9780273655718

International Marketing Strategy

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780273655718

  • ISBN10:

    027365571X

  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2002-01-01
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall

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Author Biography

Frank Bradley is R&A Balley Professor of International Marketing based at the Michael Smurfit Graduate School of Business, University College, Dublin.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
Acknowledgements xxv
Part I International marketing strategy scope and framework
1 Scope of international marketing strategy
3(25)
International marketing environment
3(8)
Market fragmentation and consolidation
4(2)
Trend toward global markets
6(2)
Causes of globalization
8(1)
Technology and market liberalization
9(1)
Firms in regional markets
10(1)
International marketing strategy
11(2)
Definitions of international marketing
12(1)
Generic strategic responses
13(5)
Developing competitive advantage
13(1)
Product-market development
14(1)
Technology, product and market decisions
14(2)
Resource allocation in international markets
16(2)
Performance and growth of the firm
18(3)
Improving marketing performance in the firm
18(2)
Strategic differentiation in the international firm
20(1)
Dynamics of the international firm
21(3)
Process model of international marketing
24(2)
summary
26(1)
References
26(2)
2 Analytical framework for international marketing
28(27)
Theory and practice in international marketing
28(2)
International marketing theories
29(1)
Analytical frameworks based on trade and transaction costs
30(3)
Absolute advantage and the international firm
30(1)
Comparative advantage and the international firm
30(1)
Transactions costs in international markets
31(1)
Nature of the international firm
32(1)
Limitations of trade theory and transaction cost explanations
33(1)
Comparative resource advantage theory of international marketing
33(10)
Company resources
34(1)
Access to tangible resources
34(2)
Access to intangible resources
36(1)
Resource application in product markets
37(2)
Sources of competitive advantage
39(1)
Knowledge in competitive advantage
39(2)
Knowledge and the scale and scope of the firm
41(1)
Transferring knowledge-based assets in international markets
42(1)
Managerial theory of international marketing
43(4)
Marketing in the business system
43(1)
Orientation of the company in the business system
44(3)
Strategic positioning in manufacturing and marketing
47(4)
Managing costs and prices in international markets
47(1)
Positioning the firm in the international business system
48(1)
Product-market and business system resource allocation
49(2)
Summary
51(1)
References
51(4)
Part II Environment of international marketing
3 Company resources and capabilities
55(16)
Characteristics of the international firm
55(6)
Goals and objectives of the international firm
56(1)
Size of the firm in international markets
57(1)
Firm size and scale effects
58(1)
Location of the firm
59(1)
Technology and innovation
60(1)
Product range in the firm
60(1)
Management of the international firm
61(6)
Attitudes and cognitive styles
61(1)
Management attitudes toward company growth
61(2)
Cognitive style of managers
63(1)
Aspirations, commitment and expectations of managers
64(1)
Managerial aspirations for internationalization
64(1)
Commitment to internationalization
65(1)
Managerial expectations and internationalization
66(1)
Stages of internationalization
67(2)
Stages model and entrepreneurial firms
68(1)
Summary
69(1)
References
69(2)
4 Analysis of international competitors
71(15)
Meaning of international competition
71(8)
Nature of competition among firms
73(1)
Establishing competitive positions in international markets
73(4)
Benefits of competition
77(1)
Determinants of competitiveness in international markets
77(1)
Measuring competitiveness in the firm
78(1)
Understanding competitors in international markets
79(5)
Competitor objectives, future goals and assumptions
80(1)
Review of competitor strategies
80(1)
Competitor organization and corporate culture
80(2)
Size, growth and profitability of competitors
82(1)
Evaluating competitive strengths
82(1)
Cost structure and mobility barriers
83(1)
Motives associated with unique capabilities
83(1)
Summary
84(1)
References
85(1)
5 Culture in international marketing
86(27)
Influence of culture in international marketing
86(5)
Pervasiveness of culture
86(1)
Characteristics and elements of culture
87(2)
Definitions of culture
89(1)
Cultural distance as an international marketing barrier
90(1)
Cultural determinants of marketing behaviour in the international firm
