This book presents an integrated systems approach to the evaluation, analysis, design, and maintenance of civil engineering systems. Addressing recent concerns about the world's aging civil infrastructure and its environmental impact, the author makes the case for why any civil infrastructure should be seen as part of a larger whole. He walks readers through all phases of a civil project, from feasibility assessment to construction to operations, explaining how to evaluate tasks and challenges at each phase using a holistic approach. Unique coverage of ethics, legal issues, and management is also included.

Preface

General Background

The Text

Didactic Style and Resources

ABET Requirements and Audience

Acknowledgements

Author Biography

**Section 1. Introduction**

**Chapter 1 Civil Engineering Systems and their Evolution**

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Civil Engineering Systems and Historical Developments

1.2 Civil Engineering System - The Branches

1.3 Final Comments on the Historical Evolution and Future of Civil Engineering Systems

Summary

Exercises

References

**Chapter 2 Fundamental Concepts in Systems Engineering**

2.0 Introduction

2.1 What is a system?

2.2 Systems Considerations in Civil Engineering

2.3 Development of Civil Engineering Systems

2.4. Some Terms and Concepts Related to Systems Thinking

2.5 Global Initiatives in the Study of Systems

Summary

Exercises

References

Useful Resources for Further Reading

**Chapter 3 Goals and Objectives of Civil Engineering Systems**

3.0 Introduction

3.1 Hierarchy of Desired Outcomes: Values, Goals, and Objectives

3.2 Common Moes Used in Decision-Making at Any Phase of System Development

3.3 Goals and MOEs at Each Phase of Civil EngineeringSystems Development

3.4 Desired Properties of a Set of MOES for a Given Analysis

3.5 Overall Discussion of Engineering Systems Goals and Objectives

Summary

Exercises

References

**Section 2. The Tasks At Each Phase Of Systems Development**

**Chapter 4 Tasks Within the Phases of Systems Development**

4.0 Introduction

4.1 The Task of Description

4.2 Analyzing Systems in Civil Engineering

4.3 The Task of System Evaluation

4.4 The Task of Feedback Between Phases

4.5 Examples of Tasks Faced at Various Phases of Systems Development

Summary

Exercises

References and Further Reading

**Section 3. The Tools Needed To Carry Out The Tasks**

**Chapter 5 Probability**

5.0 Introduction

5.1 Set Theory

5.2 Some Basic Concepts in Probability

5.3 Random Variables

5.4 Probability Functions

5.5 Discrete Probability Distributions

5.6 Continuous Probability Distributions

5.6 Common Terminology in Probabilistic Analysis

Summary

Exercises

References

**Chapter 6 Statistics**

6.0 Introduction

6.1 Population And Sampling

6.2 Descriptive Statistics

6.3 Inferential Statistics

6.5 Hypothesis Testing

Some Common Terminology And Concepts In Engineering Statistics

Chapter Summary

Exercises

References

**Chapter 7 Modeling**

7.0 Introduction

7.1 Steps for Developing Statistical Models

7.2 Model Specifications in Statistical Modeling

7.3 Some Important Issues in Statistical Modeling

7.4 Glossary of Modeling Terms

Exercises

References

**Chapter 8 Simulation**

8.0 Introduction

8.1 Simulation Terminology

8.2 Categories Of Simulation

8.3 Random Number Generation

8.4 Monte Carlo Simulation

Chapter Summary

Exercises

References

Resources

**Chapter 9 Optimization**

9.0 Introduction

9.1 Unconstrained Optimization Using Calculus

9.2 Constrained Optimization Using Calculus

9.3 Constrained Optimization Using Mathematical Programming Techniques

9.4 Constrained Optimization Involving Binary Decision Variables

9.5 SEARCH FOR THE OPTIMAL SOLUTION – QUICKER AND EFFICIENT TECHNIQUES

9.7 Discussions and Final Comments

Summary

Exercises

References

**Chapter 10 Cost Analysis**

10.0 Introduction

10.1 System Cost Classifications

10.2 Costs Incurred By System Owner/Operator

10.3 Costs Incurred By The System User

10.4 Costs Incurred By The Community

10.5 System Costs Categorized By Phase Of System Development

10.6 Average And Marginal Cost Concepts

10.7 Cost Estimation At The Construction Phase

10.7 Issues In Systems Costing

Chapter Summary

Exercises

References

**Chapter 11 Economic Analysis**

11.0 Introduction

