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Introductory Plant Biology,9780073101750
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Introductory Plant Biology

by
Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9780073101750

ISBN10:
0073101753
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
4/19/2005
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math

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Summary

This introductory text assumes little prior scientific knowledge on the part of the student. It includes sufficient information for some shorter introductory botany courses open to both majors and nonmajors, and is arranged so that certain sections can be omitted without disrupting the overall continuity of the course. Stern emphasizes current interests while presenting basic botanical principles.

Table of Contents

What Is Plant Biology?
1(12)
Chapter Outline
1(1)
Overview
2(1)
Some Learning Goals
2(2)
The Relationship of Humans to Their Environment
4(3)
Botany As a Science
7(1)
Diversification of Plant Study
8(2)
Awareness: Plant Biology and the Web
10(3)
Summary
11(1)
Review Questions
12(1)
Discussion Questions
12(1)
Additional Reading
12(1)
The Nature of Life
13(16)
Chapter Outline
13(1)
Overview
14(1)
Some Learning Goals
14(1)
Attributes of Living Organisms
14(1)
Chemical and Physical Bases of Life
15(14)
Summary
27(1)
Review Questions
28(1)
Discussion Questions
28(1)
Additional Reading
28(1)
Cells
29(24)
Chapter Outline
29(1)
Overview
30(1)
Some Learning Goals
30(1)
Cells
30(3)
Eukaryotic Versus Prokaryotic Cells
33(1)
Cell Structure and Communication
33(3)
Cellular Components
36(8)
Cellular Reproduction
44(4)
Awareness: Microscapes
48(2)
Higher Plant Cells Versus Animal Cells
50(3)
Summary
50(2)
Review Questions
52(1)
Discussion Questions
52(1)
Additional Reading
52(1)
Tissues
53(11)
Chapter Outline
53(1)
Overview
54(1)
Some Learning Goals
54(1)
Meristematic Tissues
54(1)
Tissues Produced by Meristems
55(9)
Summary
62(1)
Review Questions
63(1)
Discussion Questions
63(1)
Additional Reading
63(1)
Roots and Soils
64(20)
Chapter Outline
64(1)
Overview
65(1)
Some Learning Goals
65(1)
How Roots Develop
65(1)
Root Structure
66(5)
Specialized Roots
71(3)
Mycorrhizae
74(1)
Root Nodules
75(1)
Human Relevance of Roots
75(2)
Soils
77(4)
Awareness: Metal-Munching Plants
81(3)
Summary
82(1)
Review Questions
82(1)
Discussion Questions
83(1)
Additional Reading
83(1)
Stems
84(22)
Chapter Outline
84(1)
Overview
85(1)
Some Learning Goals
85(1)
External Form of a Woody Twig
85(1)
Origin and Development of Stems
86(1)
Awareness: Standing in Fields of Stone
87(2)
Tissue Patterns in Stems
89(8)
Specialized Stems
97(2)
Wood and Its Uses
99(7)
Summary
104(1)
Review Questions
105(1)
Discussion Questions
105(1)
Additional Reading
105(1)
Leaves
106(21)
Chapter Outline
106(1)
Overview
107(1)
Some Learning Goals
107(1)
Leaf Arrangements and Types
108(1)
Internal Structure of Leaves
109(2)
Stomata
111(1)
Mesophyll and Veins
112(1)
Specialized Leaves
113(9)
Autumnal Changes in Leaf Color
122(1)
Abscission
122(1)
Human and Ecological Relevance of Leaves
123(1)
Awareness: Glass Cuts from Grass?
124(3)
Summary
125(1)
Review Questions
125(1)
Discussion Questions
125(1)
Additional Reading
126(1)
Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds
127(22)
Chapter Outline
127(1)
Overview
128(1)
Some Learning Goals
128(1)
Note to the Reader
128(2)
Differences Between Dicots and Monocots
130(1)
Structure of Flowers
130(2)
Fruits
132(7)
Fruit and Seed Dispersal
139(7)
Awareness: The Seed That Slept for 1,200 Years
146(3)
Summary
147(1)
Review Questions
148(1)
Discussion Questions
148(1)
Additional Reading
148(1)
Water in Plants
149(16)
Chapter Outline
149(1)
Overview
150(1)
Some Learning Goals
150(1)
Molecular Movement
151(4)
Water and its Movement Through the Plant
155(2)
Regulation of Transpiration
157(2)
