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Introductory Chemistry : Concepts and Connections,9780131448506
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Introductory Chemistry : Concepts and Connections

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780131448506

ISBN10:
0131448501
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $124.00
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Summary

This comprehensive book gives readers easy access to the basic concepts and their relevant connections of the chemical principles operating in everyday life. Numerous examples and real-world applications provide chemistry enthusiasts with long-term, meaningful understandings. Chapter topics include scientific measurements, matter and energy, models of the atom, chemical reactions, the mole concept, liquids and solids, acids and bases, oxidation and reduction, chemical equilibrium, nuclear and organic chemistry, and biochemistry. For those who understand that knowledge of chemistry constitutes an empowering life skill.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Introduction to Chemistry
2(10)
Evolution of Chemistry
3(2)
Modern Chemistry
5(1)
Chemistry Connection Alchemy
6(1)
Learning Chemistry
6(6)
Summary
9(1)
Key Concepts
9(1)
Key Terms
10(1)
Exercises
10(2)
Scientific Measurements
12(26)
Uncertainty in Measurements
13(3)
Significant Digits
16(3)
Rounding Off Nonsignificant Digits
19(1)
Adding and Subtracting Measurements
20(1)
Multiplying and Dividing Measurements
21(2)
Exponential Numbers
23(1)
Scientific Notation
23(2)
Chemistry Connection A Student Success Story
24(1)
Unit Equations and Unit Factors
25(1)
Unit Analysis Problem Solving
26(3)
The Percent Concept
29(9)
Chemistry Connection The Coinage Metals
31(1)
Summary
31(1)
Problem Solving Organizer
32(1)
Key Concepts
33(1)
Key Terms
34(1)
Exercises
34(4)
The Metric System
38(34)
Basic Units and Symbols
39(2)
Metric Conversion Factors
41(2)
Update International System (SI)
42(1)
Metric-Metric Conversions
43(2)
Metric-English Conversions
45(5)
Chemistry Connection The Olympics
49(1)
Volume by Calculation
50(3)
Volume by Displacement
53(1)
The Density Concept
54(4)
Temperature
58(3)
Heat and Specific Heat
61(11)
Summary
63(1)
Problem Solving Organizer
64(1)
Key Concepts
65(1)
Key Terms
65(1)
Exercises
66(4)
Cumulative Review: Chapters 1--3
70(2)
Matter and Energy
72(34)
Physical States of Matter
73(3)
Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures
76(1)
Names and Symbols of the Elements
77(3)
Metals, Nonmetals, and Semimetals
80(6)
Update Elements 104 and Beyond
83(3)
Compounds and Chemical Formulas
86(3)
Physical and Chemical Properties
89(2)
Physical and Chemical Changes
91(1)
Conservation of Mass
92(1)
Potential and Kinetic Energy
93(2)
Conservation of Energy
95(11)
Chemistry Connection Recycling Aluminum
98(1)
Summary
99(1)
Key Concepts
100(1)
Key Terms
101(1)
Exercises
101(5)
Models of the Atom
106(30)
Dalton Model of the Atom
107(1)
Chemistry Connection John Dalton
107(1)
Thomson Model of the Atom
108(1)
Rutherford Model of the Atom
109(2)
Atomic Notation
111(3)
Atomic Mass
114(2)
The Wave Nature of Light
116(2)
The Quantum Concept
118(1)
Bohr Model of the Atom
119(3)
Energy Levels and Sublevels
122(3)
Chemistry Connection Neon Lights
123(2)
Electron Configuration
125(1)
Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom
126(10)
Summary
130(1)
Key Concepts
131(1)
Key Terms
132(1)
Exercises
132(4)
The Periodic Table
136(30)
Classification of Elements
137(2)
Chemistry Connection Dmitri Mendeleev
138(1)
The Periodic Law Concept
139(1)
Groups and Periods of Elements
140(3)
Update Official IUPAC Group Numbers
141(2)
Periodic Trends
143(2)
Properties of Elements
145(2)
Blocks of Elements
