Introduction | |

Statistics and the Scientific Method | |

Introduction | |

Why Study Statistics? Some Current Applications of Statistics | |

A Note to the Student | |

Summary | |

Exercises | |

Collecting Data | |

Using Surveys and Scientific Studies to Collect Data | |

Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |

Observational Studies | |

Sampling Designs for Surveys | |

Experimental Studies | |

Designs for Experimental Studies | |

Research Study: Exit Polls versus Election Results | |

Summary | |

Exercises | |

Summarizing Data | |

Data Description | |

Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |

Calculators, Computers, and Software Systems | |

Describing Data on a Single Variable: Graphical Methods | |

Describing Data on a Single Variable: Measures of Central Tendency | |

Describing Data on a Single Variable: Measures of Variability | |

The Boxplot | |

Summarizing Data from More Than One Variable: Graphs and Correlation | |

Research Study: Controlling for Student Background in the Assessment of Teaching | |

Summary and Key Formulas | |

Exercises | |

Probability And Probability Distributions | |

Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |

Finding the Probability of an Event | |

Basic Event Relations and Probability Laws | |

Conditional Probability and Independence | |

Bayes' Formula | |

Variables: Discrete and Continuous | |

Probability Distributions for Discrete Random Variables | |

Two Discrete Random Variables: The Binomial and the Poisson | |

Probability Distributions for Continuous Random Variables | |

A Continuous Probability Distribution: The Normal Distribution | |

Random Sampling | |

Sampling Distributions | |

Normal Approximation to the Binomial | |

Evaluating Whether or Not a Population Distribution Is Normal | |

Research Study: Inferences about Performance Enhancing Drugs among Athletes | |

Minitab Instructions | |

Summary and Key Formulas | |

Exercises | |

Analyzing Data, Interpreting the Analyses, and Communicating Results | |

Inferences about Population Central Values | |

Introduction and Abstract of a Research Study | |

Estimation of ? | |

Choosing the Sample Size for Estimating ? | |

A Statistical Test for ? | |

Choosing the Sample Size for ? | |

The Level of Significance of a Statistical Test | |

Inferences about ? for a Normal Population, s Unknown | |

Inferences about ? when Population in Nonnormal and n is small: Bootstrap Methods | |

Inferences about the Median | |

Research Study: Percent Calories from Fat | |

Summary and Key Formulas | |

Exercises | |

Inferences Comparing Two Population Central Values | |

Introduction and Abstract of a Research Study | |

Inferences about ?1 - ?2: Independent Samples | |

A Nonparametric Alternative: The Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test | |

Inferences about ?1 - ?2: Paired Data | |

A Nonparametric Alternative: The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test | |

Choosing Sample Sizes for Inferences about ?1 - ?2 | |

Research Study: Effects of Oil Spill on Plant Growth | |

Summary | |

Exercises | |

Inferences about Population Variances | |

Introduction and Abstract of a Research Study | |

Estimation and Tests for a Population Variance | |

Estimation and Tests for Comparing Two Population Variances | |

Tests for Comparing t > 2 Population Variances | |

Research Study: Evaluation of Methods for Detecting E. coli | |

Summary and Key Formulas | |

Exercises | |

Inferences About More Than Two Population Central Values Introduction and Abstract of a Research Study | |

A Statistical Test About More Than Two Population Means: An Analysis of Variance | |

The Model for Observations in a Completely Randomized Design | |

Checking on the AOV Conditions | |

An Alternative Analysis: Transformations of the Data | |

A Nonparametric Alternative: The Kruskal-Wallis Test | |

Research Study: Effect on Timing on the Treatment of Port-Wine Stains with Lasers | |

Summary and Key Formulas | |

Exercises | |

Multiple Comparisons | |

Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |

Linear Contrasts | |

Which Error Rate Is Controlled? Fisher's Least Significant Difference | |

Tukey's W Procedure | |

Student-Neuman-Keuls Procedure | |

Dunnett's Procedure: Comparison of Treatments to a Control | |

Scheff?'s S Method | |

A Nonparametric Multiple-Comparison Procedure | |

Research Study: Are Interviewers' Decisions Affected by Different Handicap Types? Summary and Key Formulas | |

