pointing Faces
154(1)
4.4.3 Data Structures for Object Representation
155(1)
4.4.4 The Color Cube
156(1)
4.4.5 Bilinear Interpolation
157(1)
4.4.6 Vertex Arrays
158(2)
4.5 Affine Transformations
160(3)
4.6 Rotation, Translation, and Scaling
163(3)
4.6.1 Translation
163(1)
4.6.2 Rotation
164(2)
4.6.3 Scaling
166(1)
4.7 Transformations in Homogeneous Coordinates
166(5)
4.7.1 Translation
167(1)
4.7.2 Scaling
168(1)
4.7.3 Rotation
168(2)
4.7.4 Shear
170(1)
4.8 Concatenation of Transformations
171(7)
4.8.1 Rotation About a Fixed Point
172(1)
4.8.2 General Rotation
173(1)
4.8.3 The Instance Transformation
174(1)
4.8.4 Rotation About an Arbitrary Axis
175(3)
4.9 OpenGL Transformation Matrices
178(6)
4.9.1 The Current Transformation Matrix
179(1)
4.9.2 Rotation, Translation, and Scaling
180(1)
4 9.3 Rotation About a Fixed Point in OpenGL
180(1)
4.9.4 Order of Transformations
181(1)
4.9.5 Spinning of the Cube
182(1)
4.9.6 Loading, Pushing, and Popping Matrices
183(1)
4.10 Interfaces to Three-Dimensional Applications
184(4)
4.10.1 Using Areas of the Screen
184(1)
4.10.2 A Virtual Trackball
185(2)
4.10.3 Smooth Rotations
187(1)
4.11 Summary
188(1)
4.12 Suggested Readings
189(1)
Exercises
189(4)
Chapter 5 Viewing
193(46)
5.1 Classical and Computer Viewing
194(7)
5.1.1 Classical Viewing
195(1)
5.1.2 Orthographic Projections
196(1)
5.1.3 Axonometric Projections
197(1)
5.1.4 Oblique Projections
198(1)
5.1.5 Perspective Viewing
199(2)
5.2 Positioning of the Camera
201(9)
5.2.1 Positioning of the Camera Frame
201(5)
5.2.2 Two Viewing APIs
206(3)
5.2.3 The Look-At Function
209(1)
5.2.4 Other Viewing APIs
209(1)
5.3 Simple Projections
210(4)
5.3.1 Perspective Projections
211(3)
5.3.2 Orthogonal Projections
214(1)
5.4 Projections in OpenGL
214(4)
5.4.1 Perspective in OpenGL
215(2)
5.4.2 Parallel Viewing in OpenGL
217(1)
5.5 Hidden-Surface Removal
218(1)
5.6 Walking Through a Scene
219(2)
5.7 Parallel-Projection Matrices
221(7)
5.7.1 Projection Normalization
221(1)
5.7.2 Orthogonal-Projection Matrices
222(3)
5 7.3 Oblique Projections
225(3)
5.8 Perspective-Projection Matrices
228(5)
5.8.1 Perspective Normalization
228(3)
5.8.2 OpenGL Perspective Transformations
231(2)
5.9 Projections and Shadows
233(3)
5.10 Summary
236(1)
5.11 Suggested Readings
237(1)
Exercises
237(2)
Chapter 6 Shading
239(42)
6.1 Light and Matter
240(3)
6.2 Light Sources
243(4)
6.2.1 Color Sources
244(1)
6.2.2 Ambient Light
244(1)
6.2.3 Point Sources
245(1)
6.2.4 Spotlights
246(1)
6.2.5 Distant Light Sources
246(1)
6.3 The Phong Reflection Model
247(5)
6.3.1 Ambient Reflection
249(1)
6.3.2 Diffuse Reflection
249(1)
6.3.3 Specular Reflection
250(2)
6.4 Computation of Vectors
252(6)
6.4.1 Normal Vectors
253(2)
6.4.2 Angle of Reflection
255(1)
6.4.3 Use of the Halfway Vector
256(1)
