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What do we study in international relations? How do we study it? And how do we apply it? Using these guiding questions as a framework,International Relationsshows students how to think critically about issues in world politics. In each chapter, a brief opening case is followed by a description of key developments, an explanation of the main theoretical approaches used to analyze them, and applications of those theories in individual, state, and global contexts. The authors provide extensive historical information throughout, giving students a holistic frame of reference from which to understand current events. FEATURES: *A consistent analytical frameworkorganized around three questions encourages critical thinking *Three full chapters on theory--realism (Ch. 2), liberalism (Ch. 3), and constructivist and other modern approaches (Ch. 4)--along with coverage of relevant theories and levels of analysis in each chapter introduce students to a broad spectrum of approaches * Two chapters giveunique emphasis to cultural and identity factors(Ch. 8) andpredictions for the future(Ch. 12) *"Visual Review" summariesenable students to visualize how all the material fits together * Concluding"Past, Present, and Future"sections apply each chapter's material to both classic and contemporary challenges *"Debate" boxesfocus on controversial questions and issues and ask students to consider their own views *"Case in Point" featuresprovide in-depth examinations of current or historical events and includecritical-thinking questionsthat ask students to think deeply about these events *An Instructor's Resource Manual, a Computerized Test Bank, Videos, and a Companion Website www.oup.com/us/shiraevprovide additional resources for students and instructors
Eric Shiraev is a researcher and professor at George Mason University. He is the author, coauthor, or coeditor of twelve books and numerous publications, including Russian Government and Politics (2010) and Counting Every Vote: The Most Contentious Elections in American History (2008).
Vladislav Zubok is a professor at the London School of Economics. He is the author of numerous books and articles, including the prize-winning Inside the Kremlin's Cold War (1996) and A Failed Empire: The Soviet Union in the Cold War (2007).
Table of Contents
Each chapter ends with a Conclusion. Preface Maps of the World PART I. STUDYING INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Chapter 1. Introducing International Relations What Do We Study? The Field of International Relations What Is International Relations? Key Concepts Sovereignty Nations and states Key Actors State government and foreign policy Intergovernmental organizations Nongovernment organizations Global Issues Instability, violence, and war Nuclear proliferation Environmental problems Poverty Human rights Population and migration Finding a path to peace and economic improvement How Do We Study It? Gathering Information Government and nongovernment reports Eyewitness sources Communications Intelligence Surveys Experimental methods Analyzing Information Critical thinking in international relations Distinguishing facts from opinions Looking for multiple causes Being aware of bias Theory How Do We Apply It? The Individual context The State context The Global context Past, Present, and Future: Can Democracy Be Exported? Chapter 2. The Realist Perspective What Do We Study? Understanding Power in International Relations The Development of Realism Theoretical roots Realism prevails in Europe Realism becomes a theory Neorealism International Order Polarity and international order International order and policies The Rise and Fall of Three Great Realist Powers The Ottoman Empire The British Empire The United States: An "empire of freedom and the dollar"? How great powers evolve How Do We Study It? Realpolitik Rules of engagement Predator states Power shifts International Order and War Types of responses to the use of force Neorealist strategies Nonmilitary Responses How Do We Apply It? The Individual Context The State Context The Global Context Putting the Contexts Together Past, Present, and Future: The North Atlantic Treaty Organization Chapter 3. The Liberal Perspective What Do We Study? The Development of Liberalism Intellectual roots Early attempts to implement liberal principles 1945: A new beginning for liberal principles The Many Faces of Liberalism How Do We Study It? Comparing Liberalism and Realism The obsolescence of big wars Lessons of diplomacy Democratic peace Soft power International and Nongovernment Institutions Cross-national networks Nongovernment organizations The Spectrum of Liberalism Multilateralism, interventionism, and isolationism Illiberal views: From anarchism to religious fundamentalism How Do We Apply It? The Individual Context The State Context Public support for foreign policy Policy climate The Global Context Past, Present, and Future: The European Community and the Limits of the Liberal Project Chapter 4. Alternative Views What Do We Study? How Do We Study It? The Constructivist View Socially constructed meanings Three types of international environments History lessons Conflict Approaches Marxism and Leninism Other Marxist concepts Dependency and world-systems theory The politics of gender Race and ethnic conflict Political Psychology Rational decision-making Biased decision-making Group pressure How Do We Apply It? The Individual Context Rational and biased choices Analogies and individuals Irrational decision-making Early and late socialization Conflict theories tested The State Context Constructivism in the bureaucratic and group context Access to information and statesmanship Two-level games The democratic-authoritarian continuum Whose state interests? The Global Context International factors and state interests Gender and social conflict perspectives Past, Present, and Future: The Cuban Missile Crisis PART II. THREE FACETS OF A GLOBAL WORLD Chapter 5. International Security What Do We Study? Security Types of War Security Policies How Do We Study It? Realism Realism and security The security dilemma Nuclear deterrence The domino theory Security regimes International Liberalism Liberalism and security International organizations and the security community Constructivism Perceptions, identities, and attitudes Militarism and pacifism Alternative and Conflict Theories Marxism Feminism How Do We Apply It? The Individual Context Leaders and advisers Psychology The State Context Public