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Introducing Phonetics and Phonology



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This is the 3rd edition with a publication date of 7/30/2010.

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  • Introducing Phonetics and Phonology
    Introducing Phonetics and Phonology


This book examines some of the ways in which linguists can express what native speakers know about the sound system of their language. Intended for the absolute beginner, it requires no previous background in linguistics, phonetics or phonology. Starting with a grounding in phonetics and phonological theory, the book provides a base from which more advanced treatments may be approached. It begins with an examination of the foundations of articulatory and acoustic phonetics, moves on to the basic principles of phonology, and ends with an outline of some further issues within contemporary phonology. Varieties of English, particularly Received Pronunciation and General American, form the focus of consideration, but aspects of the phonetics and phonology of other languages are discussed as well. This new edition includes more discussion of Optimality Theory and a new glossary of terms. It has been updated throughout to take account of the latest developments in phonological theory, but without sacrificing the book's ease of use for beginners.

Author Biography

Mike Davenport is Director of Durham University English Language Centre. S.J. Hannahs is Senior Lecturer at Newcastle University.

Table of Contents

List of tablesp. xi
List of figuresp. xiii
Prefacep. xv
Preface to the second editionp. xvi
Preface to the third editionp. xvii
The International Phonetic Alphabetp. xviii
Introductionp. 1
Phonetics and phonologyp. 1
The generative enterprisep. 3
Further readingp. 6
Introduction to articulatory phoneticsp. 7
Overviewp. 7
Speech sound classificationp. 14
Supra-segraental structurep. 15
p. 15
Further readingp. 16
Exercisesp. 17
Consonantsp. 18
Stopsp. 19
Affricatesp. 26
Fricativesp. 27
Nasalsp. 30
Liquidsp. 31
Glidesp. 34
An inventory of English consonantsp. 36
Further readingp. 37
Exercisesp. 37
Vowelsp. 39
Vowel classificationp. 39
The vowel space and Cardinal Vowelsp. 40
Further classificationsp. 42
The vowels of Englishp. 43
Some vowel systems of Englishp. 52
Further readingp. 55
Exercisesp. 55
Acoustic phoneticsp. 56
Fundamentalsp. 56
Speech soundsp. 60
Cross-linguistic valuesp. 71
Further readingp. 71
Exercisesp. 71
Above the segmentp. 73
The syllablep. 73
Stressp. 78
Tone and intonationp. 84
Further readingp. 89
Exercisesp. 90
Featuresp. 91
Segmental compositionp. 91
Phonetic vs. phonological featuresp. 92
Charting the featuresp. 94
Conclusionp. 110
Further readingp. 111
Exercisesp. 113
Phonemic analysisp. 115
Sounds that are the same but differentp. 115
Finding phonemes and allophonesp. 117
Linking levels: rulesp. 121
Choosing the underlying formp. 123
Summaryp. 129
Further readingp. 130
Exercisesp. 130
Phonological alternations, processes and rulesp. 133
Alternations vs. processes vs. rulesp. 133
Alternation typesp. 134
Formal rules and rule writingp. 138
Overview of phonological operations and rulesp. 143
Summaryp. 145
Further readingp. 146
Exercisesp. 146
Phonological structurep. 148
The need for richer phonological representationp. 149
Segment internal structure: feature geometry, underspecification and unary featuresp. 152
Autosegmental phonologyp. 159
p. 166
Conclusionp. 174
Further readingp. 174
Exercisesp. 174
Derivational analysisp. 176
The aims of analysisp. 176
A derivational analysis of English noun plural formatiop. 178
Extrinsic vs. intrinsic rule orderingp. 182
Evaluating competing analyses: evidence, economy and plausibilityp. 184
Conclusionp. 194
Further readingp. 194
Exercisesp. 195
Constraint-based analysisp. 198
Introduction to optimality theoryp. 198
The aims of analysisp. 202
Modelling phonological processes in OTp. 203
English noun plural formation: an OT accountp. 208
Competing analysesp. 212
Conclusionp. 215
Further readingp. 215
Exercisesp. 216
Constraining the modelp. 219
Constraining derivational phonology: abstractnessp. 220
Constraining the power of the phonological componentp. 223
Constraining the power of OTp. 230
Conclusionp. 23
Further readingp. 238
Glossaryp. 239
Referencesp. 247
Subject indexp. 251
Varieties of English indexp. 256
Language indexp. 257
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