6.4.4 Transmitted Light
257(1)
6.5 Polygonal Shading
258(5)
6.5.1 Flat Shading
258(2)
6.5.2 Interpolative and Gouraud Shading
260(2)
6.5.3 Phong Shading
262(1)
6.6 Approximation of a Sphere by Recursive Subdivision
263(3)
6.7 Light Sources in OpenGL
266(2)
6.8 Specification of Materials in OpenGL
268(1)
6.9 Shading of the Sphere Model
269(2)
6.10 Global Rendering
271(5)
6.10.1 Ray Tracing
271(4)
6.10.2 Radiosity
275(1)
6.11 Summary
276(1)
6.12 Suggested Readings
277(1)
Exercises
278(3)
Chapter 7 Implementation of a Renderer
281(52)
7.1 Four Major Tasks
282(3)
7.1.1 Modeling
282(1)
7.1.2 Geometric Processing
282(1)
7.1.3 Rasterization
283(1)
7.1.4 Display
283(1)
7.1.5 Basic Implementation Strategies
284(1)
7.2 Implementation of Transformations
285(2)
7.3 Line-Segment Clipping
287(5)
7.3.1 Cohen-Sutherland Clipping
288(2)
7.3.2 Liang-Barsky Clipping
290(2)
7.4 Polygon Clipping
292(3)
7.5 Clipping of Other Primitives
295(2)
7.5.1 Bounding Boxes
295(1)
7.5.2 Curves, Surfaces, and Text
296(1)
7.5.3 Clipping in the Frame Buffer
297(3)
7.6 Clipping in Three Dimensions
297(3)
7.7 Hidden-Surface Removal
300(9)
7.7.1 Object-Space and Image-Space Approaches
301(1)
7 7.2 Back-Face Removal
302(1)
7.7.3 The z-Buffer Algorithm
303(3)
7.7.4 Depth Sort and the Painter's Algorithm
306(2)
7.7.5 The Scan-Line Algorithm
308(1)
7.8 Scan Conversion
309(2)
7.9 Bresenham's Algorithm
311(2)
7.10 Scan Conversion of Polygons
313(7)
7.10.1 Inside-Outside Testing
314(1)
7.10.2 OpenGL and Concave Polygons
315(1)
7.10.3 Scan Conversion with the z-Buffer
316(1)
7.10.4 Fill and Sort
317(1)
7.10.5 Flood Fill
318(1)
7.10.6 Scan-Line Algorithms
318(2)
7.10.7 Singularities
320(1)
7.11 Antialiasing
320(2)
7.12 Display Considerations
322(5)
7.12.1 Color Systems
323(3)
7.12.2 Gamma Correction
326(1)
7.12.3 Dithering and Halftoning
327(1)
7.13 Summary
327(1)
7.14 References
328(1)
Exercises
329(4)
Chapter 8 Hierarchical and Object-Oriented Graphics
333(38)
8.1 Symbols and Instances
334(1)
8.2 Hierarchical Models
335(2)
8.3 A Robot Arm
337(3)
8.4 Trees and Traversal
340(4)
8.4.1 A Stack-Based Traversal
341(3)
8.5 Use of Tree Data Structures
344(3)
8.6 Animation
347(2)
8.7 Graphical Objects
349(6)
8.7.1 Methods, Attributes, and Messages
350(1)
8.7.2 A Cube Object
351(2)
8.7.3 Objects and Hierarchy
353(1)
8.7.4 Geometric Objects
354(1)
8.8 Scene Graphs
355(2)
8.9 Other Tree Structures
357(6)
8.9.1 CSG Trees
357(2)
8.9.2 BSP Trees
359(3)
8.9.3 Quadtrees and Octrees
362(1)
8.10 Graphics and the Web
363(4)
8.10.1 Networks and Protocols
363(1)
8.10.2 Hypermedia and HTML
364(1)
8.10.3 Databases and VRML
365(1)
8.10.4 JAVA and Applets
366(1)
8.11 Summary
367(1)
8.12 Suggested Readings
368(1)
Exercises
368(3)
Chapter 9 Discrete Techniques
371(46)
9.1 Buffers and Mappings
372(1)
9.2 Texture Mapping