147(2)
Valence Electrons
149(1)
Electron Dot Formulas
150(2)
Ionization Energy
152(1)
Ionic Charges
153(13)
Summary
156(1)
Key Concepts
157(1)
Key Terms
158(1)
Exercises
159(4)
Cumulative Review: Chapters 4--6
163(3)
Language of Chemistry
166(26)
Classification of Compounds
167(2)
Monoatomic Ions
169(4)
Chemistry Connection Antoine Lavoisier
170(3)
Polyatomic Ions
173(1)
Writing Chemical Formulas
174(2)
Binary Ionic Compounds
176(3)
Update Iupac Nomenclature
177(2)
Ternary Ionic Compounds
179(2)
Binary Molecular Compounds
181(2)
Binary Acids
183(1)
Ternary Oxyacids
183(9)
Summary
184(1)
Nomenclature Organizer
185(1)
Key Concepts
186(1)
Key Terms
187(1)
Exercises
187(5)
Chemical Reactions
192(34)
Evidence for Chemical Reactions
193(1)
Writing Chemical Equations
194(2)
Balancing Chemical Equations
196(3)
Classifying Chemical Reactions
199(3)
Chemistry Connection Household Chemicals
200(2)
Combination Reactions
202(2)
Decomposition Reactions
204(3)
The Activity Series Concept
207(2)
Single-Replacement Reactions
209(3)
Solubility Rules
212(1)
Double-Replacement Reactions
213(1)
Neutralization Reactions
214(12)
Chemistry Connection Fireworks
215(1)
Summary
216(1)
Key Concepts
217(1)
Key Terms
218(1)
Exercises
218(6)
Cumulative Review: Chapters 7--8
224(2)
The Mole Concept
226(24)
Avogadro's Number
227(1)
Mole Calculations I
227(3)
Chemistry Connection Analogies for Avogadro's Number
228(2)
Molar Mass
230(1)
Mole Calculations II
231(3)
Molar Volume
234(2)
Mole Calculations III
236(2)
Percent Composition
238(1)
Empirical Formula
239(2)
Molecular Formula
241(9)
Update Avogadro's Number
243(1)
Summary
244(1)
Problem Solving Organizer
245(1)
Key Concepts
245(1)
Key Terms
246(1)
Exercises
247(3)
Stoichiometry
250(30)
Interpreting a Chemical Equation
251(3)
Mole-Mole Relationships
254(1)
Types of Stoichiometry Problems
255(2)
Chemistry Connection Manufacturing Iron
256(1)
Mass-Mass Problems
257(3)
Mass-Volume Problems
260(2)
Volume-Volume Problems
262(3)
Chemistry Connection Manufacturing Ammonia
265(1)
The Limiting Reactant Concept
265(2)
Limiting Reactant Problems
267(4)
Percent Yield
271(9)
Summary
272(1)
Problem Solving Organizer
273(1)
Key Concepts
274(1)
Key Terms
275(1)
Exercises
275(5)
The Gaseous State
280(30)
Properties of Gases
281(1)
Atmospheric Pressure
281(3)
Variables Affecting Gas Pressure
284(1)
Boyle's Law
285(3)
Chemistry Connection Robert Boyle
288(1)
Charles' Law
288(3)
Gay-Lussac's Law
291(2)
Combined Gas Law
293(2)
The Vapor Pressure Concept
295(1)
Dalton's Law
296(3)
Chemistry Connection The Greenhouse Effect
298(1)
Ideal Gas Behavior
299(2)
Ideal Gas Law
301(9)
Summary
302(1)
Problem Solving Organizer
303(1)
Key Concepts
304(1)
Key Terms
304(1)
Exercises
305(3)
Cumulative Review: Chapters 9--11
308(2)
Chemical Bonding
310(30)
The Chemical Bond Concept
311(1)
Ionic Bonds
312(4)
Covalent Bonds
316(2)
Electron Dot Formulas of Molecules
318(4)
Electron Dot Formulas of Polyatomic Ions
322(3)
Polar Covalent Bonds
325(3)
Chemistry Connection Linus Pauling
326(2)
Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
328(1)
Coordinate Covalent Bonds
329(1)
Shapes of Molecules
330(10)
Chemistry Connection Diamonds
333(1)
Summary
334(1)
Key Concepts
335(1)
Key Terms
335(1)
Exercises
336(4)
Liquids and Solids
340(28)
Properties of Liquids
341(1)
The Intermolecular Bond Concept
341(2)
Vapor Pressure, Boiling Point, Viscosity, Surface Tension
343(4)
Properties of Solids
347(1)
Crystalline Solids
348(2)
Changes of Physical State
350(2)
Structure of Water
352(2)
Physical Properties of Water
354(2)
Chemistry Connection Heavy Water
356(1)
Chemical Properties of Water
356(2)
Hydrates
358(10)
Chemistry Connection Water Purification
361(1)
Summary
361(2)
Key Concepts
363(1)
Key Terms
363(1)
Exercises