opinion Ideology Lobbying The Global Context Geopolitics Regional security Energy, resources, and security Past, Present, and Future: Ending the Cold War Chapter 6. International Law What Do We Study? Law, the Role of IGOs, and International Relations Principles of International Law Sources of International Law The Development of International Law Laws of the sea Laws of war Humanitarian issues Early legal institutions From the League of Nations to the United Nations How Do We Study It? The Realist View of International Law Sovereignty State interest Law enforcement The Liberal View of International Law Law and reason Extraterritoriality Supranationalism Supranationalism and human rights The legality of war Constructivism and other views Ideology and law Perceptions of international law Conflict theories Self-organization How Do We Apply It? The Individual Context Political authority The State Context International law and the United States The Global Context From nationalism to supranationalism Back to reality Past, Present, and Future: War Crimes, Genocide, and the Legacy of Nuremberg Chapter 7. International Political Economy What Do We Study? The Major Factors of International Political Economy Production and Consumption Finances Trade How Do We Study It? Mercantilism: An economic realism? Principles of mercantilism Mercantilism and mealism Economic Liberalism The roots of economic liberalism Principles of economic liberalism The Keynesian challenge International organizations Regional trade agreements Constructivism National purpose Economic climate Conflict Theories Marxism Economic dependency Fair trade How Do We Apply It? The Individual Context Political leadership Microeconomics The State Context Domestic politics Surplus or manageable deficit? The Global Context Which economic policy? Global interdependence Global poverty International institutions and the global economy Culture and conflict Past, Present, and Future: "The Beijing Miracle" PART III. TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY CHALLENGES Chapter 8. International Terrorism What Do We Study? Terrorism and Counterterrorism Why Definitions Are Important Legitimization of military actions Mobilization of international law Justification of other policies How Terrorism Works Assumptions and methods The "logic" of terrorism Terrorism: In the Name of What? Anarchists Extreme nationalists Radical Socialists Religious fundamentalists How Do We Study It? The Realist view of Terrorism Power balance Asymmetrical threats Counterterrorism The Liberal View of Terrorism Understanding causes of terrorism Criminalizing terrorism Liberalism and counterterrorism The Constructivist View of Terrorism Three pillars of terrorism Ideology and Identity Conflict theories Political socialization How Do We Apply It? The Individual Context The terrorist's profile Bush and Obama on terrorism Rehabilitation as counterterrorism The State Context Domestic costs of counterterrorism Terrorism as a means to gain state power Democratic governance and terrorism The Global Context Effectiveness Global waves Global counterterrorism Past, Present, and Future: Al-Qaeda Chapter 9. Environmental Problems and International Politics What Do We Study? Environmental Problems Acid rain Air pollution Ozone depletion Climate change Deforestation Loss of wildlife Loss of clean water Disasters and Accidents Natural disasters Human-created disasters Environmental Policies Today Restriction and regulation Green investments Comprehensive policies Policy implementation How Do We Study It? Realism Environmental disasters and security Conflict The global commons Environment and sovereignty Liberalism International treaties and organizations Nongovernment organizations Public awareness Constructivism Environmental values Alternative and critical views How Do We Apply It? The Individual Context Environmentalism and skepticism A sense of mission and leadership The State Context National purpose and partisan politics The democratic context The Global Context The environment and business The need for global efforts Global policy and climate change Past, Present, and Future: Greenpeace Chapter 10. Humanitarian Problems What Do We Study? Humanitarian Problems Pandemics and infectious diseases AIDS Chronic starvation and malnutrition Acute suffering Causes of Humanitarian Problems Natural disasters Mismanagement Politics Mass violence Extreme poverty Overpopulation Involuntary migration Interconnected problems Humanitarian Policies Humanitarian intervention Relief efforts Crisis prevention Population policies Anti-poverty policies Refugee policies How Do We Study It? Realism Liberalism Theoretical principles Global governance Constructivism Conflict Theories How Do We Apply It? The Individual Context Leaders' choices Denying or hiding problems The State Context Political climate Favorable conditions The Global Context New and evolving concerns Policy arguments Efficiency of aid Sustainability of success Past, Present, and Future: Celebrity Activism Chapter 11. Hearts and Minds: Identity and Political Culture What Do We Study? Values and Identities Political Culture Types of political culture Views of political authority Cultures as Civilizations Cultural identities A clash of civilizations? Political Attitudes Nationalism Tribalism Xenophobia Fundamentalism How Do We Study It? Realism Liberalism Constructivism Conflict Theories How Do We Apply It? The Individual Context Visionaries and fanatics Political mobilization The State Context Collective Experiences Political culture and state unity Economic leverage Democratic norms The Global Context Toward a global political culture Resistance to globalization Do cultures clash? Hybrid political cultures Past, Present, and Future: China's Changing Identity Chapter 12. Forecasting the World of 2025 What Do We Study? From Prophesies to Predictions: The International System Sovereign States Strong and weak states Territorial claims IGOs and NGOs Multipolarity and Alliances Polarity Latin America and Bolivarianism Pan-Arabism Pan-Islamism Pan-Africanism South and East Asia Russia and the post-Soviet space How Do We Study It? Realism Liberalism Constructivism Conflict Theories How Do We Apply It? The Individual Context The State Context The United States The European Union China Brazil Turkey The Global Context Marxism Modernization theories Democratic transition Theories of scarcity The clash of civilizations "Rise and Fall" theories Historical Perspective: A Glimpse into the Future