373(12)
9.2.1 Two-Dimensional Texture Mapping
374(5)
9.2.2 Texture Mapping in OpenGL
379(5)
9.2.3 Texture Generation
384(1)
9.3 Environmental Maps
385(1)
9.4 Bump Maps
386(2)
9.5 Writes into Buffers
388(3)
9.5.1 Writing Modes
389(1)
9.5.2 Writes with XOR
390(1)
9.6 Bit and Pixel Operations in OpenGL
391(6)
9.6.1 OpenGL Buffers
392(1)
9 6.2 Use of Bitmaps for Fonts
393(2)
9.6.3 Pixels and Images
395(1)
9.6.4 Lookup Tables
395(1)
9.6.5 Buffers for Picking
396(1)
9.7 Compositing Techniques
397(7)
9.7.1 Opacity and Blending
397(2)
9.7.2 Image Compositing
399(1)
9.7.3 Blending and Compositing in OpenGL
399(1)
9.7.4 Antialiasing
400(2)
9.7.5 Back-to-Front and Front-to-Back Rendering
402(1)
9.7.6 Depth Cueing and Fog
403(1)
9.8 Use of the Accumulotion Buffer
404(3)
9.9 Sampling and Aliasing
407(7)
9.9.1 Sampling Theory
407(5)
9.9.2 Reconstruction
412(2)
9.9.3 Quantization
414(1)
9.10 Summary
414(1)
9.11 Suggested Readings
415(1)
Exercises
416(1)
Chapter 10 Curves and Surfaces
417(48)
10.1 Representation of Curves and Surfaces
417(5)
10.1.1 Explicit Representation
418(1)
10.1.2 Implicit Representations
419(1)
10.1.3 Parametric Form
420(1)
10.1.4 Parametric Polynomial Curves
421(1)
10.1.5 Parametric Polynomial Surfaces
422(1)
10.2 Design Criteria
422(2)
10.3 Parametric Cubic Polynomial Curves
424(1)
10.4 Interpolation
425(5)
10.4.1 Blending Functions
426(2)
10.4.2 The Cubic Interpolating Patch
428(2)
10.5 Hermite Curves and Surfaces
430(3)
10.5.1 The Hermite Form
430(2)
10.5.2 Geometric and Parametric Continuity
432(1)
10.6 Bezier Curves and Surfaces
433(4)
10.6.1 Bezier Curves
434(2)
10.6.2 Bezier Surface Patches
436(1)
10.7 Cubic B-Splines
437(5)
10.7.1 The Cubic B-Spline Curve
437(3)
10.7.2 B-Splines and Basis
440(1)
10.7.3 Spline Surfaces
441(1)
10.8 General B-Splines
442(4)
10.8.1 Recursively Defined B-splines
443(1)
10.8.2 Uniform Splines
444(1)
10.8.3 Nonuniform B-Splines
444(1)
10.8.4 NURBS
445(1)
10.9 Rendering of Curves and Surfaces
446(7)
10.9.1 Polynomial Evaluation Methods
446(2)
10.9.2 Recursive Subdivision of Bezier Polynomials
448(2)
10.9.3 Rendering of Other Polynomial Curves by Subdivision
450(1)
10.9.4 Subdivision of Bezier Surfaces
451(2)
10.10 The Utah Teapot
453(2)
10.11 Algebraic Surfaces
455(1)
10.11.1 Quadrics
455(1)
10.11.2 Rendering of Surfaces by Ray Casting
456(1)
10.12 Curves and Surfaces in OpenGL
456(6)
10.12.1 Bezier Curves
457(1)
10.12.2 Bezier Surfaces
458(1)
10.12.3 Displaying the Teapot
459(2)
10.12.4 NURBS Functions
461(1)
10.12.5 Quadrics
462(1)
10.13 Summary
462(1)
10.14 References
463(1)
Exercises
463(2)
Chapter 11 Procedural Methods
465(30)
11.1 Reasons for Using Procedural Models
465(2)
11.2 Physically Based Models and Particle Systems
467(1)
11.3 Newtonian Particles
468(5)
11.3.1 Independent Particles