91(7)
Norms and behavioural patterns
91(2)
Role of values and attitudes
93(1)
Demographic factors
94(1)
Special position of languages
95(1)
Language homogeneity
96(1)
Ethnic factors
96(1)
Material culture, technology and the international firm
97(1)
Analysis of culture influence
98(13)
Macroanalysis of the cultural environment
100(1)
Cultural variability
100(2)
Cultural complexity
102(1)
Cultural hostility
102(1)
Influences among cultures
102(1)
Cultural heterogeneity and interdependence
103(1)
Context of cross-cultural relationships
104(1)
Microanalysis of the cultural environment
105(1)
Role of national ideology
106(1)
Role of attitudes
106(1)
Role of innovation and diffusion
107(3)
Synthesis of cultural influence on buyer behaviour
110(1)
Summary
111(1)
References
111(2)
6 Creating competitive advantage
113(16)
Impact of market integration
114(3)
Influence on the international firm
114(1)
Concept of free trade
114(1)
Developments in industrial markets
115(1)
Position of developing countries
115(2)
Challenge of open markets
117(1)
Created assets in international markets
117(1)
Comparative advantage and competitive advantage
118(2)
Country and company competitiveness
118(1)
Labour productivity and wealth
119(1)
Phenomenon of emerging markets
120(3)
Vicious circle of poverty
121(1)
Relevance of marketing in developing countries
122(1)
Recognizing mutual dependence
123(1)
Industrial and commercial policy
123(4)
Invisible hand or direct intervention
123(2)
Dynamic comparative advantage
125(2)
Summary
127(1)
References
128(1)
7 Coping with political risk and uncertainty
129(17)
Political environment of international marketing
129(6)
Role of government
130(1)
Risk and uncertainty in international markets
131(2)
Common political risks
133(1)
Analysis of political environment
134(1)
Regulating international transfers
135(4)
Regulating transfers of products and services
135(2)
Regulating money transfers
137(1)
Regulating people transfers
137(1)
Regulating technology transfers
138(1)
Importance of exchange rate stability
138(1)
International legal framework
139(5)
EU jaws and directives
140(1)
Product quality standards
141(1)
Major world legal systems
142(1)
Intellectual property rights in international markets
142(1)
Legal aspects of marketing claims
143(1)
Summary
144(1)
References
145(1)
8 Profiling international product markets
146(18)
International market selection process
146(1)
Segmenting international markets
147(6)
Generic market segmentation
147(1)
Strategic country groups
148(2)
Cultural and geographic market segmentation
150(1)
Key country segmentation variables
151(2)
Linking market segmentation to market selection
153(1)
Mechanics of international market selection
153(9)
Opportunistic selection of international markets
154(1)
Systematic selection of international markets
155(2)
Industry market potential
157(1)
Company sales potential
157(1)
Evolution from opportunistic to systematic market selection
158(1)
Role of information
159(1)
Building an international product-market portfolio
160(2)
Summary
162(1)
References
163(1)
9 Vision and strategy for international markets
164(19)
Company vision and corporate strategy
164(6)
Strategic marketing process
165(1)
Strategic planning framework
166(2)
Elements of strategic planning framework
168(3)
Company mission
168(1)
Shared purpose and values
168(1)
Distinctive capabilities and measures of success
169(1)
Strategic approaches to international markets
170(1)
International marketing strategies
171(7)
Generic international marketing strategies
171(2)
Standardized or customized international strategies
173(3)
Implications of standardizing international marketing strategies
176(1)
International organizational processes
177(1)
Summary
178(1)
References
178(5)
Part III International marketing strategy
10 The consumer products firm
183(23)
Consumer products and brands in international markets
183(1)
International product and brand decisions
183(1)
Consumer products in international markets
184(6)
Product innovation and differentiation
185(1)
Using new information technologies
186(1)
Consolidating fragmented markets
187(2)
Consumer products as competitive platforms
189(1)
Brands in international markets
190(2)
Characteristics of a global brand
191(1)
Recognizing differences and the domino effect
192(1)
International brand strategies
192(10)
Branding the competitive advantage
192(1)
Sustaining the brand competitive advantage
193(2)
Country of origin effects
195(1)
Building and communicating brand values
195(3)
Harmonizing brand strategy in different countries
198(1)
Product categories and brands in international markets
199(2)
Brand extensions in international markets
