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An Introduction to Statistical Methods And Data Analysis,9780495017585
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An Introduction to Statistical Methods And Data Analysis

by ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780495017585

ISBN10:
0495017582
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
12/30/2008
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $246.33

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Summary

Ott and Longnecker's AN INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICAL METHODS AND DATA ANALYSIS, Sixth Edition, provides a broad overview of statistical methods for readers who have little or no prior experience in statistics. The authors teach readers to solve problems encountered in research projects, to make decisions based on data in general settings, and to become critical readers of statistical analyses in research papers and in news reports. The first eleven chapters present material typically covered in a college-level introductory statistics course, as well as interesting case studies and examples. The remaining chapters cover regression modeling and design of experiments.

Table of Contents

Introduction
Statistics and the Scientific Method
Introduction
Why Study Statistics? Some Current Applications of Statistics
A Note to the Student
Summary
Exercises
Collecting Data
Using Surveys and Scientific Studies to Collect Data
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study
Observational Studies
Sampling Designs for Surveys
Experimental Studies
Designs for Experimental Studies
Research Study: Exit Polls versus Election Results
Summary
Exercises
Summarizing Data
Data Description
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study
Calculators, Computers, and Software Systems
Describing Data on a Single Variable: Graphical Methods
Describing Data on a Single Variable: Measures of Central Tendency
Describing Data on a Single Variable: Measures of Variability
The Boxplot
Summarizing Data from More Than One Variable: Graphs and Correlation
Research Study: Controlling for Student Background in the Assessment of Teaching
Summary and Key Formulas
Exercises
Probability And Probability Distributions
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study
Finding the Probability of an Event
Basic Event Relations and Probability Laws
Conditional Probability and Independence
Bayes' Formula
Variables: Discrete and Continuous
Probability Distributions for Discrete Random Variables
Two Discrete Random Variables: The Binomial and the Poisson
Probability Distributions for Continuous Random Variables
A Continuous Probability Distribution: The Normal Distribution
Random Sampling
Sampling Distributions
Normal Approximation to the Binomial
Evaluating Whether or Not a Population Distribution Is Normal
Research Study: Inferences about Performance Enhancing Drugs among Athletes
Minitab Instructions
Summary and Key Formulas
Exercises
Analyzing Data, Interpreting the Analyses, and Communicating Results
Inferences about Population Central Values
Introduction and Abstract of a Research Study
Estimation of ?
Choosing the Sample Size for Estimating ?
A Statistical Test for ?
Choosing the Sample Size for ?
The Level of Significance of a Statistical Test
Inferences about ? for a Normal Population, s Unknown
Inferences about ? when Population in Nonnormal and n is small: Bootstrap Methods
Inferences about the Median
Research Study: Percent Calories from Fat
Summary and Key Formulas
Exercises
Inferences Comparing Two Population Central Values
Introduction and Abstract of a Research Study
Inferences about ?1 - ?2: Independent Samples
A Nonparametric Alternative: The Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test
Inferences about ?1 - ?2: Paired Data
A Nonparametric Alternative: The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test
Choosing Sample Sizes for Inferences about ?1 - ?2
Research Study: Effects of Oil Spill on Plant Growth
Summary
Exercises
Inferences about Population Variances
Introduction and Abstract of a Research Study
Estimation and Tests for a Population Variance
Estimation and Tests for Comparing Two Population Variances
Tests for Comparing t > 2 Population Variances
Research Study: Evaluation of Methods for Detecting E. coli
Summary and Key Formulas
Exercises
Inferences About More Than Two Population Central Values Introduction and Abstract of a Research Study
A Statistical Test About More Than Two Population Means: An Analysis of Variance
The Model for Observations in a Completely Randomized Design
Checking on the AOV Conditions
An Alternative Analysis: Transformations of the Data
A Nonparametric Alternative: The Kruskal-Wallis Test
Research Study: Effect on Timing on the Treatment of Port-Wine Stains with Lasers
Summary and Key Formulas
Exercises
Multiple Comparisons