470(1)
11.3.2 Spring Forces
471(1)
11.3.3 Attractive and Repulsive Forces
472(1)
11.4 Solving Particle Systems
473(3)
11.5 Constraints
476(6)
11.5.1 Collisions
477(2)
11.5.2 Particles Inside a Sphere
479(2)
11.5.3 Soft Constraints
481(1)
11.6 Language-Based Models
482(2)
11.7 Recursive Methods and Fractals
484(6)
11.7.1 Rulers and Length
485(1)
11.7.2 Fractal Dimension
486(1)
11.7.3 Midpoint Division and Brownian Motion
487(1)
11.7.4 Fractal Mountains
488(2)
11.8 The Mandelbrot Set
490(3)
11.9 Summary
493(1)
11.10 Suggested Readings
493(1)
Exercises
493(2)
Chapter 12 Visualization
495(34)
12.1 Data + Geometry
495(1)
12.2 Height Fields and Contours
496(12)
12.2.1 Meshes
497(3)
12.2.2 Contour Plots
500(1)
12.2.3 Marching Squares
500(8)
12.3 Visualizing Surfaces and Scalar Fields
508(4)
12.3.1 Volumetric Data Sets
509(1)
12.3.2 Visualization of Implicit Functions
510(2)
12.4 Isosurfaces and Marching Cubes
512(2)
12.5 Direct Volume Rendering
514(6)
12.5.1 Assignment of Color and Opacity
515(1)
12.5.2 Splatting
516(2)
12.5.3 Volume Ray Tracing
518(1)
12.5.4 Texture Mapping of Volumes
519(1)
12.6 Vector-Field Visualization
520(5)
12.6.1 Hedgehogs
520(1)
12.6.2 Glyphs
521(1)
12.6.3 Color
522(1)
12.6.4 Particle Traces and Streamlines
523(2)
12.7 Tensor Visualization
525(2)
12.8 Summary
527(1)
12.9 Suggested Readings
527(1)
Exercises
528(1)
Appendix A Sample Programs
529(42)
A.1 Sierpinski Gasket Program
530(2)
A.2 Recursive Generation of Sierpinski Gasket
532(2)
A.3 Three-Dimensional Sierpinski Gasket
534(2)
A.4 Recursive Three-Dimensional Sierpinski Gasket
536(2)
A.5 Square Drawing Program
538(3)
A.6 Paint Program
541(8)
A.7 Double Buffering Example
549(2)
A.8 Rotating-Cube Program
551(3)
A.9 Rotating Cube Using Vertex Arrays
554(3)
A.10 Rotating Cube with Trackball
557(5)
A.11 Moving Viewer
562(3)
A.12 Sphere Program
565(6)
Appendix B Spaces
571(10)
B.1 Scalars
571(1)
B.2 Vector Spaces
572(2)
B.3 Affine Spaces
574(2)
B.4 Euclidean Spaces
576(1)
B.5 Projections
577(1)
B.6 Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization
577(1)
8.7 Suggested Readings
578(1)
Exercises
579(2)
Appendix C Matrices
581(10)
C.1 Definitions
581(1)
C.2 Matrix Operations
582(2)
C.3 Row and Column Matrices
584(1)
C.4 Rank
585(1)
C.5 Change of Representation
586(1)
C.6 The Cross Product
587(1)
C.7 Suggested Readings
588(1)
Exercises
588(3)
References 591(8)
Function Index 599(2)
Index 601
Review and Introduction 1(12)
PART I: NOMINAL STRUCTURE 13(180)
Chapter 1--Nouns
13(38)
1.1. Conceptual Basis
13(9)
1.1.1. A Cognitive Model
13(2)
1.1.2. An Abstract Characterization
15(4)
1.1.3. A Polar Opposition
19(3)
1.2. Nominalization
22(29)
1.2.1. Kinds
23(1)
1.2.1.1. Alternate Profiling
23(8)
1.2.1.2. Type vs. Instance Nominalizations
31(4)
1.2.2. Periphrasis