201(1)
Protecting the brand
202(2)
Obvious management traps
202(1)
Counterfeiting and forgeries
203(1)
Brands in the grey market
203(1)
Summary
204(1)
References
205(1)
11 The industrial products firm
206(21)
Industrial products firm in international markets
207(1)
Nature of industrial markets
208(3)
Markets as international networks
209(1)
Industrial product development in international networks
210(1)
Organizing for industrial buying
211(5)
Industrial buying process
211(5)
Assessing international competitive positions
216(4)
Segmenting industrial product markets
216(1)
Monitoring international market segments
217(1)
Developing market positions
218(2)
Routes to international markets
220(2)
Commitment to international markets
221(1)
Sources of international competitive advantage
221(1)
Selling and promoting industrial products
222(3)
Selling industrial products
222(2)
Promoting industrial products
224(1)
Summary
225(1)
References
225(2)
12 The services firm
227(16)
Services in international marketing
227(3)
Nature of services
228(1)
Growth of services in world markets
229(1)
Constraints on the international service firm
230(2)
Motivations for internationalization in the service firm
231(1)
Role of technology in the service firm
231(1)
Productivity in services
232(1)
International marketing of services
232(6)
Coping with service intangibility
232(2)
Personal contact in services
234(1)
Standardization and customization of services
235(1)
Scale and cultural effects
236(1)
Integrated international marketing strategy for services
237(1)
Restrictions on international marketing of services
238(1)
Summary
239(1)
References
240(3)
Part IV International market entry strategies
13 Generic international market entry strategies
243(19)
International market entry: concept and modes
244(2)
Concept of market entry
244(1)
Foreign market entry mode
244(2)
Framework for international market entry
246(5)
Generic market entry strategies
246(2)
Market entry strategy and competition
248(1)
Linking market strategy, complexity and entry
249(2)
Selecting mode of international market entry
251(5)
Entering new international product markets
251(1)
Foreign market entry decisions
252(1)
Determining optimum entry strategies
252(3)
Choosing an entry mode for services
255(1)
Sequencing international market entry
256(4)
Life cycle effects on foreign market entry
256(2)
Strategic sequencing of market entry
258(2)
Summary
260(1)
References
261(1)
14 Exporting
262(14)
Nature of exporting
262(2)
Entering foreign markets through exporting
262(1)
Exporting and commitment to internationalization
263(1)
Determinants of export behaviour
264(2)
Experience and uncertainty effects
264(1)
Acquiring knowledge of export markets
265(1)
Export decision process
266(7)
Behavioural and firm-specific influences
266(1)
Model of the export decision process
267(2)
Direct export stimuli
269(1)
Export decision maker
269(1)
Size of firm and exporting activity
270(1)
Export marketing groups
271(2)
Costs of exporting
273(1)
Summary
274(1)
References
275(1)
15 Strategic alliances
276(26)
Nature of strategic alliances
276(3)
Basis for a strategic alliance
277(2)
Marketing partnership agreements
279(1)
Licensing in international markets
280(4)
Nature of international licensing
280(1)
Benefits of licensing
281(1)
Impact of licensing on cash flow
282(1)
Prerequisites of successful licensing
283(1)
The licence transaction
283(1)
Assymetry in negotiating international licences
284(1)
Franchising to enter international markets
284(3)
Nature of franchising
284(2)
Advantages of franchising
286(1)
Disadvantages of franchising
287(1)
Joint ventures to enter international markets
287(8)
Benefits of international joint ventures
288(2)
Access to resources
290(1)
Access to markets
290(2)
Joint ventures and host country policies
292(1)
Stability of international joint ventures
292(2)
Conditions for joint venture success
294(1)
Selecting a partner for a strategic alliance
295(2)
Evaluation of strategic alliances
297(2)
Ability to cope with environmental change
297(2)
Summary
299(1)
References
299(3)
16 Foreign direct investment
302(19)
Locational advantage in international markets
302(3)
Nature of foreign direct investment
303(1)
Determinants of location for foreign direct investment
303(2)
Motives for foreign direct investment
305(5)
Managerial motives for foreign direct investment
306(1)
Foreign direct investment and operating efficiency
307(1)
Foreign direct investment and risk reduction
308(1)
Foreign direct investment and market development
309(1)
Foreign direct investment and government polite
309(1)
International market entry by acquisition
310(6)
Nature of foreign acquisitions