11.1 Basic Concepts In Economic Analysis

11.2 Interest Formula (Or Equivalence Equations)

11.3 Criteria For Economic Analysis

11.4 Discussion Of Relative Merits Of The Economic Efficiency Criteria

11.5 The Effect Of Discount Rate On The Evaluation Outcome

11.6 The Effect Of Analysis Period On Systems Evaluation

11.7 Perpetuity Considerations

11.8 Some Key Considerations In Monetary Lcca

11.9 Economic Efficiency Analysis – Issues And Limitations

11.10 Chapter Summary

Exercises

References

**Chapter 12 Multiple Criteria Analysis**

12.0 Introduction

12.1 Framework For Mcdm Analysis Using Multi-Attribute Utility Theory

12.2 Establishing The Weights Of Decision Criteria

12.3 Scaling Of The Decision Criteria

12.4 Amalgamation

12.5 Prefrence Vs. Non-Preference Approaches For Weighting, Scaling, Or Amalgamation

12.6 Chapter Summary

Exercises

References And Resources

Appendix 12.1

Appendix 12.2 Utility Functions For Some System Decision Criteria

**Chapter 13 Risk And Reliability**

13.0 Introduction

13.1 Certainty, Risk And Uncertainty

13.2 Uncertainties In System Development

13.3 The Management Of Risks And Uncertainties

13.3 The Basics Of Reliability

13.4 Common Contexts Of Reliability Analysis In Civil Engineering

13.5 Laboratory And Field Testing Of System Reliability

13.6 Reliability-Based Design Of Civil Engineering Systems

13.7 System Reliability And System Resilience

13.8 Chapter Summary

Exercises

References

Useful Resources

**Chapter 14 System Dynamics**

14.0 Introduction

14.1 Some Basic Concepts In System Dynamics

14.2 Variable Vs. Time Patterns In System Dynamics Modeling

14.3 Causal Loop Diagrams (The Concept Of Feedback)

14.4 Stocks And Flows

14.5 Framework For Systems Dynamics Analysis

14.6 Systems Dynamics At The Various Phases Of Civil Systems Development

14.7 Chaos Theory

14.8 Chapter Summary

14.9 Exercises

References

Useful Resources

**Chapter 15 Real Options Analysis**

15.0 Introduction

15.1 Real Options Taxonmy

15.2 Categories Of Real Options

15.3 Valuing Flexibility In Real Options Analysis

15.4 Real Options Case Examples In Civil Engineering

15.5 Numerical Example

15.5 Chapter Summary And Concluding Remarks

Exercises

References

Useful Resources

**Chapter 16: Decision Analysis**

16.0 Introduction

16.1 General Contexts Of Decision-Making

16.2 The Basic Process Of Decision-Making And Relevant Tools

16.3 Classification Of Decision Models

16.4 Decision-Making Associated With Uncertainty

16.5 Inputs For Uncertainty-Based Decision-Making

16.6 Decisions Under Risk

16.7 Decisions Under Uncertainty

16.8 Other Techniques For Modeling Decisions

16.9 Impact Of Decision-Maker’s Risk Preferences On Decision-Making

16.10 Chapter Summary

Exercises

References

**Chapter 17 Network Analysis Tools**

17.0 Introduction

17.1 Fundamentals Of Graph Theory

17.2 Trees, Spanning Trees, And Minimum Spanning Trees

17.3 Shortest Path Through A Network

17.4 The Maximum Flow Problem

17.5 Locating Facilities On Civil Engineering Networks

17.6 Network Connectivity

17.6.4 Discussion

17.7 Optimal Coverage Of Networks

17.8 Optimal Shipping Across O-D Pairs In A Network

17.9 Network Applications In Project Management

17.10 Chapter Summary

Exercises

References

Additional Reading

**Chapter 18 Queuing Analysis**

18.0 Introduction

18.1 Attributes Of A Queuing Process

18.2 Performance Of Queuing Processes

18.3 The Role Of Markov Chains In Queuing Analysis

18.3 Notations For Describing Queuing Systems

18.4 Analysis Of Selected Queuing Systems Configurations

18.5 Concluding Remarks On Queuing Analysis

18.6 Chapter Summary

Exercises

References

**Section 4. The Phases of Systems Development**

**Chapter 19 The Needs Assessment Phase**

19.0 Introduction

19.1 Assessment Of System Needs

19.2 Mechanisms For Assessing System Needs

19.3 Assessing System Needs Using User-Targeted Mechanisms

19.4 Assessing Long-Term System Needs Via Demand And Supply Trends

19.5 Optimal Balance Of Demand And Need – Mathematical Derivations

19.6 Some Issues And Considerations In Needs Assessment

19.7 Chapter Summary

Exercises

References

**Chapter 20 Systems Planning**

20.0 Introduction

20.1 A Brief History Of Civil Systems Planning

20.2 Dimensions Of Civil System Planning

20.3 The Rationale And Impetus For System Planning

