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An Introduction to Language,9780030186820

An Introduction to Language

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780030186820

ISBN10:
003018682X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/1/1997
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $94.66

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Table of Contents

Preface ix
Part 1 The Nature of Human Language 4(61)
Chapter 1 What Is Language?
4(30)
Linguistic Knowledge
4(8)
Knowledge of the Sound System
4(1)
Knowledge of Words
5(1)
Arbitrary Relation of Form and Meaning
5(4)
The Creativity of Linguistic Knowledge
9(2)
Knowledge of Sentences and Nonsentences
11(1)
Linguistic Knowledge and Performance
12(2)
What Is Grammar?
14(4)
Descriptive Grammars
14(1)
Prescriptive Grammars
15(2)
Teaching Grammars
17(1)
Language Universals
18(4)
Sign Language: Evidence for Language Universals
20(1)
American Sign Language (ASL)
21(1)
Animal "Languages"
22(4)
"Talking" Parrots
23(1)
The Birds and the Bees
24(2)
What We Know about Language
26(1)
Summary
27(2)
References for Further Reading
28(1)
Exercises
29(5)
Chapter 2 Brain and Language
34(31)
The Human Brain
34(15)
The Modularity of the Brain
35(3)
Evidence from Childhood Brain Lesions
38(2)
Split Brains
40(2)
More Experimental Evidence
42(1)
More Evidence for Modularity
43(1)
Aphasia
44(4)
Distinct Categories of Conceptual Knowledge
48(1)
The Autonomy of Language
49(2)
Asymmetry of Abilities
49(1)
Laura
49(1)
Christopher
50(1)
Genetic Evidence for Language Autonomy
51(1)
The Evolution of Language
51(5)
In the Beginning: The Origin of Language
51(2)
God's Gift to Mankind?
53(1)
The First Language
53(1)
Human Invention or the Cries of Nature?
54(1)
The Development of Language in the Species
55(1)
Summary
56(2)
References for Further Reading
58(1)
Exercises
58(7)
Part 2 Grammatical Aspects of Language 65(253)
Chapter 3 Morphology: The Words of Language
65(41)
Dictionaries
65(2)
Classes of Words
67(1)
Lexical Content Words
67(1)
Function Words
67(1)
Morphemes: The Minimal Units of Meaning
68(7)
Bound and Free Morphemes
70(1)
Prefixes and Suffixes
71(1)
Infixes
72(1)
Circumfixes
73(1)
Huckles and Ceives
73(2)
Rules of Word Formation
75(6)
Lexical Gaps
76(1)
Derivational Morphology
76(4)
"Pullet Surprises"
80(1)
Sign Language Morphology
81(1)
Word Coinage
82(7)
Compounds
83(2)
Meaning of Compounds
85(1)
Universality of Compounding
86(1)
Acronyms
86(1)
Back-Formations
87(1)
Abbreviations
88(1)
Words from Names
88(1)
Blends
89(1)
Grammatical Morphemes
89(6)
Inflectional Morphemes
90(2)
Exceptions and Suppletions
92(1)
Morphology and Syntax
93(2)
Morphological Analysis: Identifying Morphemes
95(1)
Summary
96(2)
References for Further Reading
98(1)
Exercises
98(8)
Chapter 4 Syntax: The Sentence Patterns of Language
106(52)
Grammatical or Ungrammatical?
106(3)
What Grammaticality Is Based On
107(1)
What Grammaticality Is Not Based On
108(1)
What Else Do You Know about Syntax?
