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Introduction to Behavioral Research Methods : Research Edition,9780205396764
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Introduction to Behavioral Research Methods : Research Edition

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780205396764

ISBN10:
0205396763
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2008
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

Introduction to Behavioral Research Methods shows students how to conceptualize questions, measure variables, design studies, and analyze data. After chapters that introduce behavioral science, the text deals with the four basic approaches to behavioral research: descriptive research, correlational research, experimental research, and quasi-experimental research. Chapters on research ethics and scientific writing (including the most recent version of APA style) round out the book. Throughout each chapter, boxes on Developing Your Research Skills and Behavioral Research Case Study provide practical examples and pique student interest. The Research Edition provides margin icons that guide students to the Research Navigator site.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
1 Research in the Behavioral Sciences 1(33)
The Beginnings of Behavioral Research
2(2)
Goals of Behavioral Research
4(2)
Describing Behavior
5(1)
Predicting Behavior
5(1)
Explaining Behavior
6(1)
Behavioral Science and Common Sense
6(1)
The Value of Research to the Student
7(2)
The Scientific Approach
9(3)
Systematic Empiricism
9(1)
Public Verification
9(1)
Solvable Problems
10(2)
The Scientist's Two Jobs: Detecting and Explaining Phenomena
12(2)
Research Hypotheses
14(3)
Conceptual and Operational Definitions
17(2)
Proof, Disproof, and Scientific Progress
19(5)
The Logical Impossibility of Proof
19(1)
The Practical Impossibility of Disproof
20(1)
If Not Proof or Disproof, Then What?
21(1)
The Scientific Filter
21(3)
Strategies of Behavioral Research
24(3)
Descriptive Research
24(1)
Correlational Research
25(1)
Experimental Research
26(1)
Quasi-Experimental Research
26(1)
Domains of Behavioral Science
27(1)
A Preview
28(1)
Summary
29(5)
2 Behavioral Variability and Research 34(21)
Variability and the Research Process
35(3)
Variance: An Index of Variability
38(5)
A Conceptual Explanation of Variance
39(1)
A Statistical Explanation of Variance
40(3)
Systematic and Error Variance
43(4)
Systematic Variance
43(1)
Error Variance
44(2)
Distinguishing Systematic from Error Variance
46(1)
Assessing the Strength of Relationships
47(2)
Meta-Analysis: Systematic Variance Across Studies
49(3)
The Quest for Systematic Variance
52(1)
Summary
52(3)
3 The Measurement of Behavior 55(27)
Types of Measures
56(2)
Scales of Measurement
58(1)
Estimating the Reliability of a Measure
59(10)
Measurement Error
60(2)
Reliability as Systematic Variance
62(1)
Assessing Reliability
63(5)
Increasing the Reliability of Measures
68(1)
Estimating the Validity of a Measure
69(6)
Assessing Validity
69(6)
Fairness and Bias in Measurement
75(2)
Summary
77(5)
4 Approaches to Psychological Measurement 82(29)
Observational Methods
83(8)
Naturalistic Versus Contrived Settings
84(2)
Disguised Versus Nondisguised Observation
86(2)
Behavioral Recording
88(2)
Increasing the Reliability of Observational Methods
90(1)
Physiological Measures
91(1)
Self-Report: Questionnaires and Interviews
92(10)
Writing Questions
93(4)
Questionnaires
97(2)
Interviews
99(1)
Advantages of Questionnaires Versus Interviews
100(1)
Biases in Self-Report Measurement
101(1)
Archival Data
102(3)
Content Analysis
105(2)
Summary
107(4)
5 Descriptive Research 111(36)
Types of Descriptive Research
112(5)
Surveys
112(4)
Demographic Research
116(1)
Epidemiological Research
116(1)
Summary
117(1)
Sampling
117(13)
Probability Samples
118(8)
Nonprobability Samples
126(4)
Describing and Presenting Data
130(12)
Criteria of a Good Description
130(1)
Frequency Distributions
130(6)
Measures of Central Tendency
136(1)
Measures of Variability
137(1)
Standard Deviation and the Normal Curve
138(3)
The z-Score
141(1)
Summary
142(5)
6 Correlational Research 147(27)
The Correlation Coefficient
149(1)
A Graphic Representation of Correlations
150(3)
The Coefficient of Determination
153(4)
Statistical Significance of r
157(2)
Factors That Distort Correlation Coefficients
159(4)
Restricted Range
159(2)
Outliers
161(2)
Reliability of Measures
163(1)
Correlation and Causality
163(3)
Partial Correlation
166(1)
Other Indices of Correlation
167(2)
Summary
169(5)
7 Advanced Correlational Strategies 174(22)
Predicting Behavior: Regression Strategies
174(9)
Linear Regression
175(2)
Types of Multiple Regression
177(5)
Multiple Correlation
182(1)
Assessing Directionality: Cross-Lagged and Structural Equations Analysis
183(4)
Cross-Lagged Panel Design
183(1)
Structural Equations Modeling
184(3)
Uncovering Underlying Dimensions: Factor Analysis
187(5)
An Intuitive Approach
188(1)
Basics of Factor Analysis
188(2)
Uses of Factor Analysis
190(2)
Summary
192(4)
8 Basic Issues in Experimental Research 196(34)