20.4 Evolving And Emerging Contexts Of Systems Planning

20.5 Principles Of Civil Systems Planning

20.6 The System Planning Process

20.8 Barriers To Effective Planning

20.9 Computations In Civil Systems Planning

20.9 Estimating System Cost at the Planning Phase

20.9 Chapter Summary

Exercises

References

**Chapter 21: System Design**

21.0 Introduction

21.1 Classifications Of Engineering Design

21.2 the Engineering Design Process

21.3 Applications Of Systems Design In Selected Areas Of Civil Engineering

21.4 Considerations In Civil Engineering Systems Design

21.5 Design Failures In Civil Engineering

Exercises

References

Resources

**Chapter 22 Systems Construction**

22.0 Introduction

22.1 Stages Of The System Construction Phase

22.2 Project Delivery Options And Contracting Approaches

22.3 Construction Cost Analysis

22.4 General Decision Contexts In Construction That Merit Application Of Systems Concepts

22.5 Managing Risks At The Construction Phase

22.6 Emerging And Evolving Issues In Civil Systems Construction

22.7 Chapter Summary

Exercises

References

**Chapter 23 System Operations**

23.0 Introduction

23.1 Definition

23.2 General Duties At The Operations Phase

23.3 Some Problem Contexts At The Operations Phase Of Selected Types Of Ce Systems

23.5 Numerical Examples Of Application Of Tools In Ce System Operations

23.4 Chapter Summary

Exercises

References

**Chapter 24 System Monitoring**

24.0 Introduction

24.1 Basic Elements Of System Monitoring

24.1 Purposes Of System Monitoring

24.2 Typical Architecture Of A System Monitoring Program

24.3 Sensing And Detection Mechanisms

24.4 Cost-Effective Reliability-Based Sampling For System Monitoring

24.5 Monitoring Of Specific Civil Engineering Systems

24.6 Planning For System Monitoring/Inspection (M/I)

24.7 Monitoring The System Users

24.8 Chapter Summary

Exercises

References

Useful Resources

**Chapter 25 System Preservation (Maintenance And Rehabilitation)**

25.0 Introduction

25.1 Basic Terminologies In System Preservation

25.2 Specific Tasks At The System Preservation Phase

25.3 Identifying The Appropriate Preservation Treatment At A Given Time

25.4 Development Of System Preservation Schedules

25.5 Impediments To Preservation Treatment Or Schedule Prescriptions

25.6 Concluding Remarks

25.7 Chapter Summary

25.8 Exercises

References

Additional Reading And Resources

**Chapter 26 System End-Of-Life**

26.0 Introduction

26.1 System Life Definitions

26.2 End Of Physical Life - The Causes

26.3 Applications Of Life Estimates In Systems Management

26.4 Predicting The Longevity Of Civil Engineering Systems

26.5 Quantifying System Vulnerability To Destruction

26.6 End-Of-Life Options

26.7 Feedback To Preceding Phases

26.8 Concluding Remarks

26.9 Chapter Summary

EXERCISES

References

Useful Resources

**Section 5. Other Topics Related To Civil Systems Development**

**Chapter 27 Threats, Exposure, And System Resilience**

27.0 Introduction

27.1 Categories Of Threats To Civil Engineering Systems

27.2 Threat Types

27.3 The Threat Of Climate Change

27.4 Exposure To Threats

27.5 Resilience Of Civil Engineering Systems

27.6 Combining Threat Likelihood, Public Exposure, And System Resilience For Decision-Making

Chapter Summary

Exercises

References

**Chapter 28 Sustainability**

28.0 Introduction

28.1 Motivations For The Drive Towards Sustainability In The Current Era

28.2 The Principles Of Sustainability

28.3 Evolution Of Global Policy On Sustainability

28.4 Elements Of Sustainability

28.5 Combined Indicators Of Sustainability

28.6 Dimensions Of Sustainability

28.7 Systems Concepts In Sustainability Modeling

28.8 Sustainability Considerations At Each Phase Of System Development

28.9 Modeling The Impact Of Human Actions On Sustainability

28.10 Incorporating Sustainability Into Project- And Network-Level Evaluation

28.11 Specific Sustainability Considerations In Civil Engineering Disciplines

28.12 Sustainability -- Some Interesting Finales Of The Discussion

28.13 Chapter Summary

Exercises

References

Additional Resources

**Chapter 29 Ethics And Legal Issues In Civil Systems Development**

29.0 Introduction

29.1 Ethics In Civil Systems Development

29.2 Legal Issues In Civil Systems Development

29.3 Chapter Summary

Exercises

References

**Chapter 30 Epilogue**