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study
Linear Contrasts
Which Error Rate Is Controlled? Fisher's Least Significant Difference
Tukey's W Procedure
Student-Neuman-Keuls Procedure
Dunnett's Procedure: Comparison of Treatments to a Control
Scheff?'s S Method
A Nonparametric Multiple-Comparison Procedure
Research Study: Are Interviewers' Decisions Affected by Different Handicap Types? Summary and Key Formulas
Exercises
Categorical Data
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study
Inferences about a Population Proportion p
Inferences about the Difference between Two Population Proportions, p1 - p2
Inferences about Several Proportions: Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test
Tests for Independence and Homogeneity
Measuring Strength of Relaxation
Odds and Odd Ratios
Combining Sets of 2 X 2 Contingency Tables (optional)
Research Study: Does Gender Bias Exist in the Selection of Students for Vocational Education? Summary and Key Formulas
Exercises
Analyzing Data: Regression Methods and Model Building
Linear Regression and Correlation
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study
Estimating Model Parameters
Inferences about Regression Parameters
Predicting New y Values Using Regression
Examining Lack of Fit in Linear Regression
The Inverse Regression Problem (Calibration)
Correlation
Research Study: Two Methods for Detecting E. coli
Summary and Key Formulas
Exercises
Multiple Regression and the General Linear Model
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study
The General Linear Model
Estimating Multiple Regression Coefficients
Inferences in Multiple Regression
Testing a Subset of Regression Coefficients
Forecasting Using Multiple Regression
Comparing the Slopes of Several Regression Lines
Logistic Regression
Some Multiple Regression Theory (Optional)
Research Study: Designing an Electric Drill
Summary and Key Formulas
Exercises
Further Regression Topics
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study
Selecting the Variables (Step 1)
Formulating the Model (Step 2)
Checking Model Assumptions (Step 3)
Research Study: Construction Costs for Nuclear Power Plants
Summary and Key Formulas
Exercises
Design of Experiments and Analysis of Variance
Analysis of Variance for Completely Randomized Designs
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study
Completely Randomized Design with Single Factor
Factorial Treatment Structure
Factorial Treatment Structures with an Unequal Number of Replications
Estimation of Treatment Differences and Comparisons of Treatment Means
Determining the Number of Replications
Research Study: Development of a Low-Fat Processed Meat
Summary and Key Formulas
Exercises
Analysis of Variance for Blocked Designs
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study
Randomized Complete Block Design
Latin Square Design
Factorial Treatment Structure in a Randomized Complete Block Design
A Nonparametric Alternative--Friedman's Test
Research Study: Control of Leatherjackets
Summary and Key Formulas
Exercises
Analysis of Covariance
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study
A Completely Randomized Design with One Covariate
The Extrapolation Problem
Multiple Covariates and More Complicated Designs
Research Study: Evaluations of Cool-Season Grasses for Putting Greens
Summary
Exercises
Analysis of Variance for Some Fixed-, Random-, and Mixed-Effects Models
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study
A One-Factor Experiment with Random Treatment Effects
Extensions of Random-Effects Models
Mixed-Effects Models
Rules for Obtaining Expecting Mean Squares
Nested Factors
Research Study: Factors Affecting Pressure Drops Across Expansion Joints
Summary
Exercises
Split-Plot, Repeated Measures, and Crossover Designs
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study
Split-Plot Designs
Single-Factor Experiments with Repeated Measures on One of the Factors
Two-Factor Experiments with Repeated Measures on One of the Factors
Crossover Design
Research Study: Effects of Oil Spill on Plant Growth
Summary
Exercises
Analysis of Variance for Some Unbalanced Designs
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study
A Randomized Block Design with One or More Missing Observations
A Latin Square Design with Missing Data
Balanced Incomplete Block (BIB) Designs
Research Study: Evaluation of the Consistency of Property Assessment
Summary and Key Formulas
Exercises
Communicating and Documenting the Results of Analyses
Communicating and Documenting the Results of a Study or Experiment
Introduction
The Difficulty of Good Communication
Communication Hurdles: Graphical Distortions
Communication Hurdles: Biased Samples
Communication Hurdles: Sample Size
The Statistical Report
Documentation and Storage of Results
Summary
Exercises
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