109(2)
Sentence Structure
111(9)
Syntactic Categories
112(2)
Phrase Structure Trees
114(2)
More Phrase Structure Trees
116(2)
The Infinitude of Language
118(2)
Phrase Structure Rules
120(13)
Growing Trees: The Relationship between Phrase Structure Rules and Phrase Structure Trees
122(4)
Trees That Won't Grow
126(2)
Rules in Other Languages
128(1)
More Phrase Structure Rules
129(4)
The Lexicon
133(3)
Subcategorization
134(1)
More Lexical Differences
135(1)
Sentence Relatedness
136(9)
Transformational Rules
137(6)
Long-Distance Relationships
143(1)
"Wh-" Sentences
144(1)
More about Sentence Structure
145(3)
Sign Language Syntax
147(1)
Summary
148(1)
References for Further Reading
148(1)
Exercises
149(9)
Chapter 5 The Meanings of Language
158(55)
Lexical Semantics (Word Meanings)
158(13)
Semantic Properties
159(1)
Evidence for Semantic Properties
160(1)
Semantic Properties and the Lexicon
161(1)
More Semantic Relationships
162(1)
-nyms
162(1)
Homonyms and Polysemy
163(2)
Synonyms
165(1)
Antonyms
166(1)
Formation of Antonyms
167(1)
Hyponyms
168(1)
Metonyms
168(1)
Retronyms
168(1)
Proper Names
168(3)
Phrase and Sentence Meaning
171(13)
Phrasal Meaning
172(1)
Noun-Centered Meaning
172(2)
Sense and Reference
174(1)
Verb-Centered Meaning
175(1)
Thematic Roles
175(2)
Thematic Roles in Other Languages
177(1)
The Theta-Criterion
178(1)
Sentential Meaning
178(1)
The "Truth" of Sentences
178(1)
Paraphrase
179(1)
Entailment
180(1)
Contradiction
180(1)
When Semantics and Syntax Meet
181(1)
Words versus Phrases
181(1)
When Passives Do Not Work
182(1)
Pronouns and Coreferentiality
183(1)
When Rules Are Broken
184(6)
Anomaly: No Sense and Nonsense
184(3)
Metaphor
187(1)
Idioms
188(2)
Pragmatics
190(11)
Linguistic Context: Discourse
191(1)
Pronouns
191(1)
Anaphora
192(1)
Missing Parts
193(1)
The Articles The and A
194(1)
Situational Context
195(1)
Maxims of Conversation
195(2)
Speech Acts
197(1)
Presuppositions
198(1)
Deixis
199(2)
Summary
201(3)
References for Further Reading
203(1)
Exercises
204(9)
Chapter 6 Phonetics: The Sounds of Language
213(41)
Sound Segments
213(3)
Identity of Speech Sounds
215(1)
Spelling and Speech
216(5)
The Phonetic Alphabet
218(3)
Articulatory Phonetics
221(21)
Airstream Mechanisms
222(1)
Consonants
223(1)
Places of Articulation
223(1)
Bilabials: [p] [b] [m]
223(1)
Labiodentals: [f] [v]
224(1)
Interdentals: [Theta] [XXX]
224(1)
Alveolars: [t] [d] [n] [s] [z] [l] [r]
224(1)
Palatals: [XXX] [3]/[XXX] [XXX] [XXX] [XXX]
224(1)
Velars: [k] [g] [n]
224(1)
Uvulars: [R] [q] [G]
224(1)
Glottal: [?] [h]
224(1)
Manners of Articulation
225(1)
Voiced and Voiceless Sounds
225(1)
Aspirated and Unaspirated Sounds
226(2)
Nasal and Oral Sounds
228(1)
Stops: [p] [b] [m] [t] [d] [n] [k] [g] [n] [XXX] [XXX] [?]
