Investigating Chemistry Introductory Chemistry From A Forensic Science Perspective

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2012-01-20
  • Publisher: W. H. Freeman

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Fingerprinting revolutionized the field of forensic science because it is a method of absolute identification connecting a person to an object. A person guilty of a crime could no longer deny his or her presence at a crime scene without weaving a web of lies. Understanding how fingerprint evidence is collected and preserved requires a knowledge of the chemicals present in a fingerprint. The chemical composition of a fingerprint can vary from one individual to another and may contain various inorganic ions, organic acids, lipids, and water. Book jacket.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
Introduction to Forensic Chemistryp. 3
Case Study: Planted Evidencep. 3
Welcomep. 4
Chemistry, Crime, and the Global Societyp. 4
Physical Evidence: Matter and Its Formsp. 5
The PeriodicTablep. 9
Evidence Analysis: Thin-Layer Chromatographyp. 10
Learning the Language of Chemistryp. 13
The Most Important Skill of a Forensic Scientist; Observationp. 18
Critical Thinking and the Crime Scene: The Scientific Methodp. 19
Cass Study Finale: Planted Evidencep. 20
Evidence Collection and Preservationp. 27
Case Study: Grave Evidencep. 27
Preserving Evidence: Reactions, Properties, and Changesp. 28
Physical Evidence Collection: Mass, Weight, and Unitsp. 30
Mathematics of Unit Conversionsp. 32
Errors and Estimates in Laboratory Measurements: Significant Figuresp. 34
Mathematics of Significant Figure Calculationsp. 37
Experimental Results: Accuracy and Precisionp. 38
How to Analyze Evidence: Density Measurementsp. 40
Mathematics of Density Measurementsp. 41
How to Analyze Glass and Soil: Using Physical Propertiesp. 43
Case Study Finale: Grave Evidencep. 46
Atomic Cluesp. 55
Case Study: The Isotope Itineraryp. 55
Origins of the Atomic Theory: Ancient Greek Philosophersp. 56
Foundations of a Modern Atomic Theoryp. 57
Dalton's Atomic Theoryp. 59
Atomic Structure: Subatomic Particlesp. 62
Nature's Detectives: Isotopesp. 65
Atomic Mass: Isotopic Abundance and the Periodic Tablep. 68
Mathematics of Isotopic Abundance and Atomic Massp. 68
Atomic Structure: Electrons and Emission Spectrap. 69
Mathematics of Lightp. 71
Atomic Structure: Electron Orbitalsp. 74
Electron Configurationsp. 77
Evidence Analysis: Scanning Electron Microscopyp. 80
Case Study Finale: The Isotope Itineraryp. 83
Chemical Evidencep. 91
Case Study: Mind Gamesp. 91
Chemical Nature of Evidence: Regions of the Periodic Tablep. 92
Types of Compounds: Covalent Compoundsp. 95
Types of Compounds: Ionic Compoundsp. 98
Common Names and Diatomic Elementsp. 107
Basics of Chemical Reactionsp. 109
Balancing Chemical Equationsp. 110
Mathematics of Chemical Reactions: Mole Calculationsp. 112
Mathematics of Chemical Reactions: Stoichiometry Calculationsp. 116
Types of Reactionsp. 118
Mathematics of Chemical Reactions: Limiting Reactants and Theoretical Yieldsp. 121
Evidence Analysis: Spectrophotometryp. 124
Case Study Finale: Mind Gamesp. 126
Chemistry of Banding: Structure and Function of Drug Moleculesp. 135
Case Study: No Motive, No Opportunityp. 135
Nature of Covalent Bondsp. 136
Lewis Structures of Ionic Compoundsp. 139
Lewis Structures of Covalent Compoundsp. 140
Resonance Structuresp. 143
VSEPR Theoryp. 145
Polarity of Bonds and Moleculesp. 148
Molecular Geometry of Drugsp. 151
Drug Receptors and Brain Chemistryp. 154
Evidence Analysis: Immunoassay Methodsp. 156
Case Study Finale: No Motive, No Opportunityp. 156
Properties of Solutions I: Aqueous Solutionsp. 165
Case Study: An Aqueous Apocalypsep. 165
Aqueous Solutionsp. 166
Solution Propertiesp. 167
Net Ionic Reactionsp. 169
Solubilityp. 172
Mathematics of Solutions: Concentration Calculationsp. 174
Acid Chemistryp. 177
Base Chemistryp. 179
Neutralization Reactionsp. 181
