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This book examines some of the ways in which linguists can express what native speakers know about the sound system of their language. Intended for the absolute beginner, it requires no previous background in linguistics, phonetics or phonology. Starting with a grounding in phonetics and phonological theory, the book provides a base from which more advanced treatments may be approached. It begins with an examination of the foundations of articulatory and acoustic phonetics, moves on to the basic principles of phonology, and ends with an outline of some further issues within contemporary phonology. Varieties of English, particularly Received Pronunciation and General American, form the focus of consideration, but aspects of the phonetics and phonology of other languages are discussed as well. This new edition includes more discussion of Optimality Theory and a new glossary of terms. It has been updated throughout to take account of the latest developments in phonological theory, but without sacrificing the book's ease of use for beginners.
Mike Davenport is Director of Durham University English Language Centre. S.J. Hannahs is Senior Lecturer at Newcastle University.
Table of Contents
|List of tables||p. xi|
|List of figures||p. xiii|
|Preface to the second edition||p. xvi|
|Preface to the third edition||p. xvii|
|The International Phonetic Alphabet||p. xviii|
|Phonetics and phonology||p. 1|
|The generative enterprise||p. 3|
|Further reading||p. 6|
|Introduction to articulatory phonetics||p. 7|
|Speech sound classification||p. 14|
|Supra-segraental structure||p. 15|
|Further reading||p. 16|
|An inventory of English consonants||p. 36|
|Further reading||p. 37|
|Vowel classification||p. 39|
|The vowel space and Cardinal Vowels||p. 40|
|Further classifications||p. 42|
|The vowels of English||p. 43|
|Some vowel systems of English||p. 52|
|Further reading||p. 55|
|Acoustic phonetics||p. 56|
|Speech sounds||p. 60|
|Cross-linguistic values||p. 71|
|Further reading||p. 71|
|Above the segment||p. 73|
|The syllable||p. 73|
|Tone and intonation||p. 84|
|Further reading||p. 89|
|Segmental composition||p. 91|
|Phonetic vs. phonological features||p. 92|
|Charting the features||p. 94|
|Further reading||p. 111|
|Phonemic analysis||p. 115|
|Sounds that are the same but different||p. 115|
|Finding phonemes and allophones||p. 117|
|Linking levels: rules||p. 121|
|Choosing the underlying form||p. 123|
|Further reading||p. 130|
|Phonological alternations, processes and rules||p. 133|
|Alternations vs. processes vs. rules||p. 133|
|Alternation types||p. 134|
|Formal rules and rule writing||p. 138|
|Overview of phonological operations and rules||p. 143|
|Further reading||p. 146|
|Phonological structure||p. 148|
|The need for richer phonological representation||p. 149|
|Segment internal structure: feature geometry, underspecification and unary features||p. 152|
|Autosegmental phonology||p. 159|
|Further reading||p. 174|
|Derivational analysis||p. 176|
|The aims of analysis||p. 176|
|A derivational analysis of English noun plural formatio||p. 178|
|Extrinsic vs. intrinsic rule ordering||p. 182|
|Evaluating competing analyses: evidence, economy and plausibility||p. 184|
|Further reading||p. 194|
|Constraint-based analysis||p. 198|
|Introduction to optimality theory||p. 198|
|The aims of analysis||p. 202|
|Modelling phonological processes in OT||p. 203|
|English noun plural formation: an OT account||p. 208|
|Competing analyses||p. 212|
|Further reading||p. 215|
|Constraining the model||p. 219|
|Constraining derivational phonology: abstractness||p. 220|
|Constraining the power of the phonological component||p. 223|
|Constraining the power of OT||p. 230|
|Further reading||p. 238|
|Subject index||p. 251|
|Varieties of English index||p. 256|
|Language index||p. 257|
|Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.|