229(1)
Fricatives: [s] [z] [f] [v] [Theta] [XXX] [XXX] [XXX]
230(1)
Affricates
231(1)
Liquids: [l] [r]
232(1)
Glides: [j] [w]
232(1)
Phonetic Symbols for American English Consonants
233(1)
Vowels
234(1)
Tongue Position
235(1)
Lip Rounding
236(1)
Diphthongs
236(1)
Nasalization of Vowels
237(1)
Tense and Lax Vowels
238(1)
Dialect Differences
238(1)
Major Classes
239(1)
Noncontinuants and Continuants
239(1)
Obstruents and Sonorants
239(1)
Consonants and Vowels
239(1)
Labials: [p] [b] [m] [f] [v]
239(1)
Coronals: [d] [t] [n] [s] [z] [XXX] [XXX] [XXX] [XXX]
239(1)
Anterior
240(1)
Sibilants: [S] [Z] [XXX] [XXX] [XXX] [XXX]
240(1)
Syllabic Sounds
240(1)
Prosodic Suprasegmental Features
240(1)
Tone and Intonation
240(2)
Diacritics
242(1)
Phonetic Symbols and Spelling Correspondences
243(2)
Sign-Language Primes
245(2)
Summary
247(1)
References for Further Reading
248(1)
Exercises
248(6)
Chapter 7 Phonology: The Sound Patterns of Language
254(64)
Phonemes: The Phonological Units of Language
254(8)
Sounds That Contrast
254(1)
Minimal Pairs
255(2)
Free Variation
257(1)
Minimal Pairs in ASL
258(1)
Phonemes, Phones, and Allophones
259(2)
Complementary Distribution
261(1)
Distinctive Features
262(7)
Feature Values
262(2)
Predictability of Redundant (Nondistinctive) Features
264(2)
Unpredictability of Phonemic Features
266(1)
More on Redundancies
267(2)
Syllable Structure
269(1)
Sequential Constraints
269(2)
Lexical Gaps
271(1)
Natural Classes
271(3)
Feature Specifications for American English Consonants and Vowels
273(1)
More on Prosodic Phonology
274(5)
Intonation
274(2)
Word Stress
276(2)
Sentence and Phrase Stress
278(1)
The Rules of Phonology
279(14)
Assimilation Rules
280(3)
Feature Changing Rules
283(1)
Dissimilation Rules
284(1)
Feature Addition Rules
284(1)
Segment Deletion and Addition Rules
285(2)
Movement (Metathesis) Rules
287(1)
From One to Many and from Many to One
288(3)
The Function of Phonological Rules
291(1)
Slips of the Tongue: Evidence for Phonological Rules
292(1)
The Pronunciation of Morphemes
293(7)
Morphophonemics
295(2)
More Sequential Constraints
297(3)
Phonological Analysis: Discovering Phonemes
300(3)
Summary
303(3)
References for Further Reading
305(1)
Exercises
306(12)
Part 3 The Psychology of Language 318(81)
Chapter 8 Language Acquisition
318(43)
Stages in Language Acquisition
318(10)
The First Sounds
319(1)
Babbling
320(1)
First Words
321(3)
The Two-Word Stage
324(1)
From Telegraph to Infinity
325(3)
Theories of Child Language Acquisition
328(1)
Do Children Learn by Imitation?
328(1)
Do Children Learn by Reinforcement?
329(1)
Do Children Learn Language by Analogy?
330(1)
Children Form Rules and Construct a Grammar
331(2)
Errors or Rules?
333(1)
The Acquisition of Phonology
333(1)
Acquisition of Morphology
334(2)
The Acquisition of Syntax
336(1)
Learning the Meaning of Words
337(2)
The Biological Foundations of Language Acquisition
339(7)
The "Innateness Hypothesis"
339(3)
The "Critical-Age Hypothesis"
342(2)
The Acquisition of Bird Songs
344(1)
The Acquisition of ASL
345(1)
Learning a Second (or Third or ...) Language
346(4)
Theories of Second-Language Acquisition
348(1)
Second-Language Teaching Methods
349(1)
Can Chimps Learn Human Language?