35(8)
1.2.3. Predictability
43(8)
Chapter 2--Nominals: Functional Organization
51(45)
2.1. Semantic Functions
51(4)
2.2. Instantiation
55(18)
2.2.1. Type vs. Instance
55(3)
2.2.2. Proper Names
58(2)
2.2.3. Type Hierarchies
60(4)
2.2.4. Predicate Nominative Constructions
64(7)
2.2.5. Role Specifications
71(2)
2.3. Quantity
73(16)
2.3.1. Number
74(7)
2.3.2. Quantifiers
81(8)
2.4. Epistemic Predications
89(7)
Chapter 3--Nominals: Grounding and Quantification
96(46)
3.1. Definiteness
96(11)
3.1.1. The Definite Article
97(6)
3.1.2. The Indefinite Article
103(4)
3.2. Relative Quantifiers
107(11)
3.2.1. Proportional Quantifiers
107(4)
3.2.2. Other Universal Quantifiers
111(7)
3.3. Quantificational Interactions
118(24)
3.3.1. Replicate Processes and Participants
118(7)
3.3.2. Quantifier Scope
125(7)
3.3.3. Scope of Negation
132(10)
Chapter 4--Nominal Constructions
142(51)
4.1. Structural Organization
142(10)
4.1.1. Canonical Structure
142(6)
4.1.2. Other Configurations
148(4)
4.2. Patterns and Restrictions
152(11)
4.2.1. Class Schemas
152(4)
4.2.2. Constructional Schemas
156(3)
4.2.3. Larger Configurations
159(4)
4.3. Functional Alternatives
163(17)
4.3.1. Noun Classifiers
164(3)
4.3.2. Possessive Constructions
167(2)
4.3.2.1. Abstract Possession
169(3)
4.3.2.2. Basic Constructions
172(3)
4.3.2.3. Other Constructions
175(5)
4.4. Inflection and Agreement
180(13)
4.4.1. Noun Classes
180(5)
4.4.2. Gender Inflections
185(1)
4.4.3. Agreement Patterns
186(7)
PART II: CLAUSE STRUCTURE 193(224)
Chapter 5--The Auxiliary: Clausal Head
193(47)
5.1. Function and Organization
193(7)
5.2. Voice and Aspect
200(25)
5.2.1. The Passive Construction
200(7)
5.2.2. The Progressive Construction
207(4)
5.2.3. The Perfect Construction
211(1)
5.2.3.1. Current Relevance
211(4)
5.2.3.2. Subjectification
215(5)
5.2.3.3. Synthesis
220(5)
5.3. Patterns and Structure
225(15)
5.3.1. The Basic System
225(3)
5.3.2. Restrictions
228(5)
5.3.3. Componentiality
233(5)
5.3.4. Auxiliary Verbs
238(2)
Chapter 6--The Auxiliary: Grounding
240(42)
6.1. Epistemic Distance
240(9)
6.2. Tense
249(20)
6.2.1. A Naive Characterization
250(3)
6.2.2. Sequence of Tenses
253(1)
6.2.2.1. Indirect Speech
253(3)
6.2.2.2. Reported Modals
256(4)
6.2.2.3. Additional Matters
260(2)
6.2.3. Present Tense
262(1)
6.2.3.1. A Structured World
263(3)
6.2.3.2. A Shifted Deictic Center
266(3)
6.3. Modals
269(13)
6.3.1. Historical Development
269(6)
6.3.2. The Dynamic Evolutionary Model
275(7)
Chapter 7--Transitivity and Grammatical Relations
282(48)
7.1. The Conception of Events
282(11)
7.1.1. Models and Archetypes
283(3)
7.1.2. Conceptual Autonomy
286(5)
7.1.3. Starting Points
291(2)
7.2. The Coding of Events
293(11)
7.2.1. Coding and Construal
294(4)
7.2.2. Unmarked Coding
298(6)
7.3. Basic Grammatical Relations