Transport of Food Substances (Organic Solutes) in Solution
159(1)
Mineral Requirements for Growth
160(5)
Summary
163(1)
Review Questions
163(1)
Discussion Questions
164(1)
Additional Reading
164(1)
Plant Metabolism
165(27)
Chapter Outline
165(1)
Overview
166(1)
Some Learning Goals
166(1)
Enzymes and Energy Transfer
166(1)
Photosynthesis
167(9)
Awareness: Photosynthesis and Pizza
176(4)
Respiration
180(5)
Additional Metabolic Pathways
185(1)
Assimilation and Digestion
186(2)
Awareness: Greenhouse Gases and Plant Growth
188(4)
Summary
189(1)
Review Questions
190(1)
Discussion Questions
190(1)
Additional Reading
190(2)
Growth
192(24)
Chapter Outline
192(1)
Overview
193(1)
Some Learning Goals
193(1)
Nutrients, Vitamins, and Hormones
193(7)
Hormonal Interactions
200(1)
Other Hormonal Interactions
201(1)
Plant Movements
201(8)
Photoperiodism
209(1)
Phytochromes and Cryptochromes
210(1)
A Flowering Hormone?
211(1)
Temperature and Growth
212(1)
Dormancy and Quiescence
212(4)
Summary
213(1)
Review Questions
214(1)
Discussion Questions
214(1)
Additional Reading
214(2)
Meiosis and Alternation of Generations
216(9)
Chapter Outline
216(1)
Overview
217(1)
Some Learning Goals
217(1)
The Phases of Meiosis
218(4)
Alternation of Generations
222(3)
Summary
223(1)
Review Questions
223(1)
Discussion Questions
223(1)
Additional Reading
224(1)
Genetics
225(22)
Chapter Outline
225(1)
Overview
226(1)
Some Learning Goals
226(1)
Molecular Genetics
227(3)
Awareness: The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
230(5)
Cytogenetics
235(1)
Mendelian Genetics
236(7)
Quantitative Traits
243(1)
Extranuclear DNA
243(1)
Linkage and Mapping
243(2)
The Hardy-Weinberg Law
245(2)
Summary
245(1)
Review Questions
246(1)
Discussion Questions
246(1)
Additional Reading
246(1)
Plant Breeding and Propagation
247(20)
Chapter Outline
247(1)
Overview
248(1)
Some Learning Goals
248(1)
Crop Plant Evolution
248(2)
Plant Breeding
250(9)
Plant Propagation
259(8)
Summary
265(1)
Review Questions
265(1)
Discussion Questions
266(1)
Additional Reading
266(1)
Evolution
267(13)
Chapter Outline
267(1)
Overview
268(1)
Some Learning Goals
268(1)
A Brief Overview of the Early Development of Evolutionary Concepts
268(1)
Charles Darwin
269(1)
Evidence for Evolution
270(1)
Microevolution---Evolution Within Species
271(2)
Rates of Evolution
273(1)
Macroevolution---How Species Evolve
273(2)
The Role of Hybridization in Evolution
275(2)
Discussion
277(3)
Summary
278(1)
Review Questions
278(1)
Discussion Questions
278(1)
Additional Reading
279(1)
Plant Names and Classification
280(13)
Chapter Outline
280(1)
Overview
281(1)
Some Learning Goals
281(1)
Development of the Binomial System of Nomenclature
281(3)
Development of the Kingdom Concept
284(1)
Classification of Major Groups
284(4)
A Key to Major Groups of Organisms (Exclusive of Kingdom Animalia)
288(2)
Cladistics
290(1)
The Future of Plant Classification
291(2)
Summary
291(1)
Review Questions
292(1)
Discussion Questions
292(1)
Additional Reading
292(1)
Domain (Kingdom) Bacteria, Domain (Kingdom) Archaea, and Viruses
293(26)
Chapter Outline
293(1)
Overview
294(1)
Some Learning Goals
294(1)
Features of Domains (Kingdoms) Bacteria and Archaea
295(3)
Domain Bacteria (Kingdom Bacteria)---The True Bacteria
298(1)
Human Relevance of the Unpigmented, Purple, and Green Suflur Bacteria
298(6)
Class Cyanobacteria---The Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Bacteria)
304(4)
Class Prochlorobacteriae---The Prochlorobacteria
308(1)
Domain Archaea (Kingdom Archaea)---The Archaebacteria
309(1)
Viruses
310(2)
Awareness: Plant Viruses
312(2)
Viroids and Prions
314(5)
Summary
316(1)
Review Questions
317(1)
Discussion Questions
317(1)
Additional Reading
317(2)
Kingdom Protista
319(29)
Chapter Outline
319(1)
Overview
320(1)
Some Learning Goals
320(1)
Features of Kingdom Protista
320(1)
Algae
321(1)
Phylum Chlorophyta---The Green Algae
321(7)