350(5)
Gua
351(1)
Viki
351(1)
Washoe
351(1)
Sarah
351(1)
Learning Yerkish
352(1)
Koko
352(1)
Nim Chimpsky
353(1)
Clever Hans
354(1)
Kanzi
355(1)
Summary
355(3)
References for Further Reading
357(1)
Exercises
358(3)
Chapter 9 Language Processing: Humans and Computer
361(38)
The Human Mind at Work: Human Language Processing
361(12)
Comprehension
363(1)
The Speech Signal
363(2)
Speech Perception and Comprehension
365(2)
Comprehension Models and Experimental Studies
367(1)
Lexical Access and Word Recognition
367(2)
Syntactic Processing
369(1)
Speech Production
370(1)
Planning Units
370(1)
Lexical Selection
371(1)
Application and Misapplication of Rules
372(1)
Nonlinguistic Influences
373(1)
Silicon at Work: Computer Processing of Human Language
373(15)
Machine Translation
374(1)
Text Processing
375(1)
Computers That Talk and Listen
376(1)
Talking Machines (Speech Synthesis)
377(2)
Knowing What to Say
379(2)
Machines for Understanding Speech
381(1)
Speech Recognition
382(1)
Speech Understanding
383(1)
Parsing
383(3)
Semantic Processing
386(1)
Pragmatic Processing
387(1)
Computer Models of Grammars
388(1)
Summary
389(3)
References for Further Reading
391(1)
Exercises
392(7)
Part 4 Language in Society 399(120)
Chapter 10 Language in Society
399(51)
Dialects
399(3)
Regional Dialects
400(1)
Accents
401(1)
Dialects of English
402(5)
Phonological Differences
403(1)
Lexical Differences
404(1)
Dialect Atlases
404(2)
Syntactic Differences
406(1)
The "Standard"
407(5)
Language Purists
408(1)
Banned Languages
409(2)
The Revival of Languages
411(1)
African American English (AAE)
412(5)
Phonology of African American English
413(1)
R-Deletion
413(1)
L-Deletion
413(1)
Consonant Cluster Simplification
413(1)
Neutralization of [i] and [XXX] before Nasals
414(1)
/XXX/ /XXX/
414(1)
Loss of Interdental Fricatives
414(1)
Syntactic Differences between AAE and SAE
414(1)
Double Negatives
414(1)
Deletion of the Verb "Be"
415(1)
Habitual "Be"
415(1)
History of African American English
416(1)
Latino (Hispanic) English
417(3)
Chicano English (ChE)
419(1)
Phonological Variables of ChE
419(1)
Syntactic Variables in ChE
420(1)
Lingua Francas
420(1)
Pidgins and Creoles
421(4)
Pidgins
422(3)
Creoles
425(1)
Styles, Slang, and Jargon
425(3)
Styles
425(1)
Slang
426(1)
Jargon and Argot
427(1)
Taboo or Not Taboo?
428(6)
Euphemisms
432(1)
Racial and National Epithets
433(1)
Language, Sex, and Gender
434(5)
Marked and Unmarked Forms
435(2)
The Generic "He"
437(1)
Language and Gender
438(1)
Secret Languages and Language Games
439(1)
Summary
440(3)
References for Further Reading
442(1)
Exercises
443(7)
Chapter 11 Language Change: The Syllables of Time
450(42)
The Regularity of Sound Change
450(6)
Sound Correspondences
451(1)
Ancestral Protolanguages
451(1)
Phonological Change
452(4)
Phonological Rules
453(1)
The Great Vowel Shift
454(2)
Morphological Change
456(1)
Syntactic Change
457(2)
Lexical Change
459(5)
Borrowings
459(1)
History and Borrowed Words
460(2)
New Words
462(1)
Loss of Words
462(1)
Semantic Change
463(1)
Broadening
463(1)
Narrowing
463(1)
Meaning Shifts
463(1)
Reconstructing "Dead" Languages
464(8)
The Nineteenth-Century Comparativists
464(1)
Cognates
465(2)
Comparative Reconstruction
467(3)
Historical Evidence
470(2)
Extinct and Endangered Languages
472(1)
The Genetic Classification of Languages
473(5)
Languages of the World
476(2)
Types of Languages
478(2)
Why Do Languages Change?
480(2)
Summary
482(1)
References for Further Reading
483(1)
Exercises
483(9)
Chapter 12 Writing: The ABCs of Language
492(27)
The History of Writing
492(7)
Pictograms and Ideograms
493(2)
Cuneiform Writing
495(2)
The Rebus Principle
497(1)
From Hieroglyphs to the Alphabet
498(1)
Modern Writing Systems
499(6)
Word Writing
499(1)
Syllabic Writing
500(2)
Consonantal Alphabet Writing
502(1)
Alphabetic Writing
502(3)
Reading, Writing, and Speech
505(7)
Reading
507(1)
Spelling
507(4)
Spelling Pronunciations
511(1)
Summary
512(1)
References for Further Reading
513(1)
Exercises
513(6)
Glossary 519(22)
Index 541


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