304(26)
7.3.1. Subject
305(1)
7.3.1.1. Topicality
306(3)
7.3.1.2. A Schematic Definition
309(4)
7.3.1.3. Subject and Topic
313(4)
7.3.1.4. Universality
317(4)
7.3.2. Direct Object
321(3)
7.3.3. Indirect Object
324(6)
Chapter 8--Marked Clause Structure
330(48)
8.1. Choice of Subject
330(25)
8.1.1. The Effect of Profiling
331(4)
8.1.2. Voice
335(8)
8.1.3. Setting vs. Participant
343(1)
8.1.3.1. Relevance to Transitivity
343(2)
8.1.3.2. Setting-Subject Constructions
345(3)
8.1.3.3. Double-Subject Constructions
348(3)
8.1.3.4. Abstract Settings
351(4)
8.2. Choice of Object
355(7)
8.3. Nondistinct Argument Phenomena
362(16)
8.3.1. Process vs. Participant
362(5)
8.3.2. Reflexivization
367(5)
8.3.3. Unspecificity
372(6)
Chapter 9--Ergativity and Case
378(39)
9.1. Ergative vs. Accusative
378(8)
9.2. Ergativity
386(12)
9.2.1. Correlates of Autonomy
386(3)
9.2.2. Absolute Construal
389(4)
9.2.3. Discourse Function
393(1)
9.2.3.1. Introducing Discourse Participants
393(1)
9.2.3.2. Antipassives
394(2)
9.2.4. Split Ergativity
396(2)
9.3. Case Marking
398(10)
9.3.1. Meaningfulness
398(6)
9.3.2. Case-Marking Constructions
404(4)
9.4. Causative Constructions
408(9)
9.4.1. Grammatical Relations
409(2)
9.4.2. Case
411(6)
PART III: BEYOND THE CLAUSE 417(120)
Chapter 10--Complex Sentences
417(47)
10.1. General Discussion
417(21)
10.1.1. Internal Elaboration
419(4)
10.1.2. Connectors
423(6)
10.1.3. Referential Linkage
429(6)
10.1.4. Global Organization
435(3)
10.2. Complementation
438(26)
10.2.1. Complementizers
439(1)
10.2.1.1. Conceptual Subordination
439(3)
10.2.1.2. Temporal Coincidence
442(3)
10.2.1.3. Objectivity
445(4)
10.2.2. Raising
449(1)
10.2.2.1. Critique
450(3)
10.2.2.2. The Active-Zone Analysis
453(4)
10.2.2.3. Raising vs. Equi
457(7)
Chapter 11--Further Issues
464(43)
11.1. Rule Interactions
464(8)
11.2. Coordination
472(18)
11.2.1. Conjunctions
472(4)
11.2.2. Level of Coordination
476(3)
11.2.3. Differentiation of Conjuncts
479(6)
11.2.4. Phonological Coinstantiation
485(5)
11.3. Anaphora
490(4)
11.4. Speech Acts
494(13)
11.4.1. Domains and Organization
495(3)
11.4.2. Viewing Arrangements
498(5)
11.4.3. Basic Sentence Types
503(4)
Chapter 12--Theoretical Discussion
507(30)
12.1. Metaphors, Goals, and Expectations
507(7)
12.2. The Autonomy Issue
514(11)
12.2.1. Defining the Issue
515(5)
12.2.2. Assessing the Symbolic Alternative
520(5)
12.3. Processing, Rules, and Representations
525(12)
12.3.1. The Connectionist Alternative
526(2)
12.3.2. The Representation of Linguistic Structure
528(1)
12.3.2.1. A Spectrum of Positions
528(5)
12.3.2.2. The Nature of Linguistic Rules
533(4)
Conclusion and Prospectus 537(6)
REFERENCE MATTER 543
Glossary 543(14)
References 557(18)
Index 575


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