364(4)
Solutions
368(30)
Gases in Solution
369(2)
Liquids in Solution
371(1)
Solids in Solution
372(2)
The Dissolving Process
374(2)
Chemistry Connection Colloids
375(1)
Rate of Dissolving
376(1)
Solubility and Temperature
376(2)
Unsaturated, Saturated, and Supersaturated Solutions
378(1)
Mass Percent Concentration
379(3)
Molar Concentration
382(3)
Chemistry Connection Water Fluoridation
385(1)
Dilution of a Solution
385(2)
Solution Stoichiometry
387(11)
Summary
388(1)
Problem Solving Organizer
389(1)
Key Concepts
390(1)
Key Terms
391(1)
Exercises
392(4)
Cumulative Review: Chapters 12--14
396(2)
Acids and Bases
398(32)
Properties of Acids and Bases
399(2)
Arrhenius Acids and Bases
401(3)
Chemistry Connection Svante Arrhenius
403(1)
Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
404(1)
Acid--Base Indicators
405(2)
Acid--Base Titrations
407(2)
Acid--Base Standardization
409(2)
Ionization of Water
411(3)
The pH Concept
414(2)
Advanced pH Calculations
416(2)
Chemistry Connection Acid Rain
418(1)
Strong and Weak Electrolytes
418(2)
Net Ionic Equations
420(10)
Summary
422(2)
Problem Solving Organizer
424(1)
Key Concepts
424(1)
Key Terms
425(1)
Exercises
426(4)
Chemical Equilibrium
430(32)
Collision Theory
431(2)
Energy Profiles of Chemical Reactions
433(3)
The Chemical Equilibrium Concept
436(3)
Chemistry Connection The Ozone Hole
437(2)
General Equilibrium Constant, Keq
439(4)
Gaseous State Equilibria Shifts
443(3)
Ionization Equilibrium Constant, Ki
446(2)
Weak Acid-Base Equilibria Shifts
448(1)
Solubility Product Equilibrium Constant, Ksp
449(2)
Solubility Equilibria Shifts
451(11)
Summary
452(2)
Key Concepts
454(1)
Key Terms
454(1)
Exercises
455(4)
Cumulative Review: Chapters 15--16
459(3)
Oxidation and Reduction
462(30)
Oxidation Numbers
464(4)
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
468(4)
Balancing Redox Equations: Oxidation Number Method
472(3)
Balancing Redox Equations: Half-Reaction Method
475(3)
Predicting Spontaneous Redox Reactions
478(4)
Voltaic Cells
482(2)
Electrolytic Cells
484(8)
Chemistry Connection Electric Vehicles
486(1)
Summary
486(1)
Key Concepts
487(1)
Key Terms
488(1)
Exercises
488(4)
Nuclear Chemistry
492(24)
Natural Radioactivity
493(1)
Nuclear Equations
494(4)
Radioactive Decay Series
498(1)
Radioactive Half-Life
499(2)
Radionuclide Applications
501(3)
Chemistry Connection Nuclear Medicine
503(1)
Artificial Radioactivity
504(2)
Nuclear Fission
506(3)
Chemistry Connection Nuclear Power Plant
508(1)
Nuclear Fusion
509(7)
Summary
510(1)
Key Concepts
511(1)
Key Terms
512(1)
Exercises
512(4)
Organic Chemistry
516(34)
Hydrocarbons
517(1)
Alkanes
518(5)
Alkenes and Alkynes
523(4)
Arenes
527(1)
Hydrocarbon Derivatives
528(2)
Organic Halides
530(2)
Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers
532(2)
Amines
534(1)
Aldehydes and Ketones
535(2)
Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Amides
537(13)
Chemistry Connection Giant Molecules
540(3)
Summary
543(1)
Key Concepts
544(1)
Key Terms
545(1)
Exercises
545(5)
Biochemistry
550(58)
Biological Compounds
551(2)
Proteins
553(5)
Enzymes
558(2)
Carbohydrates
560(3)
Lipids
563(5)
Chemistry Connection Vitamins
567(1)
Nucleic Acids
568(8)
Summary
571(1)
Key Concepts
572(1)
Key Terms
573(1)
Exercises
573(3)
Appendices
A The Scientific Calculator
576(4)
B Weights and Measures
580(1)
C Physical Constants
581(1)
D Activity Series of Metals
582(1)
E Solubility Rules for Ionic Compounds
583(1)
F Vapor Pressure of Water
584(1)
G Properties of Water
585(1)
H Answers to Key Concept Exercises
586(5)
I Answers to Key Term Exercises
591(1)
J Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises
592(16)
Glossary 608(10)
Photo Credits 618(2)
Index 620


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