Manipulating the Independent Variable
198(5)
Independent Variables
198(4)
Dependent Variables
202(1)
Assignment of Participants to Conditions
203(5)
Simple Random Assignment
203(1)
Matched Random Assignment
204(1)
Repeated Measures Designs
204(4)
Experimental Control
208(4)
Systematic Variance
209(1)
Error Variance
210(1)
An Analogy
211(1)
Eliminating Confounds
212(8)
Internal Validity
212(1)
Threats to Internal Validity
213(4)
Experimenter Expectancies, Demand Characteristics, and Placebo Effects
217(3)
Error Variance
220(3)
Sources of Error Variance
221(2)
Experimental Control and Generalizability: The Experimenter's Dilemma
223(2)
Summary
225(5)
9 Experimental Design 230(24)
One-Way Designs
231(1)
Assigning Participants to Conditions
232(1)
Posttest and Pretest-Posttest Designs
233(3)
Factorial Designs
236(5)
Factorial Nomenclature
237(2)
Assigning Participants to Conditions
239(2)
Main Effects and Interactions
241(5)
Main Effects
242(1)
Interactions
242(3)
Higher-Order Designs
245(1)
Combining Independent and Subject Variables
246(4)
Summary
250(4)
10 Analyzing Experimental Data 254(20)
An intuitive Approach to Analysis
255(2)
The Problem: Error Variance Can Cause Mean Differences
255(1)
The Solution: Inferential Statistics
256(1)
Hypothesis Testing
257(4)
The Null Hypothesis
257(1)
Type I and Type II Errors
258(3)
Effect Size
261(1)
Summary
261(1)
Analysis of Two-Group Experiments: The t-Test
261(6)
Conducting a t-Test
262(4)
Back to the Droodles Experiment
266(1)
Analyses of Matched-Subjects and Within-Subjects Designs
267(1)
Computer Analyses
268(2)
Summary
270(4)
11 Analyzing Complex Designs 274(22)
The Problem: Multiple Tests Inflate Type I Error
275(1)
The Rationale Behind ANOVA
276(1)
How ANOVA Works
277(6)
Total Sum of Squares
277(1)
Sum of Squares Within-Groups
278(1)
Sum of Squares Between-Groups
279(1)
The F-Test
280(1)
Extension of ANOVA to Factorial Designs
280(3)
Follow-Up Tests
283(5)
Main Effects
284(1)
Interactions
284(1)
Putting It All Together: Interpreting Main Effects and Interactions
285(3)
Between-Subjects and Within-Subjects ANOVAs
288(1)
Multivariate Analysis of Variance
289(3)
Conceptually Related Dependent Variables
289(1)
Inflation of Type I Error
290(1)
How MANOVA Works
290(2)
Experimental and Nonexperimental Uses of Inferential Statistics
292(1)
Summary
293(3)
12 Quasi-Experimental Designs 296(24)
Pretest-Posttest Designs
298(7)
How NOT to Do a Study: The One-Group Pretest Posttest Design
299(1)
Nonequivalent Control Group Design
300(5)
Time Series Designs
305(4)
Simple Interrupted Terne Series Design
305(2)
Interrupted Time Series with a Reversal
307(2)
Control Group Interrupted Time Series Design
309(1)
Longitudinal Designs
309(3)
Program Evaluation
312(2)
Evaluating Quasi-Experimental Designs
314(3)
Threats to Internal Validity
314(1)
Increasing Confidence in Quasi-Experimental Results
315(2)
Summary
317(3)
13 Single-Case Research 320(23)
Single-Case Experimental Designs
322(13)
Criticisms of Group Designs and Analyses
323(3)
Basic Single-Case Experimental Designs
326(3)
Data from Single-Participant Designs
329(3)
Uses of Single-Case Experimental Designs
332(2)
Critique of Single-Participant Designs
334(1)
Case Study Research
335(4)
Uses of the Case Study Method
335(2)
Limitations of the Case Study Approach
337(2)
Summary
339(4)
14 Ethical Issues in Behavioral Research 343(27)
Approaches to Ethical Decisions
344(2)
Basic Ethical Guidelines
346(3)
Potential Benefits
347(1)
Potential Costs
348(1)
Balancing Benefits and Costs
348(1)
The Institutional Review Board
348(1)
The Principle of Informed Consent
349(3)
Obtaining Informed Consent
349(1)
Problems with Obtaining Informed Consent
350(2)
Invasion of Privacy
352(1)
Coercion to Participate
353(1)
Physical and Mental Stress
353(1)
Deception in Research
354(2)
Objections to Deception
354(1)
Debriefing
355(1)
Confidentiality in Research
356(3)
Common Courtesy
359(1)
Ethical Principles in Research with Animals
360(2)
Scientific Misconduct
362(4)
A Final Note
366(1)
Summary
367(3)
15 Scientific Writing 370(49)
How Scientific Findings Are Disseminated
370(4)
Journal Publication
371(1)
Presentations at Professional Meetings
372(1)
Personal Contact
373(1)
Elements of Good Scientific Writing
374(5)
Organization
374(1)
Clarity
375(2)
Conciseness
377(1)
Proofreading and Rewriting
378(1)
Avoiding Biased Language
379(3)
Gender-Neutral Language
379(2)
Other Language Pitfalls
381(1)
Parts of a Manuscript
382(5)
Title Page
382(1)
Abstract
383(1)
Introduction
384(1)
Method
385(1)
Results
386(1)
Discussion
387(1)
Citing and Referencing Previous Research
387(5)
Citations in the Text
387(1)
The Reference List
388(4)
Other Aspects of APA Style
392(3)
Optional Sections
392(1)
Headings, Spacing, Pagination, and Numbers
393(2)
Writing a Research Proposal
395(1)
Sample Manuscript
396(23)
Glossary 419(12)
Appendix A Statistical Tables 431(7)
Appendix B Computational Formulas for ANOVA 438(9)
Appendix C Choosing the Proper Statistical Analysis 447(2)
References 449(8)
Index 457


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