311(1)
Success factors in acquisitions
312(1)
Disadvantages of foreign acquisitions
313(1)
Sequenced international acquisitions
314(1)
Public policy and cross-border acquisitions
314(2)
Evaluation of market entry through new foreign ventures and acquisitions
316(1)
Comparison of acquisitions and new ventures
316(1)
Management view of foreign direct investment
317(1)
Summary
317(1)
References
318(3)
Part V Strategic alignment and performance in international marketing
17 Channels of international distribution
321(27)
Nature of international channels of distribution
322(2)
Role of channel intermediaries
323(1)
Structure and function of channels of distribution
324(7)
Intermediaries in the international channel
326(1)
Selecting the intermediary
327(1)
Obtaining intermediary commitment
328(1)
Trade-offs in the distribution channel
329(2)
Effectiveness and efficiency in international distribution channels
331(6)
Integrated channels for international distribution
331(1)
Constraints on channel design
332(2)
Effective international channels of distribution
334(1)
Channel cooperation and conflict
335(1)
Improving channel performance
336(1)
Power in international channels of distribution
337(8)
Channel leadership and sources of power
337(1)
Market interactivity, information and channel power
338(2)
International direct distribution
340(1)
Impact of information technologies on intermediaries
341(1)
Intermediaries and the Internet
341(2)
Disintermediation in the international channel
343(1)
Direct cross-border shipments
344(1)
Summary
345(1)
References
346(2)
18 Pricing in international markets
348(20)
General influences on international pricing
348(3)
Technology and competition
349(1)
Pricing high-technology products
350(1)
Government policies on pricing
350(1)
Dumping in international markets
350(1)
Transfer pricing
351(1)
Impact of exchange rates
351(4)
Fluctuating exchange rates
351(1)
Coping with exchange rate movements
352(1)
Market diversification and hedging
352(1)
Strategic responses
353(1)
Export price volatility
353(1)
Standardized international prices
354(1)
Framework for pricing in international markets
355(2)
Cost approaches to international pricing
355(2)
Absorption cost-pricing
355(1)
Marginal cost pricing
356(1)
Pricing and distribution channels
357(9)
Price escalation in international channels
358(2)
Market-based pricing in international markets
360(2)
Life cycle effects on international pricing
362(3)
Pricing at embryonic stage of international marketing
362(2)
Pricing at mature stage of international marketing
364(1)
Pricing for export competitiveness
365(1)
Summary
366(1)
References
367(1)
19 International marketing negotiations
368(21)
Selling and negotiating in international marketing
368(2)
Nature of international marketing exchanges
369(1)
International marketing negotiations
370(4)
Buyer-seller communications
370(2)
Cultural filters and 'noise'
371(1)
Fields of cultural experience
372(1)
Culture and effective communication
372(1)
Impact of context on communication
373(1)
Selling and negotiating strategies
374(5)
Convergence of buying and selling
375(1)
Stages in the buying process
375(2)
Assessing the buying situation and buying roles
375(1)
Supplier selection and purchase
376(1)
Completing the purchase
377(1)
Stages in the selling process
377(2)
Customer communication and diagnosis
377(2)
Problem solution and completion of sale
379(1)
Cultural integration of negotiation and selling
379(5)
Negotiation and discrete exchanges
379(1)
Competitive negotiation style
380(1)
Collaborative negotiation style
381(1)
Bridging cultural differences in international negotiations
382(1)
Domain of interest in international marketing relationships
383(1)
Selecting the international sales team
384(2)
Summary
386(1)
References
387(2)
20 Assessing international marketing performance
389(14)
Aligning international marketing strategies
389(5)
Measuring marketing performance
390(2)
Hard and soft performance measures
392(2)
Choosing performance criteria
393(1)
Benchmarking the performance
393(1)
Evaluating international marketing performance
394(4)
Sales performance analysis
394(1)
Current earnings and profits
395(1)
Financial performance criteria
395(1)
Using financial controls
396(1)
Cash flow in international markets
396(2)
Timing of cash flows for international sales growth
397(1)
Size of firm and cash flow
398(1)
Strategic control in international marketing
398(3)
Fundamentals of marketing control
398(1)
Return on international marketing investment
399(2)
Summary
401(1)
References
402(1)
Company index 403(2)
Name index 405(2)
Subject index 407

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