The pH Scale and Buffersp. 181
Mathematics of Solutions: Calculating pHp. 184
Case Study Finale: An Aqueous Apocalypsep. 186
Properties of Solutions II: Intermolecular Farces and Colligative Propertiesp. 195
Case Study: Something for the Painp. 195
Intermolecular Forces and Surface Tensionp. 196
Types of Intermolecular Forcesp. 198
Mixed Intermolecular Forcesp. 202
The Process of Dissolutionp. 203
Rate of Dissolving Soluble Compoundsp. 205
Colligative Properties: Boiling Point of Solutionsp. 206
Mathematics of Boiling Point Elevationp. 209
Colligative Properties: Freezing Point of Solutionsp. 210
Mathematics of Freezing Point Depressionp. 212
Colligative Properties: Osmosisp. 213
Mathematics of Osmotic Pressurep. 215
Evidence Analysis: HPLCp. 216
Case Study Finale: Something for the Painp. 217
Drug Chemistryp. 225
Case Study: Administering Murderp. 225
Introduction to Organic Chemistryp. 226
Alkanesp. 227
Alkenes and Alkynesp. 230
Branched Isomersp. 232
Cyclic Compoundsp. 234
Ethers, Ketones, and Estersp. 237
Aminesp. 242
Alcohols, Aldehydes, and Carboxylic Acidsp. 243
How to Extract Organic Compounds: Solubility and Acid-Base Propertiesp. 247
Evidence Analysis: Infrared Spectroscopyp. 250
Case Study Finale: Administering Murderp. 252
Chemistry of Fire and Heatp. 251
Case Study: "False and Unreliable"p. 261
The Chemistry of Firep. 262
Combustion Reactionsp. 264
Redox Reactionsp. 268
Thermochemistry of Firep. 270
Heat Capacity and Phase Changesp. 273
Mathematics of Heat Capacityp. 277
The First Law of Thermodynamics and Calorimetryp. 278
Mathematics of Calorimetryp. 280
Petroleum Refinementp. 282
Evidence Analysis: Gas Chromatographyp. 284
Case Study Finale: "False and Unreliable"p. 286
Chemistry of Explosionsp. 293
Case Study: Tracing Explosivesp. 293
Explosives 101p. 294
Redox Chemistry of Explosivesp. 295
Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gasesp. 297
Gas Lawsp. 298
Mathematics of the Gas Lawsp. 304
The Combined and Ideal Gas Lawsp. 308
Mathematics of the Combined and Ideal Gas Lawsp. 309
Mathematics of Advanced Ideal Gas Law Problemsp. 311
Detection of Explosives: Dalton's Law of Partial Pressuresp. 312
Evidence Analysis: Mass Spectroscopyp. 314
Case Study Finale: Tracing Explosivesp. 316
Applications of Chemical Kineticsp. 325
Case Study: The Casey Anthony Trialp. 325
Introduction to Chemical Kineticsp. 326
Collision Theoryp. 327
Kinetics and Temperaturep. 330
Kinetics and Catalystsp. 332
Zero-Order Reactionsp. 335
First-Order Reactionsp. 337
Half-Lifep. 338
Case Study Finale: The Casey Anthony Trialp. 340
Nuclear Chemistry: Energy, Medicine, Weapons, and Terrorismp. 345
Case Study: Elimination by Irradiationp. 345
The Discovery of Natural Radioactivityp. 346
Radiation Types and Hazardsp. 347
Balancing Nuclear Equationsp. 351
Half-Lives and Risk Assessmentp. 352
Medical Applications of Nuclear Isotopesp. 355
Forensic Application of Carbon-14p. 358
Nuclear Power Plantsp. 360
Military Uses of Nuclear Isotopesp. 363
Nuclear Transmutationsp. 364
Nuclear Terrorismp. 365
Evidence Analysis: Neutron Activation Analysisp. 366
Case Study Finale: Elimination by Irradiationp. 369
Chemical Equilibrium and Poisonsp. 375
Case Study: A Mother-in-Law's Justicep. 375
Introduction to Poisonsp. 376
Chemical Equilibrium and Poisonsp. 378
Dynamic Equilibriump. 380
Values of the Equilibrium Constantp. 383
Le Chatelier's Principlep. 385
Solubility Equilibriump. 389
Mathematics of Equilibriump. 390
Case Study Finale: A Mother-in-Law's Justicep. 392
Introduction to Biochemistry and DNA Analysisp. 399
Case Study: Remembering 9-11p. 399
Lipids: Fats, Waxes, and Oilsp. 400
Carbohydratesp. 403
Proteinsp. 405
DNA Basicsp. 409
DNA Analysisp. 412
Mitochondrial DNAp. 414
Case Study Finale: Remembering 9-11p. 415
Appendix Ap. 420
Appendix Bp. 421
Answers to Odd-Numbered Questions and Problemsp. 422
Combined Glossary/Indexp. 450
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