Exercises | |

Categorical Data | |

Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |

Inferences about a Population Proportion p | |

Inferences about the Difference between Two Population Proportions, p1 - p2 | |

Inferences about Several Proportions: Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test | |

Tests for Independence and Homogeneity | |

Measuring Strength of Relaxation | |

Odds and Odd Ratios | |

Combining Sets of 2 X 2 Contingency Tables (optional) | |

Research Study: Does Gender Bias Exist in the Selection of Students for Vocational Education? Summary and Key Formulas | |

Exercises | |

Analyzing Data: Regression Methods and Model Building | |

Linear Regression and Correlation | |

Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |

Estimating Model Parameters | |

Inferences about Regression Parameters | |

Predicting New y Values Using Regression | |

Examining Lack of Fit in Linear Regression | |

The Inverse Regression Problem (Calibration) | |

Correlation | |

Research Study: Two Methods for Detecting E. coli | |

Summary and Key Formulas | |

Exercises | |

Multiple Regression and the General Linear Model | |

Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |

The General Linear Model | |

Estimating Multiple Regression Coefficients | |

Inferences in Multiple Regression | |

Testing a Subset of Regression Coefficients | |

Forecasting Using Multiple Regression | |

Comparing the Slopes of Several Regression Lines | |

Logistic Regression | |

Some Multiple Regression Theory (Optional) | |

Research Study: Designing an Electric Drill | |

Summary and Key Formulas | |

Exercises | |

Further Regression Topics | |

Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |

Selecting the Variables (Step 1) | |

Formulating the Model (Step 2) | |

Checking Model Assumptions (Step 3) | |

Research Study: Construction Costs for Nuclear Power Plants | |

Summary and Key Formulas | |

Exercises | |

Design of Experiments and Analysis of Variance | |

Analysis of Variance for Completely Randomized Designs | |

Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |

Completely Randomized Design with Single Factor | |

Factorial Treatment Structure | |

Factorial Treatment Structures with an Unequal Number of Replications | |

Estimation of Treatment Differences and Comparisons of Treatment Means | |

Determining the Number of Replications | |

Research Study: Development of a Low-Fat Processed Meat | |

Summary and Key Formulas | |

Exercises | |

Analysis of Variance for Blocked Designs | |

Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |

Randomized Complete Block Design | |

Latin Square Design | |

Factorial Treatment Structure in a Randomized Complete Block Design | |

A Nonparametric Alternative--Friedman's Test | |

Research Study: Control of Leatherjackets | |

Summary and Key Formulas | |

Exercises | |

Analysis of Covariance | |

Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |

A Completely Randomized Design with One Covariate | |

The Extrapolation Problem | |

Multiple Covariates and More Complicated Designs | |

Research Study: Evaluations of Cool-Season Grasses for Putting Greens | |

Summary | |

Exercises | |

Analysis of Variance for Some Fixed-, Random-, and Mixed-Effects Models | |

Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |

A One-Factor Experiment with Random Treatment Effects | |

Extensions of Random-Effects Models | |

Mixed-Effects Models | |

Rules for Obtaining Expecting Mean Squares | |

Nested Factors | |

Research Study: Factors Affecting Pressure Drops Across Expansion Joints | |

Summary | |

Exercises | |

Split-Plot, Repeated Measures, and Crossover Designs | |

Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |

Split-Plot Designs | |

Single-Factor Experiments with Repeated Measures on One of the Factors | |

Two-Factor Experiments with Repeated Measures on One of the Factors | |

Crossover Design | |

Research Study: Effects of Oil Spill on Plant Growth | |

Summary | |

Exercises | |

Analysis of Variance for Some Unbalanced Designs | |

Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |

A Randomized Block Design with One or More Missing Observations | |

A Latin Square Design with Missing Data | |

Balanced Incomplete Block (BIB) Designs | |

Research Study: Evaluation of the Consistency of Property Assessment | |

Summary and Key Formulas | |

Exercises | |

Communicating and Documenting the Results of Analyses | |

Communicating and Documenting the Results of a Study or Experiment | |

Introduction | |

The Difficulty of Good Communication | |

Communication Hurdles: Graphical Distortions | |

Communication Hurdles: Biased Samples | |

Communication Hurdles: Sample Size | |

The Statistical Report | |

Documentation and Storage of Results | |

Summary | |

Exercises | |

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