Phylum Chromophyta---The Yellow-Green Algae, Golden-Brown Algae, Diatoms, and Brown Algae
328(4)
Phylum Rhodophyta---The Red Algae
332(2)
Phylum Euglenophyta---The Euglenoids
334(1)
Phylum Dinophyta---The Dinoflagellates
335(2)
Phylum Cryptophyta---The Cryptomonads
337(1)
Phylum Prymnesiophyta (Haptophyta)---The Haptophytes
337(1)
Phylum Charophyta---The Stoneworts
337(1)
Human and Ecological Relevance of the Algae
338(3)
Other Members of Kingdom Protista
341(1)
Phylum Myxomycota---The Plasmodial Slime Molds
341(2)
Phylum Dictyosteliomycota---The Cellular Slime Molds
343(1)
Phylum Oomycota---The Water Molds
343(5)
Summary
345(1)
Review Questions
346(1)
Discussion Questions
347(1)
Additional Reading
347(1)
Kingdom Fungi
348(25)
Chapter Outline
348(1)
Overview
349(1)
Some Learning Goals
349(1)
Distinctions Between Kingdoms Protista and Fungi
349(1)
Kingdom Fungi---The True Fungi
350(18)
Lichens
368(5)
Summary
371(1)
Review Questions
372(1)
Discussion Questions
372(1)
Additional Reading
372(1)
Introduction to the Plant Kingdom: Bryophytes
373(15)
Chapter Outline
373(1)
Overview
374(1)
Some Learning Goals
374(1)
Introduction to the Bryophytes
374(3)
Phylum Hepaticophyta---Liverworts
377(3)
Phylum Anthocerophyta---Hornworts
380(1)
Phylum Bryophyta---Mosses
381(3)
Awareness: Hibernating Mosses
384(1)
Human and Ecological Relevance of Bryophytes
385(3)
Summary
385(1)
Review Questions
386(1)
Discussion Questions
387(1)
Additional Reading
387(1)
The Seedless Vascular Plants: Ferns and Their Relatives
388(23)
Chapter Outline
388(1)
Overview
389(1)
Some Learning Goals
389(1)
Phylum Psilotophyta---The Whisk Ferns
389(1)
Phylum Lycophyta---The Ground Pines, Spike Mosses, and Quillworts
390(6)
Phylum Equisetophyta---The Horsetails and Scouring Rushes
396(4)
Phylum Polypodiophyta---The Ferns
400(7)
Fossils
407(4)
Summary
409(1)
Review Questions
409(1)
Discussion Questions
410(1)
Additional Reading
410(1)
Introduction to Seed Plants: Gymnosperms
411(19)
Chapter Outline
411(1)
Overview
412(1)
Some Learning Goals
412(1)
Phylum Pinophyta---The Conifers
413(5)
Other Gymnosperms
418(3)
Human Relevance of Gymnosperms
421(5)
Awareness: A Living Fossil?
426(4)
Summary
427(1)
Review Questions
428(1)
Discussion Questions
429(1)
Additional Reading
429(1)
Seed Plants: Angiosperms
430(19)
Chapter Outline
430(1)
Overview
431(1)
Some Learning Goals
431(1)
Phylum Magnoliophyta---The Flowering Plants
432(6)
Pollination Ecology
438(5)
Herbaria and Plant Preservation
443(6)
Summary
447(1)
Review Questions
448(1)
Discussion Questions
448(1)
Additional Reading
448(1)
Flowering Plants and Civilization
449(25)
Chapter Outline
449(1)
Overview
450(1)
Some Learning Goals
450(1)
Origin of Cultivated Plants
450(2)
Selected Families of Flowering Plants
452(1)
Dicots (Now Recognized in Two Groups)
453(14)
Monocots
467(3)
Awareness: Coffee and Caffeine
470(4)
Summary
472(1)
Review Questions
472(1)
Discussion Questions
473(1)
Additional Reading
473(1)
Ecology
474(21)
Chapter Outline
474(1)
Overview
475(1)
Some Learning Goals
475(1)
Plants and the Environment
475(4)
Natural Cycles
479(4)
Succession
483(4)
The Impacts of Humans on Plant Communities
487(1)
Global Warming
487(1)
Loss of Biodiversity
488(3)
Awareness: John Muir, Father of America's National Park System
491(4)
Summary
492(1)
Review Questions
493(1)
Discussion Questions
493(1)
Additional Reading
493(2)
Biomes
495(10)
Chapter Outline
495(1)
Overview
496(1)
Learning Goal
496(1)
Major Biomes of North America
496(9)
Summary
503(1)
Review Questions
504(1)
Discussion Questions
504(1)
Additional Reading
504(1)
Appendix 1 Scientific Names of Organisms Mentioned in the Text 505(23)
Appendix 2 Biological Controls 528(8)
Appendix 3 Useful and Poisonous Plants, Fungi, and Algae 536(30)
Appendix 4 House Plants and Home Gardening 566(26)
Appendix 5 Metric Equivalents and Conversion Tables 592(3)
Glossary 595(14)
Index 609


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